Race Condition in Ajax-based Web Application

rabbitscheesesticksSoftware and s/w Development

Jul 4, 2012 (6 years and 21 days ago)


Kai Qian

Internal Report
July, 2008

School of Computing and Software Engineering
Southern Polytechnic State University
Marietta, Georgia, USA
Abstract— The automicity is an important issue in
asynchronous based data communication. In the modern
web application today, asynchronous introduces
hazardous effect causing unexpected results. This paper
discusses the race condition occurred between the user
request and server response due to the asynchronous
nature of the web application using Ajax. A race condition
occurs when multiple threads in a process try to modify
the critical section data at the same time. The data will
depend on which thread arrived last. Concurrent requests
will be running asynchronously and it is impossible to
predict which will return first. The locking mechanism is
not a very effective way but may avoid race condition. Our
future project develop a more effective way to detect the
race conditions while parsing.
Index Terms— Ajax, Race condition, concurrency, Dynamic
Web application, Lock.

Ajax may have been initially defined as Asynchronous
JavaScript and XML[9] for a set of modern web
application development technologies, previously
known as Dynamic HTML (DHTML) and remote
scripting, to provide a more interactive and effective
web-based user interface. However this technique might
be used to transport data in plain text, XML, or
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) formats. The problem
is not AJAX in itself as a programming paradigm but in
what it can do for the application.

With AJAX you can retrieve data from the server
without refreshing the page and rebuilding it again. And
that data is updated on the Document Object Model
(DOM) page and manipulated by JavaScript programs.
New DOM objects are updated when its page is updated,
new JavaScript objects are created based on those data,
and new events are attached to all this objects. Once you
close a page a lot of work is done behind the scene to
clear unreferenced objects. One of the main problems
we discuss here is about the race condition. This brings
a major problem as it is unnoticed and the latency occurs
between user request and server response and needs to
be considered carefully during Ajax development. There
is no proper handling of the XMLHttpRequest object
and the user might experience unexpected results due to
many delays in the interface of the web application

An Ajax-based server request is made with an object of
XMLHttpRequest type. It then validates and sends the
request to the server. The difference from the traditional
web page is that in Ajax the HTTP page can
asynchronously make calls to the server from which it
was loaded and fetched that may be formatted as xml
documents, HTML content, plain text or as JSON. In the
web application there has always been a client side
processing and a server side processing. On the client
side which is the browser, JavaScript manipulates the
currently loaded page. Fig.1 shows the concept of Ajax.

On the server side, the sever side scripting like PHP,
JSP, ASP are used. Traditionally, the only way for the
server to send back a response was to serve up a new
web page .Whenever the web browser needed something
Race Condition in Ajax-based Web Application

e Events &Updates


Figure 1. Asynchronous Web application

from the server, a request is sent to the server and a
corresponding response had to sent back to the client.
Now, due to the Ajax technology the content is loaded
without refreshing the page. Using JavaScript, a request
is sent from the client to this Ajax engine, instead of
going all the way back to the server. The request is then
passed along to the server. The server sends a response
back to the Ajax engine. This response is then passed on
to the client where multiple pages can be processed
using JavaScript. In the Ajax application, the
architecture of the web application introduces an
intermediary part called the Ajax engine between the
user and the server. It is a separate layer to the
application between the browser and the server which is
part of the client. In the dynamic web application,
instead of loading the webpage, at the start of the
session, the browser loads an Ajax engine. This engine
is responsible for the interaction between the user and
the server by rendering communication instead of
browser. The Ajax engine allows multiple pages at a
time which builds up user’s interaction with the
application to happen asynchronously, so the user never
start with the blank browser window. Every user action
would generate an HTTP request for the client takes
from the JavaScript call to Ajax engines and the
response is sent back to the user. Ajax Engine handles
everything like if it’s sending events from the client for
data processing or retrieving new data from the server,
the engine makes those requests asynchronously, usually
using xmlhttprequests, without stalling a user’s
interaction with the application.


A race condition is a situation when the result of the
output returns unexpectedly. This occurs when the
system attempts to perform two or more requests at the
same time depending on the sequence of the events [8].
This condition occurs when the client requests a
multiple thread within the processes and manipulates the
same data concurrently, henceforth the output is
unpredictable and it occurs randomly. This anomalous
behavior depends on the timing of the multiple events
that are requested causes an unexpected outcome. It is a
most serious problem because the code would be fine
and it would be difficult to find the problem. It will be
more difficult to fix the problem due to unawareness of
the problem. Fig 2 shows a race condition we created
and an example is given based on PHP. When two
Asynchronous requests are sent from the browser to the
server, the page loads with the valid count which is
initially set to zero. When the web page initiates two
asynchronous requests, request 1 and request 2 attempts
to read the same value in the file. When two threads
fight for the CPU time periodically interrupt each other
thus the outcome shows an unpredictable result.


As webpage is no longer served as a single unit but
fragmented into responses to various separate calls,
timing issues may occur. Ajax is different from
synchronous requests that it allows multiple entrance
points, resulting in numerous small scripts on the server.
This may lead to increased security and maintenance
problems, as all checks must be made for every single
call, reducing total performance. Each Ajax call may
come at any time and unrelated from all others. Keeping
a state on the server is therefore more difficult. Because
of this, Ajax scripts, especially asynchronous ones,
should in general not modify the server state [11].
If two xmlhttprequests are sent from the client and
access the same file on the server the PHP script
considers the two events separately and creates a race

xmlhttp1.open ('GET', 'http://localhost/session.php?event1', true);
xmlhttp2.open ('GET', 'http://localhost/session.php?event2', true);
In the PHP script on the server, using set_time_limit(1)
the delay is set. counter.txt file contains values which
are set to zero at start. Then we try to increment with
two requests.

set_time_limit (1);
$count= ("counter.txt");
$x = file($count);
Browser sends two
Asynchronous requests
simultaneously to the server
Request 1 tries to
increment the value
in the file

Request 2 tries to
increment the value
in the file
Results in Race condition and
the Value is stored as 1
instead of 2
R1 reads the value: 0
R2 reads the value: 0

Consider the following two tasks, in the code:

if (isset($_GET['event1'])){
$fp = fopen($count, "w");
fwrite($fp , "$x[0]");
print” ".$x[0]." at Time".date('i:s');}
else if (isset($_GET['event2'])){
$fp = fopen($count, "w");
fwrite($fp , "$x[0]");
print” ".$x[0]." at Time".date('i:s');}
In the PHP code event1 and event 2 variables are set
using isset function. The two requests try to open the
same file in the server counter.txt and try to increment
the count in the file. Initially the counter.txt file is set to
zero, if event 1 is the first, then the counter value will
increment to 1, then the event 2 changes the count to 2,
but if event 2 is fired first, if it increments to 1, event 1
changes and prints the count to 2 before event1 request
runs, then both of them print the count to 2 thus causing
vulnerability at the fraction of a second. In the multiple
request web application, all the requests run at a fraction
of second and wait for no time until the other thread
requests from the server.
The Output would look something like:

In the counter example the event1 and event 2 fights for
the CPU time and 5 occurs concurrently as we see in the
Solving the Ajax race condition problem is a challenge.
We can prevent the Ajax race condition on the critical
section of shared data either on client Ajax request or on
server request handling. We can also detect and test the
race condition on server and handle the contention case
once it is detected.
On the client side, client can try its best to avoid the race
problem by not modify same session data of server page
in multiple Ajax asynchronous requests within the same
session. Implementation of it is very difficult. Although
there are not multiple Ajax requests directly explicit
updating same session data within the same session, but
there may still have indirect implicit contention on the
same resource. [1][2]
The best solution to race condition problem should be
found on the server side of Ajax requests. For example,
early version of PHP provides default session handler on
the session data for the entire session so that the degree
of concurrency is reduced. The locking is a
synchronization mechanism for enforcing restrictions on
access to a shared resource in a server environment
where there are multiple threads of concurrent
execution. Each thread cooperates by acquiring the lock
before accessing the corresponding data. [1][2][3] Such
lock is called the advisory locks. After processing the
corresponding data the lock must be released (implicitly
or explicitly). The new version of PHP server provides
session data with per-variable semaphore binary lock
shown in the following. [14]
$_SESSION->acquire (<variable name>);
<critical section>
$_SESSION->release (<variable name>);
In some cases the data is shared by many sessions. The
shared data is stored in a file or database. We can apply
the flock method to synchronize the shared count data in
a file or database.
The flock () can perform a simple reader/writer model
which can be used on virtually every platform. The
flock() can also release the lock on the file. Any lock is
released by fclose() automatically. [13].
The flock is given as follows: [13]
bool flock ( resource $handle , int $operation );
Where the handle is an open file pointer and operation is
one of the following:
• LOCK_SH to acquire a shared lock (reader).
• LOCK_EX to acquire an exclusive lock (writer).
• LOCK_UN to release a lock (shared or
The following is a simple PHP fragment showing the
file locking processing
$fp = fopen("count.txt", "w+");
if (flock($fp, LOCK_EX)) {
// acquire an exclusive lock
fwrite($fp, $count);
flock($fp, LOCK_UN);
// release the lock
} else {
echo "error message";

While the introduction of locking and other
process/thread synchronization approaches helps
avoiding AJAX racing conditions, the concurrency
resident in AJAX applications, nevertheless, brings
about potentially hard-to-reproduce and hence hard-to-
debug problems. One potential danger is that the use of
locks might lead to deadlock, livelock, and starvation.
To diagnose and test AJAX applications against such
problems can be very challenging.
Since the 1970’s, the progress in the area of temporal
logic [4] and model checking [5] has shed a light on
validating concurrent programs. Applying state of the art
model checking techniques can help to detect
concurrency problems of AJAX applications. We
propose the following paradigm to verify the freedom of
deadlock (and other desired system properties) of AJAX
1. At server side, use Java model checkers such as Java
Path Finder (JPF) to verify the freedom of deadlock
among Java Servlets.
2. At client side, use JavaScript parser such as Rhino
JavaScript Compiler to parser JavaScript functions used
by an AJAX application at client side. Then translate the
model into the language accepted by model checkers
such as SPIN.
This work is still in progress. This paper discusses the
race condition in Ajax-based web application and
proposes paradigms for the future work.
[1] Race Conditions with Ajax and PHP Session,
[2]. Macwan, Troubles with Asynchronous Ajax
Requests and PHP Sessions,
[3] Harry Fuecks, AJAX and Session “Race
[4] A. Pnueli. The temporal semantics of concurrent
programs. In Proceedings
of the 18th Symposium on Foundations of Computer
Science, 1977.
[5] M. Y. Vardi and P. Wolper. An automata-theoretic
approach to automatic program verification. In
Proceedings of the First Symposium on Logic in
Computer Science, pages 322-331, Cambridge, June
[6] Subverting Ajax, Stefano Di Paola wisec@wisec.it,
Giorgio Fedon giorgio.fedon@gmail.com December
[7] Dom Scripting, Jeremy Keith
[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_condition
[9] J. J. Garrett, Ajax: A New Approach to Web
[10] Building Secure Software: Race Conditions,Gary
McGraw, John Viega.
[11] Ajax Security in Groupware, Michael Sonntag,
Institute for Information Processing and Microprocessor
Technology, Johannes Kepler University Linz,
[12] An Architectural Style for Ajax, Ali Mesbah, Arie
van Deursen Software Evolution Research Laboratory,
Delft University of Technology.
[13] PHP Manuel
[14] Semaphore,