Small Cells

qualtaghblurtingMobile - Wireless

Dec 12, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Small Cells
-

Innovation for

Wireless networks

Dr. Malek Shahid

Chairman, LTE Working Group

Small Cell Forum

(Alcatel
-
Lucent: Director, HetNet and network performance optimization)


Latin American Spectrum Conference 2012


1.
Introduction & background to Small Cell Forum


2.
Benefits of Small Cells (incl. impact on spectral efficiency...)


3.
Evolution of Small Cell technologies & market deployments


4.
Key regulatory principles & evolution of Small Cell Forum messaging


5.
Summary

Topics to be covered...

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

The Small Cell Forum


Aims

82 providers of small cell technology
representing all parts of the ecosystem

67 operators covering 2.92 billion mobile

subscribers


47% of total

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

4

THE LIMITS OF MACRO BTS
-
ONLY STRATEGY

CLAUDE SHANNON WAS A VERY SMART GUY

2

4

-
5

+5

+15

Peak Data Efficiency (bps/Hz)

Signal
-
to
-
Noise Ratio

(dB)

Wireless Technologies

Shannon
-
bound

Infeasible Region

EV
-
DO

LTE

HSDPA

Source: Bell Labs analysis

A Good Experience

A Bad Experience

network load, frequency band, and distance
all make a difference

Macrocells

Small cells

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

5

NETWORK EXPANSION:

ONLY 3 WAYS TO ADD CAPACITY

ALSO RESULTS IN BETTER COVERAGE

(AFFORDABLE) SPATIAL EFFICIENCY = METRO CELLS

More
Spectrum

(Hz)

More

Spectral
Efficiency

(Bits/Sec/Hz)

More

Spatial

Efficiency

(Bits/Sec/Hz/User)

Increase

Capacity

2x


>10x


1.5x


2 X 1.5 X 10 = 30X
Capacity

Less of this

More of this

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

6

SMALL CELLS TOMORROW


ENTER THE METRO

BETTER COVERAGE, HIGHER THROUGHPUT, LESS TCO

Total Cost of Ownership (000 Euros)

<3Mb/s

<5Mb/s

<10Mb/s

>10Mb/s

YEAR 1

<3Mb/s

<5Mb/s

<10Mb/s

>10Mb/s

YEAR 2

<3Mb/s

<5Mb/s

<10Mb/s

>10Mb/s

YEAR 3

<5Mb/s

<10Mb/s

>10Mb/s

YEAR 4

USER THROUGHPUT

NUMBER OF SIMULTANEOUS USERS

Source: Bell Labs analysis based on dense urban area

112

62

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
W-CDMA Macro-only
LTE Macro and W-CDMA &
LTE Metro Cells
45% TCO Savings

Euros (in millions)

METRO ENHANCED
NETWORKS:
3 OF
THE SAVINGS

Metro Cell
Express

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

MORE ON SPECTRUM BENEFITS OF
SMALL CELLS


Performance almost independent of spectrum band


Standardised in all existing mobile bands from 700 MHz
to 2.6GHz


Tolerant to interference from wide range of sources
(e.g. Digital TV)

Benefits apply
across wide
range of
spectrum
bands


Rapid refarming without full clearance


e.g. UMTS femtocells on GSM macro


Future potential for LTE refarming on 3G spectrum

Reuse existing
bands


Dense reuse and high interference protection give very
high capacity


These capacity gains apply in low and high freq bands


Deep indoor coverage with lower cost and reduced
environmental impact

Spectrum and
economic
efficiencies


Scope for new operators in limited spectrum


‘Inside
-
out’ femtocell
-
led deployments


New services and better customer experience

Innovation &
competition

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

8

SMALL CELLS EVERYWHERE!

Metro:

Operator deployed:


100’s m: 32
-
64 users

wired or wireless B/H


In
-
Building:

(Office | Retail | Apartments)

8
-
32 users


Residential:

end
-
user deployed, Shared backhaul)

13 dBm, 4
-
8 users


Rural:

Operator deployed: 2Km:

64 users
,
wired or wireless B/H


© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

9

TRAFFIC OFFLOAD, END USER EXPERIEINCE



21%

56%

75%

0%
50%
100%
1x
4x
10x
%
traffic
on
small
cells

Small cells per
macrocell

Number of small cells per macrocell

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

58%

315%

523%

31%

138%

246%

0%
200%
400%
600%
1
4
10
All Users
Macro
Users
% increase in median
throughput over macrocells
alone

10

EFFECTS OF SMALL CELLS DEPLOYMENT



© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

UE_TX_power

-
10 to 0 dbm

UE_TX_power

-
30 to
-
20 dbm

Before

After

Before

After

Measured UE Tx Power
: Lower after small cell addition

Measured CPICH RSCP
: Coverage Improvement

1st FLOOR

Commercial femtocell deployments and
commitments

0
20
40
60
6

9

13

17

18

19

31

36

37

40

41

8

12

16

24

30

34

43

44

52

53

54

Deployments
Commitments
2007
:

0 deployments

2012
:

41 deployments
in
23 countries

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

Operators with commercial femtocell
deployments

Includes 9
out of top ten
operator
groups by
revenue


© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

Femtocell Deployments

2007
:

0 femtocells

Today:

3.8 million femtocells

deployed commercially

Scaling up:


Sprint: Over
600,000

units


Softbank : Over
120,000

units


SFR: Over
100,000

units


Vodafone UK:
Hundreds of
thousands

of users


AT&T: Well over
500,000

units
(analyst estimates)

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012


There were more 3G femtocells than 3G macrocells in June 2011


By end of 2012, There will be more small cells than macrocells
for all technologies combined


MORE SMAL THAN MACROCELLS


Source: Small Cell Forum

-
20,000,000
40,000,000
60,000,000
80,000,000
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Femtocells
Macrocells
Small cells

End 2012:

6.4 million
small cells

6.0 million
macrocells

Overall Objective of Small Cell Forum’s

Regulatory Working Group


-

To encourage a positive regulatory environment for femtocell
deployments



Consistent regulatory environment in a wide range of administrations



Assist regulators in understanding the regulatory issues associated with
femtocells



Clarify regulations to enable their citizens to gain full access to small cell
services, without undue delays



Provide Small Cell Forum members with
up
-
to
-
date

knowledge of
regulatory environment for small cells around the world

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

Some key regulatory principles

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

Licensing

No need for additional/individual licences

No terminal registration necessary (administrative burden)

Fees should be structured to allow for high density deployments

Interference

& Safety Concerns

Femto cells remain under operator control,

restricting power to avoid interference

Emission levels within accepted Health & Safety guidelines

Secure mutual authentication between device and network

Tamper
-
proof devices with no user controls

Security

Privacy concerns being addressed in the SCF standards activities

User opt
-
in required, subscriber and UE identity fully protected

Location

specific apps

Some Examples of Good Regulatory
Practice

EU

Decided (in 2008)
-

no need for any new European regulation;

femtocells can operate under existing national licensing regimes

Russia


Regulator simplified registration procedures (in 2010) to permit mass
-
market

introduction of femtocells


Taiwan


Regulator approved national telcos to supply femtocells to extend broadband provision

to the home, late last year.


UK

Regulator removed requirement to register location of base stations, in the case of

femtocells; seen as impracticable

Japan


Authorities removed requirement for professional installation of femtocells;

reduced fees for multiple deployments


United States

FCC exempted femtocells from new rules to avoid interference from unlicensed

repeater devices

South Korea


SK Telecom authorised (in Dec 2011) to deploy integrated Femto LTE/Wi
-
Fi Femtocells

to extend coverage


Malaysia


Operators (since Mar 2012) need only pay a one
-
time registration fee for low power

femtocells (up to 25dBm or 36 mWatt)


© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012


Initial SCF policy drive


focused on low power femtocells


No need for additional licences


operate within operator’s
spectrum, other key principles as outlined earlier


Newer range of small cells/applications bring new opportunities &
regulatory challenges


Complementary with WiFi, choice dependent on user profile,
service type, QoS, ...


Small Cells help to maximise efficiency of existing spectrum




Change in emphasis as small cell
technology & usage evolves

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

Summary


Proliferation of Small Cells in mobile networks is expected to continue



Many benefits to both users and operators



Use of small cells leads to substantial spectrum capacity increases



Data offload also eases traffic congestion in the core network



Complementary to Wi
-
Fi offload



Regulatory principles are well established for use in licensed spectrum


© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012


Regularly updated & available for free
download from:

www.smallcellforum.org



Comprehensive overview of current and
forecast deployments of


Femtocells


Picocells


Microcells


Metrocells



Small Cell Market Status

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012


White papers, regulatory news, position papers etc. at:


http://www.smallcellforum.org/aboutsmallcells
-
regulatory




Small Cell Regulatory Information

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

Regulatory White Paper

© Small Cell Forum Ltd 2012

www.smallcellforum.org