Mobile Cloud Computing:Challenges and Opportunities Case Study

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Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Mobile Cloud Computing:Challenges and Opportunities
Case Study






A Project
s
ubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement
s

for

the degree of





Master of Science in Computer Science


SUNY Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome

Department of Comp
uter Science







By
:

Parul Gupta

Advisor
: Professor Dr.

Jorge Novillo



Abstract

Cloud computing is a technique which provides services and data to the client on
a
demand basis through
the
web. The data is held at service provider server rather
than indi
vidual devices. Cloud computing is an application used by web business,

individuals,

large scale businesses and data servers. It is also gaining signific
ant
importance in mobile device

applications where it is termed as “Mobile Cloud
Computing”. As we all
know that these days every company is trying to come up
with smaller size, lower weight and longer battery life mobile devices, the cloud
computing might become the need
for
the future.

Gartner

predicts that there will
be over 20 times more mobile cloud
based programs in 2014 compared to 2010

[
7
]”
. Mobile cloud computing can give mobile device users a wide number of
advantages. One of the benefits is offloading the resource intensive computing to
the cloud to gain the cost advantages of software and hardw
are. Since the cloud
computing runs through the browser, it gives much desired flexibility to the user to
access any program and any application without restricting itself to the operating
system in the mobile device. The popular devices pushing this growt
h are the
Apple iPhone and Google Android products.

Despite of numerous benefits of mobile cloud computing, there are some inherent
challenges to this technology. The main goal is to minimize the response delay
time when running applications on cloud. The
few other challenges are low latency
networks, high bandwidth, battery saving applications and optimization of
application execution between device and cloud. Mobile devices use most energy
in network connectivity and
display
. It is therefore important to
optimally balance
which application to be run on cloud and device. For example, in immersive
applications such as videoconferencing uses most energy and requires high
network connectivity whereas
a
non
-
display application like audio podcast is a
well
-
suite
d application for running on cloud. The network latency on 3G mobile
network is about 200ms which is quite high for running
a
high intensity application
like Youtube videos. It is therefore required to have
a
cloud service center to be
close to the device
or use of WiFi. There is no doubt these challenges will be taken
care of in the years to come and this technology will be
the
future of the mobile
device world.














Table of contents


(1
)
Introduction

a. What is mobile cloud computing?

b
.

How doe
s it impact the mobile internet services?

c
. Who uses it and what is the market size?


(2)
Architecture

a. Basic elements of mobile cloud computing

b. Different kinds of architecture set up


(3)
Current Applications

a. What are various mobile cloud service
s?

b. Who is providing these services?


(4)
Challenges and possible solutions

a. What are the major technological challenges?

b. Current research in the field and possible solutions


(5)
Future of Mobile Cloud Computing




Introduction

Mobile devices are
increasingly becoming a part of
the
day to day life. The mobile
cloud computing is a concept which inherits the advantages of
the
cloud computing
to overcome the limitations of the mobile devices in processing power and data
storage. Cloud computing is a s
ervice provided to users through
the
internet on
a
demand basis. It is not a new term anymore since for few years it has been used for
applications like web
-
based emails, photos and video sharing, social networking
sites and many
more
. But only recently, i
t has expanded to the mobile world and
termed as “Mobile Cloud Computing” in the field.

What is mobile cloud computing?

Mobile cloud computing is simply cloud computing in which shared resources,
software and information are provided to the users on mobil
e devices such as smart
phones and tablets. Mobile devices suffer with many
constraints

because of the
importance and
requirement
of smaller sizes, lower weights, longer battery life and
other features. This often
limits the

hardware and software developme
nt for these
devices.
Mobile c
loud computing

is an effort to overcome

these constraints by
letting the more resource intensive tasks be performed on
remote
systems and
having the results sent
back
to the device.
Therefore the

cloud co
mputing for
mobile dev
ices is quite

appealing and potentially
profitable

trend.

Cloud computing has

created a lot of interest for s
ma
ll and medium enterprises as
they can use
IT services without spending money on
buying

of servers and
support

facilities. They get immediate acce
ss to a wide rang
e of applications on a demand
basis.

T
here are currently only a few well known mobile cloud applications for
consumers

and
many more are in development. Mobile cloud computing will
become the predominant way

of running
mobi
le applications
in the near future
.
The
main

advantages to mobile cloud computing are:



Universal Application
: Applications hosted in the cloud eliminate the
need
for being

tied to a single cell phone service provider

or mobile device.



Capability

Enhancement
:

Mobile device
s do not have sufficient
processing
power or memory space
that is required

for intensive applications. Cloud
computing

provides a
remarkable

leap in functionality and the amount of
data the application can access.



Data
Backup
: Mobile devices
can be failed,

lost or sometimes destroyed
which results in loss of data. But
with cloud computing critical data is
preserved

as it is stored on the cloud and
not on the device.



Reduced
Set
-
up & Maintenance

Cost
: It saves money because users pay
only for the services an
d infrastructure they use and it is easier to scale up
and down as needed.

Mobile cloud computing creates
various
new opportunitie
s for mobile network
operators. Any emerging

3G or 4G
operator can benefit from mobile cloud s
ervices
by allowing them to
inst
all

advanced

communication services,
give them

a
platform for new application development and manage legacy services
at a low

cost.


Gartner predicts that mobile cloud computing will reach a market value of
the
US$9.5 billion by 2014
[7]”
.


According to
th
e latest

statistics from the Ministry of
Industry and Information Technology, the number of 3G mobile users in China
now exceeds 80 million or 9.5 percen
t of all mobile users nationwide
. Sales of
smart phones reached 62 million in 2010 and 19.07 million ha
ndsets were sold in
Q1 2011; sales of smart phones accounted for approximately 30 percent of all
mobile phone sales, up from 19.2 percent in Q1 2010 according to research firm
Analys
i
s International

[8]
”.


In spite of several advantages and enormous growth

potential for this technology,

there are still many barriers to overcome for
improved performance
.

For

a

mobile
cloud computing to reach its full
growth and usefulness
, the following three
major

challenges need to be addressed:



Lower

network latency to
a
chieve

better
application and code offload
interactivity
.



Increas
ed

network bandwidth for faster data transfer between the cloud and
devices
.



A
daptive monitoring of network conditions to optimize network and
usage
costs against the user’s
supposed

performa
nce of cloud applications
.

[6]


The above
-
mentioned challenges are not
easy to accomplish, but service and
network providers are already making important
advancements

to improve the
mobile cloud experience. This study
explains the
above challenges to the
t
echnology and
existing
solutions to overcome them.











Architecture

Existing work in the field classifies the mobile computing architecture into three
main application models. These models are described based on their capabilities of
offload process
ing, storage and security for mobile device applications.


Augmented Execution



Augmented execution
is a
technique
that is used

to overcome the limitations of
smart phones in terms of computation

efficiency
, memory and
battery life. Chun
and Maniatis[1]
p
ropose architecture that addresses
above mentioned challenges by
simply

offloading execution from the
mobile device
t
o computational
infrastructure that is cloud,

where
a
clon
ed replica of the mobile device’s

software
is running

.
While
mobile
devices host

some
computation and memory
operations,
many are
offloaded
to
the cloud

and eventually t
he results from the augmented
execution are reintegrated upon completion. This approach for offloading intensive
computations
creates a false impression

that the mobil
e user has a more powerful,
a
feature
-
rich
device than it actually is in real.


Fig.1.CloneCloud categories for augmented execution (adapted from [1])


Fig
ure
1 shows

various categories

of
augment
ed execution for mobile phones. The
first is

primary functio
nality outsourcing which is more like a client
-
server
application. Second is
the
background augmentation

which is
good for indepe
ndent
separate processes that
run
s

in
the
background
such as
virus
scanning.

Another
one is

mainline that incorporates

both

pr
imary and background augmentation.
There is few
more like

hardware


where
a similar copy runs on more powerful
virtual machine

and

multiplicity


to

help for parallel executions.


A s
imilar approa
ch of using virtual machine technologies to execute
the
com
putation intensive software from
a
mobile device is presented by
Satyanarayanan et al. [
2
]. In
his

architecture, a mobile user exploits VMs to rapidly
start the

customized service software on a nearby clou
dlet and uses the service over
wireless
LAN. A clou
dlet is a trusted, resource rich computer or a cluster of
computers well connected to the Internet and
is
available for use by nearby mobile
devices

.
T
he
use of
cloudlets eliminates the long
delays

introduced by wide
-
area
networks for

accessing the cloud
resources. T
he low
-
latency, one
-
hop, high
bandwidth wireless access to the cloudlet

helps in better
responsiveness
and
interactivity to the device
. The mobile client
just
acts as
a
thin client

and
all
significant computation
taking place

in a

nearby cloudl
et. This approach uses the
dynamic VM synthesis

technique as

shown in figure 2.




Fig.2. Dynamic virtual machine synthesis timeline (adapted from [
2
])


“Elastic Partitioned/Modularized Applications”

The optimized application processing on mobile devices
requires the

dynamic
partitioning of applications and remote execution of some components

on a
cloud
infrastructure.

Giurgiu
and his team
[
3
] develop
ed

an application middleware that
automatically
distributes the

different layers of an application between

the device
and the server while optimizing parameters such as latency

and
d
ata transfer. A
d
istributed module management automatically and dynamically determines when
and which application modules should be offloaded, in order to achieve the optimal
perfo
rmance or the minimal cost of the overall application. Giuriu
and his team

use
the AlfredO [
4
] framework to
perform
the distribution of the application modules
between the mobile
device

and the server

. The framework
supports the
decompos
ition and distribu
tion of the

presentation and logic layer of the
application

while
keeping
the data layer always on the server side.



“Ad
-
hoc Mobile Clouds”

An ad
-
hoc
mobile
cloud
is

a group of mobile devices that serve as a cloud
computing provider
to

other

mobile devic
es

by sharing their resources. This mobile
cloud computing

technique

is useful in events of low network connectivity
.
The
resource sharing between the mobile devices could potentially reduce data charges
in the event of out of network/international roaming
.


Huerta
-
Canepa and Lee [
15
]
present guidelines for a framework to create virtual mobile cloud computing
providers. This framework
avoid
s

a connection to infrastructure
-
based cloud
providers while bringing benefits of computation offloading

via peer mobil
e device
services
. The
“Hyrax project”
[
16
]
makes use of the
Hadoop framework on mobile
devices to share data and computation.
Cao and his team

[
17
] present
ed

a
middleware that allows access from mobile devices to a bundle of multimedia
services
to others
.




Current applications

The growth in the number of mobile applications emerging everyday has changed
the mobile cloud market radically. Today, more than 60% of the world’s
population has access to mobile devices

[
10
].




Cloud Email

: This is one of the
most used applications on mobile devices. A
good example is Google’s Gmail. Al
l the
e
mails are stored on Gmail’s server

w
he
reas the

processing is done on
cloud.


Cloud Music
”:
This is
the
current phenomenon of getting
“M
usic
Anywhere”
to
users such as ITun
es.

It allows customers
to access their music collection

anytime,
a
nywhere
using their mobiles.

Cloud music

and
movie s
treaming is
seen as a
predominant distribution channel by the entertainment industry in the near future.


Cloud Mobile Desktop
”:

It is a
universal s
torage device which can be accessed
via
a computer system or a mobile device
. Many companies of
fer these services by
allocating fixed space
to a user in
a
cloud and provide access to it
through the
internet.



Cloud Print

:
It is an

application
to
take a printout

from different devices (web,
desktop, or mobile) to any

printer anywhere in the world.

This is still in
a nascent
stage

and not commercially available to general public use. Google is planning to
release an Android application for “Cloud

Print” in
the
near future.



Cloud Video


and

Cloud Photo


are also some applications that are still in
development phase.


Mobile Me by Apple
”:

Mobile Me is a cloud service by Apple that allows users
to synch all their mobile devices”. It provides serv
ices for mail, contact, calendar
syncing through a cloud storage space. A recent development is the MobileiDisk
application that enables cloud iTunes and streaming services.








Challenges and Proposed Solutions

T
here are
several issues

need to be addre
ssed to
gain maximum benefits in terms of
usefulness and capabilities.
The main challenges are
connectivity, performance and
security.
It is not e
asy to accomplish

all of them
, but network
and service
provide
rs
are already making significant advancement
to

improve the mobile cloud
experience. Below are the various key challenges that were identified with their
proposed possible solutions.

CONNECTIVITY

Since all mobile cloud computing services are available online, internet
connectivity
is very important to

access them
.
The three major characteristics of a

wireless
connection are “A
lways
-
on connectivity
feature
for a low data rate
cloud
control signaling channel, On
-
demand

available wireless connectivity
with a
scalable link bandwidth and n
etwork selection
with it’s
use
computation to
take
energy
-
efficiency and costs into account
” [23
]
.

The

biggest

chal
lenge
is to guarantee a wireless con
nectivity
with respect to
scalability, availabili
ty, energy and cost efficiency for mobile cloud computing.
A
ccess managem
ent
is very important for

Mobile Cloud Computing. A possible
solution is to use context and location infor
mation to optimize it
.
A wide variety of
applications

in today’s world have strong access management schemes
. These
services exploit data collected fr
om terminal sensors
such as GPS, proximity
detector and network sensors to measure the
network status and load.
C
onsumer
applications
and
network services

both utilizes

the

information.

Several new technologies

are available that intelligently uses the ne
twork resources
to reduce

latency. For example, HTML5 offers data caching,

which allow

users to
experience
less

problems due to intermittent network performance or network
congestion.
An advance

m
obile network monitoring system

enable
s

dynamic
traffic re
-
r
outing and swapping

between cells based on traffic load patterns and
user location.

PERFORMANCE

An
important
issue with the mobile cloud is the resource
scarcity

of mobile
devices. Compared to desktop computers, they have
smaller
screen
, less memory,
less
computation

power, and battery capacity limits.

Because of resource
scarcity
,

the mobile cloud is most often viewed as

a

SaaS cloud, meaning that computation
and data handling are usually performed in the cloud and mobile device acts as a
remote display,
capturing user input and rendering display updates received from
the distant server
[27]

. Smart phones often access the cloud through web browsers
or thin clients. Varying wireless channel conditions, short battery lifetime and
interaction latency introduc
e major challenges for the remote display of many
cloud applications on mobile devices.

Overcoming the limited battery lifetime
:

At first sight, offloading applications to the cloud is a straightforward way to save
on energy consumption because the amount

of local processing is reduced. Local
processing is however traded off with network bandwidth consumption, and the
bidirectional communication with the application server incurs additional drains
from the battery to the wireless network interface card (WN
IC). Kumar

and his
team
have modeled this tradeoff and conclude that offloading applications from
mobile de
vices is useful only
when large amounts of computation are needed in
combination with relatively small amounts of network communication. Demanding
ap
plications exchange a significant amount of data between client and server
because they exhibit a high degree of interacti
vity and detailed graphics. For
example,

walking around in a 3D virtual environment or rotating 3D medical
images. According to Kumar’
s model, this is not beneficial from an energy
perspective. To optimize the energy balance, it is important to study the WNIC
energy consumption and develop energy optimizing strategies. The WNIC energy
consumption is the product of the number of bytes exc
hanged over the wireless
interface, and the energy cost per byte.
Liang and his team [22] used the cross layer
identification
of WNIC

sleep opportunities to reduce the amount of exchanged data
for efficient compression techniques. An

average energy cost pe
r byte is
determined by the distribution of the time over the four possible WNIC states:
send, receive, idle and sleep mode.
It is b
ecause in each state a specific set of
components is activated, the WNIC power consumption largely differs between the
diffe
rent states.

Overcoming the latency:

The network l
atency increases with distance, and the number of network nodes that
the data needs to pass.
It is therefore important to move the application as close to
the user as possible. The

strategies to
reduce

th
e interaction latency
could be
achieved either by
reducing the propagation delay by deploying the application on
proximate infrastructure or
by

reducing the synchronization between client and
server
using

key objects or frame

caching.

Ericsson, for exampl
e, made a strategic
partnersh
ip with Akamai to
enable service providers
that

run on Ericsson
infrastructure to
move the
internet traffic
wisely
based on user location and
also
add caching capabilities to a mobile network.
[1
2
]”

This
results a better
user
ex
perience and advance mobile e
-
commerce
.

The best way to minimize the latency
and save bandwidth is to m
ov
e

data dynamically
towards the mobile user. Other
solutions such as scene object caching, buffering of key images for virtual
environments and computin
g display updates in advance were also proposed for

fast and the better remote display [22].

Improving bandwidth utilization:

Compared with fixed access networks, bandwidth availability on modern
broadband mobile and wireless technologies is limited, vari
a
ble and expensive.
Many

mobile service providers
nowadays are
offering 4G/LTE mobile services.
One of the
biggest advantages of LTE is capacity as e
ach LTE cell supports four
times
more
data and voice capacity compared to

UMTS High
-
Speed
-
Packet
-
Access
. In

theory,

LTE is capable of downlink peak rates of 100 Mbps and an
uplink of at least 50 Mbps
. Like

GSM and UMTS, LTE operates at different
frequency bands and can be deployed in
a
clear spectrum with bandwidth as wide
as 20 MHz of
the
paired spectrum (20
MHz Uplink, 20 MHz Downlink)
[11]

.
Typicall
y, UMTS users receive up to 384 K
bps, while

past work has shown the

throughputs of 347

K
bps for LTE and up to 6.1 Mbps for WiMAX. Moreover, the
actual throughput will vary due to user mobility and interference and

fading
effects. Besides technological limitations, economic considerations drive the
demand for highly efficient remote display compression technologies. More and
more, users are confronted with volume based subscription plans and hence will
not tolerate
any redundant byte to be sent on the network. For example, AT&T, a
leading USA service provider, has adopted volume based pricing models in 2010.
Some proposed solutions are motion
-
based differentiated encoding, individual
object encoding, real
-
time adapta
tion of encoding parameters for
an
advanced
display compression in a bandwidth limited wireless environment

[22]
.

SECURITY

With continuous developments in the wireless access technologies
such as 3/4G,
LTE, and WiMax, mobile devices can gain access to the

network core over longer
distance and higher bandwidth. It is
clearly seen

as promising service architecture
for future mobile applications but security and privacy
challenges still exit.

Nowadays the data owner doesn’t have

to store data
on personal mobi
le devices
but it can be stored on the cloud
.
The drawback is putting sensitive data on the
cloud and risk losing control of data or having unauthorized access to it. The

major
concern

is the fact
that cloud servers are usually operated by commercial provi
ders
which may normally be out of users’ trust domain.
Here, I tried to study the two
proposed system architectures that address the security issue with storing data and
data management on cloud servers.

The literature shows
two

mobile computing
framework
s
:

(
1)

Efficient and Secure Data Storage Operations for Mobile Cloud Computing



Authors: Dijiang Huang, Zhibin Zhou, ASU, 2011
[25]

In this paper, authors present a security framework to secure the data storage in
public clouds with
a

special focus on lig
htweight wireless devices store and
retrieve data without exposing the data content to the cloud service providers.


System Architecture (adapted from [
25
])


In their proposed system, a Data Owner (DO) can be a mobile wireless device or a
sensor that can
request and/or store information from/in the Cloud. The data are
secured by using
their
propose
d PP
-
CP
-
ABE scheme. Other than data owner data
sharers are
subscribe
d

to the data owned by
the data owner
. The presented system
model has the following propertie
s:

1) The data must be encrypted before sending to

storage service provider (SSP).

2) The encryption service provider (ESP) provides encryption service to the data
owner without knowing the a
ctual data encryption key (DEK).

3) The decryption service provid
er (DSP) provides decryption service to users
w
ithout knowing the data content.

4) Even ESP, DSP and SSP get together, the data content cannot
be revealed.


The SSP, ESP, and DSP
are
the
main

components of the
above
proposed system.
ESP and DSP provide PP
-
CP
-
A
BE services and SSP

provides storage services.
The cloud is semi
-
trusted, in which the cloud only provides computing and storage
services with the assistance
for
data security

but have no idea of the data itself. It
means the data is
blinded to the clo
ud.
So i
n particular, more powerful PCs and
m
obile
devices

can work

as communication proxy for sensors that collect
information.

T
heir solution focuses on the following two research directions
.

First, a novel
Privacy Preserving Cipher Policy Attribute
-
Base
d Encryption (PP
-
CP
-
ABE) to
protect users’ data and
second
an Attribute Based Data Storage (ABDS) system as
a cryptographic access control mechanism.


Advantages:

1) The scheme securely outsources heavy encryption and decryption operations to
cloud service

providers, without revealing the data content and used security keys.

2) The data management scheme reduces the cloud services costs by reducing
communication and sto
rage (such as upload, updates
) overheads.


Disadvantages:

(1) PP
-
CP
-
ABE is based on
the
B
SW CP
-
ABE scheme, which suffers from
linearly growing ciphertext size.

(2) Extra controls might be required for the sub
-
divided small block for data for
security. This will increase the overheads.


(
2)

SDSM: A Secure Data Service Mechanism in Mobile Clou
d Computing


Authors: Weiwei Jia, Haojin Zhu et al., IEEE, 2011
[26]

In this paper, authors propose SDSM, a user
-
efficient and secure data service
mechanism in mobile cloud computing,
that

enables the mobile user to outsourced
data services
securely
at a mi
nimized security management overhead. The core
idea of SDSM is
to o
utsource not only the data but also the security management to
the mobile cloud in a trusted way. To achieve this, they adopt an identity
-
based
proxy re
-
encryption scheme which allows a mob
ile user to encrypt his data under
his identity to protect his da
ta from leaking and

also
to delegate his data
management capability to the mobile cloud. Furthermore
,

the mobile user
delegate
s

his access control capability to the cloud which could grant th
e access of
an authorized user by transforming the ciphertext encrypted with the data owner’s
identity to the one with the sharer’s identity.


Network Model (adapted from [2
6
])

This mo
del is assumed to comprise of the following parties: data owners, cloud

servers and data sharers. Both of the data owners and data sharers have
a
mobile
device to easily access the Internet. To protect data from leaking to the third party,
data owner forwards the encrypted files on the cloud servers to either for sharing or
f
or personal use. The data sharers, who want to access data files, will be authorized
by the data owner to decrypt the file. Cloud servers are assumed to have abundant
storage capacity and computation power and are assumed to be always online and
each user
entering the system has a unique identity and a secret key corresponding
to his identity. They used Identity based proxy re
-
encryption to realize the secrecy
of data. The proxy re
-
encryption scheme is to allow a semi
-
trusted proxy to
transform the data enc
rypted with one user’s public
-
key into the one encrypted
with another user’s public key.


Advantages:

(1)

The system ensures that a mobile user’s data is routed to the cloud without
actually exposing it to the cloud.

(2)

Only authorized sharers can access the da
ta, while unauthorized sharers do
not learn anything about data.

(3)

It provides easy operations on setting and changing access policies

to the

mobile users that also
r
educe the communication overhead cost
.


Disadvantages:

1)

The above mechanism can be computat
ionally exhaustive for the mobile
device as the initial encryption and decryption is done at the unit.


Evaluation of models:

When we compare the both the models, the only

system that doesn’t trust the cloud

completely

is the
SDSM

scheme.
In this scheme,
t
he data owner

securely shifts the
data computing and distribution overhead to the cloud while the cloud has no idea
of
data content in the whole process. Only authorized users can decrypt the
ciphertext while unauthorized users would learn nothing about th
e data.

Another benefit is the overhead of communication for the data sharing is reduced
to the size of a re
-
encryption key.
It
greatly reduce
s

the cost of the user side
that
is
charged based on the size of communications
.

Additionally, it uses
Proxy Re
-
en
cryption scheme (
PRE
)
. In the mobile cloud
computing PRE offers the many benefits. First is the
s
trong access control where
o
nly authorized user can decrypt the data and a data owner can distinguish the
identity information of sharers. Second is flexible t
o operate and scalable with the
growth of data sharers.
A d
ata owner only needs to forward a re
-
encryption key to
cloud which can complete the transformation of ciphertext. No requiring classify
the sharers in attributes by
the
data owner makes our protoco
l easy to operation.
Also the cost
to

achieve, change and update access policy is relatively lower since
each file only needs to be pre
-
processed one time.

Apart from above mentioned major challenges, there are some isolated issues that
need to be looked i
nto to make the mobile cloud computing a big success.

P
rivacy

The major concern of any mobile device user is the data privacy. Most of the
applications that run on mobile devices save data remotely on third party service
providers which raise a concern in
users mind that their confidential data can be
used or sold without
permission or knowledge.

Another issue is l
ocation
-
aware applications and services

that

require knowledge
of

the user’s location

to perform
. These types of application bring

significant
c
oncerns

for the user’s personal privacy
.

A technique
called location cloaking
[24
]

proposed to submit either spatially or temporally imprecise information to protec
t
privacy.

The drawback of the location cloaking is that it will affect the quality of
service given by the application. There is an increased interest in the research
community to develop

location cloaking methods
to

alleviate priv
acy concerns but
keeping

a balance with the

bad outcomes
on location
-
aware applications.

Researchers at
Hong Kong Polytechnic University
have proposed location
-
based
range queries techniques based on

location cloaking
[
28]
.

They propose
d

a format
for an imprecise location
-
based range query
i
n which both the location of the user
and the location of the returned objects are ambiguous

but within a certain range”.
I
n
addition, it also
prevent
s

trajectory tracking (“An
attempt to infer the future
location of users given information about their past locations
”)
.

The
D
ata Ownership

Another

issue is the ownership of the

purchased digital media.
The mobile cloud
computing allows to

store purchased
media files

(
audio, video or e
-
book
s)
remotely rather than locally which leads to concern

regarding the true ownership of
the data.
“I
n July of 2009
,

the
Amazon remotely deleted and refunded copies of
George Orwell’s 1984 from its users Kindle e
-
book reade
rs
” [24]
.
It happened
because
the Amazon

discovered that 1984 was not in the public domain and the
publisher of
the novel

did not have the right

to sell or distribute it. This created
uproar

among Kindle users and commentators.

Such incidence demands
spec
ial
measures need to be taken with the mobile cloud
computing

to assure that incidents like this do not occur. Users should
always need
to be aware of the rights they have for the purchased media content over mobile
devices.


Future

of Mobile Cloud Computi
ng

Mobile

cloud computing provides

various
new opportunit
ies

for the development
of mobile applications
. I
t allows mobile devices to maintain a very thin layer for
user applications and
to
shift the computation and processing overhead to the
virtual enviro
nment.


The
nee
d of
a constant connection
is
one of the biggest
obstacles

for
the cloud
computing movement

but
as mobile internet capabilities continue to get better
,

it is
likely that solutions to this particular problem will become apparent

. New
program
ming languages such as HTML 5 already provide a solution by enabling
data caching
that
allows a cloud application to continue working
even
if
the
connection has been momentarily lost.

Considering the importance of Mobile Cloud Computing and for seeable it
is
heading in the direction to become basic utility in the future, it is required that
more research is conducted in developing new architectures that are plausible.
Adequate security measures should be incorporated to support the low processing
ability at

the client
-
side

at low cost
.

All in all, the future for
mobile c
loud
c
omputing is surely bright, but the end users
will have to wait until
it

reaches
to
it

s best possible potential stage

to
access
the
innumerous advantages and benefits it ha
s

for all t
he users.



















References

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Based Cloudlets
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Modules,”
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009.


[
6]
Kyung Mun
, Corporate Technology Stra
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Lucent
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[7]
http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1278413


[8]
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announces
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cloud
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powered
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aliyun
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Architecture, Applications
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