Introduction to Instructional Design

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Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Introduction to

Instructional Design

EDU 553


Principles of

Instructional Design


Dr. Steve Broskoske

Outline


Introductions


Intro. to the
course


What
is Instructional Design?
(Intro. to the
field)


A Closer
look:

The ADDIE Model


Course
planning


Remote assignments

Introductions

Meet the Course Instructor

Dr. Steve Broskoske

Assoc. Professor of Education

Specialty:
Educational Technology

PA Certification: K
-
12



Educational Technology



Undergrad Teacher Ed. classes



Secondary
Education classes



Graduate
Teacher Ed. Director

Introduction to Course Web Site

Course Web Site


Everything you need to complete the course can
be found on this course Web page, and on the
course Blackboard site on e
-
MU.

www.misericordia.edu/academics/education/drsteve

Mark down this Web site:

Explore Course Web Site

Explore Course

Web Site

Introduction to the Course

Course Catalog Description


This course reviews models of teaching and
training which might be used in
professional development activities (e.g., in
-
service programs, college teaching, training
activities, etc.) to determine whether and
how they can be improved by applications
of educational technology.

Course Objectives

As a result of this course, students will be able to...

1.
Define instructional design and describe its role
in developing computer
-
based instructional
products or instructor
-
led instruction.

2.
Using the systematic steps involved in
instructional design, based on current research of
how students learn, coupled with an analysis of
appropriate media, design a computer
-
based,
stand alone instructional module.

Course Objectives

3.
Explain and demonstrate use of the following
sequence of steps involved in the systematic
development of computer
-
based training:


Needs assessment.


Task analysis.


Learner analysis.


Objective formulation.


Method and activity selection.


Evaluation.

Evaluation Plans

1.
Active participation in the in
-
class and online
research and hands
-
on activities:
30%

2.
Final project:


High
-
level design for an instructional model:
20%


Development of a computer
-
based, stand
-
alone
training module designed for use in training or the K
-
12 classroom
:
50%

PROPOSED

SCHEDULE OF TOPICS


Introduction to Instructional Design.


Current brain research: how students learn.


Instructional design models.


Front end analysis.


Media analysis.


Survey of CBT platforms.


Using PowerPoint as a Platform to Deliver
CBT.

PROPOSED

SCHEDULE OF TOPICS


Instructional
design
models, including:


ASSURE


ADDIE


Dick
& Carey’s Instructional Design Model


Gagne’s
Nine Significant Events

Model of Instruction


Historically proven design practices:


Needs assessment


Task analysis


Learner analysis


Objective formulation


Assessment

PROPOSED

SCHEDULE OF TOPICS


Exploring media choices:


Podcasts


Discovery learning / simulations


Virtual Reality (VR online experiences, virtual
fieldtrips)


Blogs


Web pages


Wiki


Other emerging technologies

PROPOSED

SCHEDULE OF TOPICS


Development of a high
-
level design
document.


Development of an instructional module
(prototype of design document).

What is Instructional Design?

(Intro. to the Field)

What is Instructional Design?


The process of analyzing students’ needs
and learning goals, designing and
developing instructional materials (Univ. of
Texas).

What is Instructional Design?


The systematic process of creating or adapting
instruction, including at least these steps: defining
the problem or knowledge gap that the instruction
is meant to address; defining the audience that the
instruction is meant to serve; developing
objectives and assessment strategies; selecting and
sequencing content and learning activities;
evaluating the instruction; revision (Distance
Learning Resource Network).

What is Instructional Design?


Instructional Design is the practice of arranging
media (communication technology) and content to
help learners and teachers transfer knowledge
most effectively. The process consists broadly of
determining the current state of learner
understanding, defining the end goal of
instruction, and creating some media
-
based
“intervention” to assist in the transition
(Wikipedia).

Elements that Led to
Instructional Design

Military need to train
large numbers of
soldiers with
proficiency during
WWII.

B.F. Skinner’s ideas on
Behaviorism.

Bloom’s taxonomy of
learning.

Gagne’s conditions of
learning.

Dick & Carey’s model.

Advent and evolution
of computers.

Timeline

What Is Instructional Design?


How does instructional design differ from
what teachers do every day?

Instructional Design Definitions

Instructional Design vs.

Usual

Design of Instruction


Design Process:


Analyze


Design


Build


Test


Usual

design of
instruction:


Design


Build

Training vs. Education


Training:

Acquisition of knowledge, skills, and
competencies as a result of the teaching of
vocational or practical skills and knowledge that
relate to specific useful competencies (Wikipedia).


Education:

Act or process of imparting or
acquiring general knowledge, developing the
powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally
of preparing intellectually for mature life
(Dictionary.com).

ILT vs. CBT


Instructor
-
led teaching
(ILT)


Computer
-
based
training (CBT)

Major Components of
Instructional Design

task

description

needs assessment

What is the instruction intended to
accomplish?

task analysis

What are the parts of the task or content to be
learned, and how do those parts relate to one
another and to accomplishing the instructional
goal?

learner analysis

For whom is the program being developed,
and what are their characteristics?

objective formulation

Specifically what should the learners be able
to do when they complete the instruction?

method, activity, & media
selection

What are the most effective methods and
media for delivering the instruction?

evaluation

How will you determine how effectively the
content is learned?

Front
-
end Analysis


“At the heart of Instructional Design is the
analysis phase. After you thoroughly
conduct the analysis, you can then choose a
model based on your findings. That is the
area where most people get snagged: they
simply do not do a thorough enough
analysis” (
Wikipedia).

Is Everything

Instructionally Effective?


“Instructional” multimedia opportunities
abound in today’s world, but is it really
instructionally effective?

Merrill’s Comments on the
Evolution of Instructional Design

Instructional Design Process


Planning:


Perform front
-
end analysis: leads to
development of a high
-
level design document.


Implementation:


Develop an effective instructional module,
basing methodology, media, and other
decisions on data gathered in the planning
stage.

Many
Models of

Instructional Design


ADDIE Model


Dick
& Carey model


Nine Significant Events model (Gagne)

Some Models of

Instructional Design

Instructional Design
Application


CD
-
ROM
based instruction
.


CBT (computer
-
based training).


Corporate training
.


Classroom use.


Implications for all educational/

instructional situations.

I.D. Professional Staff


Instructional designer


Project manager


Instructional Designer


Programmer


Graphics


Instructor


Subject Matter Expert


Evaluator

Instructional Design Organizations

General Benefits of Instructional
Systematic Design


Facilitates standardized training.


In business, often have multiple trainers at
multiple sites.


Replaces possibly
different “sections” of
instruction with a sound instructional product.


Better ensures accomplishment of
instructional objectives.


Better chance of success with tested
instructional modules.


Provides empirical evidence of success.

Benefits of Instructional
Systematic Design TO YOU


Can use the
elements and techniques of
design in
day
-
to
-
day
planning for traditional
classes.


Causes
you to re
-
think just about every
lesson you will write after this course!


Build lessons based on skill steps rather than
using the “textbook
” order of topics
.


Provides an effective way to use computers
already in your classroom.

A Closer Look:

The ADDIE Model

A Closer Look: ADDIE


A
nalysis


D
esign


D
evelopment


I
mplementation


E
valuation

A Closer Look:
A
DDIE

Analysis


Needs Analysis


problem and proposed solution


Standard state benchmarks


Professional exam requirements


Problems with performance in a workplace


Pre
-
test


Content Analysis


what to teach


Learner Analysis


Environment

A Closer Look: A
D
DIE

Design


Write objectives


Create practice and assessment
(notice how
early the test gets written)


Organize lesson units


Determine delivery method

A Closer Look: AD
D
IE

Development


Produce Media Resources


Create Instructor materials (for multiple
instructor situations)


Prepare participant materials


Rehearse the presentation

A Closer Look: ADD
I
E

Implementation


Schedule


Establish student communications (e
-
mail,
meetings)


Present the lessons

A Closer Look: ADDI
E

Evaluation


Content evaluation (by Subject Matter expert)


Prototype evaluation (1
-
to
-
1 testing)


Learner evaluation (small group and full class
implementation)

Notice that evaluation is an integral part of the
process, and not just a test given at the end.

Course Planning

Course Planning


Theoretical/planning:


Perform front
-
end analysis.


Develop a high
-
level design document.


Hands
-
on:


Using presentation software as a medium for
delivering computer
-
based training.


Exploring media selection.

Summary


Introduction to Instructional Design
.


Origins.


Basic components.


Benefits to you as a teacher/trainer.


A Closer Look
: The
ADDIE Model
.

Remote Class Activities

1.
Briefly analyze an instructional design
model.


With a partner, analyze one instructional design
model.


Briefly summarize the model online.


Hold an online discussion to synthesize
information.

Remote Class Activities


ADDIE


ASSURE


Dick & Carey model


Gerlach
-
Ely model


Hannafin

& Peck model


Kemp model


Gagne’s Nine Significant Events model

Remote Class Activities

2.
Outside readings.


Read articles that will be posted online and
participate in online discussion and/or written
follow
-
up activities.

Next
In
-
person Session


Current
brain research: How do people
learn
?


Instructional design models.