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© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Virtualization

Chapter 30

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Overview


In this chapter, you will learn how to



Describe the concepts of virtualization



Explain why PC and network administrators have
widely adopted virtualization



Describe how virtualization manifests in modern
networks

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Introduction to Virtualization


Virtualization is the “
next big thing” in
the computer industry.


Virtualization creates a complete environment for a
guest operating system to function as if it were
installed on its own computer.


Guest environment is called a virtual machine
(VM).


Individual machines or entire networks can be
virtualized.



© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Introduction to Virtualization
(continued)

Figure 1: VMware running Linux

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition



What
Is Virtualization
?

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

What Is Virtualization?


Most people have heard of “
virtual
reality.”


A “
virtual” world is created by software, with sight
& sound provided by video and audio equipment.


Primarily used for gaming, flight simulation, etc.


Equipment such as goggles and special gloves
enables you to “
see” and “move” objects.


Computer virtualization is similar


“Virtual” operating system


Software computer (guest) running on hardware
host


Allows multiple different operating systems to run








© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

What Is Virtualization?
(continued)

Figure 2: Virtual reality training (photo courtesy of NASA)

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

What Is Virtualization?
(continued)

Figure 3: Using virtual reality to practice spacewalking (photo courtesy of NASA)

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Computer Virtualization


Similarly, computers and networks can
be virtualized.


Virtualization convinces an operating system that
it’
s running on its own hardware.


The virtualization software runs on a host operating
system that is physically installed on a machine.


The guest operating systems are the virtual
machines.


Virtualization uses hypervisors or virtual machine
managers to create and manage virtual machines
and their interactions with their host environments.







© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Meet the Hypervisor


A normal OS uses a program called a
supervisor.


Handles very low
-
level interaction among hardware
and software (i.e., task scheduling, allotment of
time and resources, etc.)


Full virtualization requires an extra layer
of programming to manage the complex
interactions between the host and guest
machines.


Enter the hypervisor or virtual machine
manager (VMM).

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Meet the Hypervisor
(continued)


The hypervisor handles the input and
output requests an operating system
would make of normal hardware.


It allocates real hardware (drives, RAM,
media, etc.) from the host to the virtual
machines.


It enables easy addition and removal of
virtual hard drives, virtual network
cards, virtual RAM, etc.

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Meet the Hypervisor
(continued)

Figure 4: Configuring virtual hardware

in VMware Workstation

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Meet the Hypervisor
(continued)

Figure 5: System setup utility in VMware Workstation

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Emulation versus
Virtualization


Virtualization uses hardware from the
host system and divides it into individual
virtual machines.


It abstracts hardware that runs on the same
platform.


It cannot virtualize hardware that is on a different
platform (an Intel platform cannot virtualize a Sony
PlayStation).


Emulation is very different.


It enables software written for a different platform
to run, but it does not virtualize the hardware.






© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Emulation versus
Virtualization
(continued)


An emulator is software or hardware
that converts the commands to and from
the host machine into an entirely
different platform.


For example, an emulator makes it possible to run
game console software on a PC.





© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Emulation versus
Virtualization
(continued)

Figure 6: Super Nintendo emulator running on Windows

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Sample Virtualization


The following slides take you through a
quick tour of virtualization.


They show the steps involved in setting up and
installing a virtual machine and its guest OS.


In this example, Windows 7 is the host
OS.


VMware Workstation is the VMM.


Ubuntu is installed as the guest OS.







© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Sample Virtualization
(continued)

Figure 7: VMware Workstation

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Sample Virtualization
(continued)

Figure 8: Selecting a Typical or Custom setup

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Sample Virtualization
(continued)

Figure 9: Selecting the installation media

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Sample Virtualization
(continued)

Figure 10: Setting the virtual drive size

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Sample Virtualization
(continued)

Figure 11: Entering the VM name and location

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Sample Virtualization
(continued)

Figure 12: Ubuntu installing into the new virtual machine

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Sample Virtualization
(continued)

Figure 13: VMware Workstation with a single VM

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Sample Virtualization
(continued)

Figure 14: POST in a virtual machine

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition



Why Do We Virtualize?


© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Why Do We Virtualize?


Virtualization provides two key benefits:


It reduces the number of physical machines.


Virtual machines are simply files, making it easy to
manage backups, security, portability, etc.


Other important reasons include:


Power savings


Hardware consolidation


System recovery


System duplication


Research








© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Power Savings


Before virtualization, each server OS
required its own unique physical system.


With virtualization, you can place
multiple virtual servers on a single
physical system, reducing electrical
power use.


Expanding this electricity savings over
an enterprise network or on a data
center is cost effective and “
green.”






© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Hardware Consolidation


A physical high
-
end server represents a
substantial investment in hardware

multiple processors, RAID arrays,
redundant power supplies, and RAM.
Setting up multiple physical high
-
end
servers can be very expensive.


Virtualization makes it possible to
increase RAM and run a number of
servers on a single machine.







© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

System Recovery


The most popular reason for virtualization
is to keep a high uptime percentage.


If a system goes down, you need to
quickly restore the system from a backup.


Virtualization makes it possible to shut
down the VM and reload an alternative
copy.


Snapshots enable you to make a point
-
in
-
time exact copy of the virtual machine
that can be used in case of an emergency
restore.






© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

System Recovery
(continued)

Figure 15: Saving a snapshot

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

System Duplication


VMs are simply files that can be copied.


VMs can be mass
-
duplicated by copying
the files to the target machine.


This makes it possible to deploy
numerous servers with similar baseline
operating systems.


Useful in research or teaching environments





© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Research


Virtualization makes it possible to reduce
the number of research and testing
machines.


It can streamline the equipment
necessary in these areas:


Product testing and research


Security testing and research


Development testing before production




© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Research
(continued)

Figure 16: Lots of VMs used for research

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition



Virtualization in Modern Networks


© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Virtualization in Modern
Networks


The products we’
ve discussed so far offer
virtualization over operating systems:


VMware Workstation


Microsoft Virtual PC


They are suitable for small
implementations with few virtual
machines.


Large
-
scale implementations require a
different approach.




© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Virtualization in Modern
Networks
(continued)


Virtualization in large
-
scale networks
uses “
bare metal” hypervisors.


No operating system is necessary.


The virtualization software IS the OS.


The hypervisor eliminates all the unnecessary OS
overhead.


VMware introduced ESX in 2001.


It was an early serious large
-
scale bare
-
metal
hypervisor.


It has a small storage footprint and can be installed
on and booted from a USB flash drive.





© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Virtualization in Modern
Networks
(continued)

Figure 17: USB drive on server system

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

VMMs vs. Hypervisors


A virtual machine manager (VMM) is
virtual machine software that runs on
top of a host operating system.


Example: VMware Workstation


A hypervisor is software that does not
need a host operating system.


Example: ESX Server



© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Virtual Machine Managers


Many choices available for Linux,
Windows, and Mac OS:


VMware Workstation


Microsoft Virtual PC


Parallels


KVM




© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Virtual Machine Managers
(continued)


VMware Workstation


Industry leader in virtualization


Comes in versions for Linux and Windows


Offers features such as VMTools that make
interactions between guest and host OS seamless



© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Virtual Machine Managers
(continued)


Virtual PC


Microsoft VMM that runs over various iterations of
Windows


Free product


Some limitations


Officially supports Windows VMs, but Linux VMs can
be installed and managed




© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Virtual Machine Managers
(continued)

Figure 18: Windows Virtual PC

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Virtual Machine Managers
(continued)


Parallels


Most popular virtualization manager for Mac OS X
(followed by VMware Fusion)


Supports all popular operating systems and even
has good 3
-
D graphics support




© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Virtual Machine Managers
(continued)

Figure 19: Parallels for Mac

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Virtual Machine Managers
(continued)


KVM


Open
-
source virtualization product from Red Hat


Represents Linux/Unix world


Supports a few non
-
x86 processors


Other open
-
source contenders include Xen and
Oracle’
s VirtualBox




© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Hypervisors


There are several choices, but two are
dominant in the market:


Vmware’
s ESX


Microsoft’
s Hyper
-
V




© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Hypervisors
(continued)


ESX


Market leader; offers several features:


Support for large storage (SAN and NAS)


Transparent and automatic fault tolerance


Transparent server transfer

you can move a running
VM from one machine to another


Support for up to 32 CPUs, depending on the version




© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Mike Meyers’
CompTIA A+
®

Guide to

Managing and

Troubleshooting PCs


Fourth Edition

Hypervisors
(continued)


Hyper
-
V


Microsoft’
s contender in virtualization


Free product


Previously only part of Windows Server 2008

now
also available as standalone product


Available for 64
-
bit systems