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qualtaghblurtingMobile - Wireless

Dec 12, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Data Transmission

Suherman
, PhD

References:

Many sources

1. Character Coding

Binary

Glyph

Binary

Glyph

Binary

Glyph

Binary

Glyph

Binary

Glyph

Binary

Glyph

010 0000

011 0000

0

100 0000

@

101 0000

P

110 0000

`

111 0000

p

010 0001

!

011 0001

1

100 0001

A

101 0001

Q

110 0001

a

111 0001

q

010 0010

"

011 0010

2

100 0010

B

101 0010

R

110 0010

b

111 0010

r

010 0011

#

011 0011

3

100 0011

C

101 0011

S

110 0011

c

111 0011

s

010 0100

$

011 0100

4

100 0100

D

101 0100

T

110 0100

d

111 0100

t

010 0101

%

011 0101

5

100 0101

E

101 0101

U

110 0101

e

111 0101

u

010 0110

&

011 0110

6

100 0110

F

101 0110

V

110 0110

f

111 0110

v

010 0111

'

011 0111

7

100 0111

G

101 0111

W

110 0111

g

111 0111

w

010 1000

(

011 1000

8

100 1000

H

101 1000

X

110 1000

h

111 1000

x

010 1001

)

011 1001

9

100 1001

I

101 1001

Y

110 1001

i

111 1001

y

010 1010

*

011 1010

:

100 1010

J

101 1010

Z

110 1010

j

111 1010

z

010 1011

+

011 1011

;

100 1011

K

101 1011

[

110 1011

k

111 1011

{

010 1100

,

011 1100

<

100 1100

L

101 1100

\

110 1100

l

111 1100

|

010 1101

-

011 1101

=

100 1101

M

101 1101

]

110 1101

m

111 1101

}

010 1110

.

011 1110

>

100 1110

N

101 1110

^

110 1110

n

111 1110

~

010 1111

/

011 1111

?

100 1111

O

101 1111

_

110 1111

o


ASCII

(
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
)

Other codes: ATASCII, PETSCII, ISO 8859, etc.

2. Interfacing

Common ports and plugs

USB

PS/2 or Mini
-
DIN 6


DB
-
9

ETCETRA

2. Interfacing

Universal Serial Bus (USB)

Pin 1

V
CC

(+5

V)

Pin 2

Data−

Pin 3

Data+

Pin 4

Ground



-

USB 2.0 : maximum signaling rate of

480

Mbit
/s

(effective throughput up
to 35

MB/s or 280

Mbit
/s), USB3.0
upto

5Gbps.

-

Versi
: 1.x, 2.0, 3.0, 3.1

-

Sinyal

di

USB
ditransmisikan

dengan

twisted
-
pair

data cable
dengan

impedansi

karakteristik

90
Ω

±
15%


berlabel

D+ and D−.


-

Kecuali

sistem

USB 3.0,
sistemnya

adalah

half duplex
dengan

level
tegangan

0.0
-

0.3

volt

untuk

‘low’
dan

2.8
-
3.6

volt
untuk

‘high’
utk

mode
low bandwidth
atau

−10
-
10

mV
dan

360
-
440

mV
untuk

hi
-
bandwidth.

-

Line coding
menggunakan

NRZI

USB to Ethernet

USB to DB
-
x

USB to PS/2

3. Data Transmission

Contoh

devices yang
akan

dihubungkan
:

Keyboard
dengan

konektor

USB

Keyboard displayer

See:
http://www.circuitsathome.com/mcu/programming/how
-
to
-
drive
-
usb
-
keyboard
-
from
-
arduino

Two computers

3. Data Transmission

Point to point connection : Wired,
Jarak

Dekat

Paralel

and

serial port < 2m

USB, maximum 5m

Ethernet direct connection, maximum 100m

Ethernet with hub/switch as a

repeater,
maximum 100m each hop


3. Data Transmission

Point to point connection : Wired,
Jarak

Dekat

USB link cable : Direct Cable Connection (DCC)



Point to Point Protocol (PPP)
digunakan
.

a program which supports data transfer using
that cable must be used, typically, provided by
the USB link cable manufacturer

DCC
juga

tersedia

untuk

serial
dan

paralel

ports

3. Data Transmission

Point to point connection : Wired,
Jarak

Dekat

Ethernet direct connection, maximum 100m



Registered Jack (RJ) type 45,
konektor

standar

digunakan

untuk

jaringan

Ethernet (LAN)
dengan

cable
kategori

5.

Point to point connection
tanpa


Perantara
,
menggunakan

hubungan

Crossover. OS windows
dapat

dihubung

kan
,
dengan

setting
tertentu
.

CSMA/CD

digunakan
.

3. Data Transmission

Point to point connection : Wired,
Jarak

Dekat

Ethernet
dengan

perantara
, maximum 100m per hop



Menggunakan

straight cable

Disebut

dengan

LAN (Local Area
Network.
CSMA/CD

digunakan

Usually use straight cable to connect different type of devices. This
type of cable will be used most of the time and can be used to:

1) Connect a computer to a switch/hub's normal port.

2) Connect a computer to a cable/DSL modem's LAN port.

3) Connect a router's WAN port to a cable/DSL modem's LAN port.

4) Connect a router's LAN port to a switch/hub's uplink port. (Normally
used for expanding network)

5) Connect two switches/hubs with one of the switch/hub using an
uplink port and the other one using normal port.

3. Data Transmission

Point to point connection : Wireless

Infra Red Data Association (IrDA), maximum 1m

Line of Sight (LOS)

Range: standard: 1

m; low power to low power: 0.2

m; standard to low
power: 0.3

m.

Angle: minimum cone
±
15
°

Speed: 2.4

kbit
/s to 1

Gbit
/s

Modulation:

baseband

NRZ, NRZI, ASK

Infrared Wavelength: 850
-
900

nm


3. Data Transmission

Point to point connection : Wireless

Bluetooth, maximum 100m

-

Bluetooth operates in the range of 2400

2483.5
MHz.

-

Bluetooth uses frequency
-
hopping spread
spectrum.

-

79 channels. Each 1 MHz BW.

-

1600 hops per second

-
Gaussian frequency
-
shift keying (GFSK),
π/4
-
DQPSK and 8DPSK

-

Bluetooth v1.2 721kbps, v2.0 2.1Mbps, v3.0
24Mbps.

Master Slave Radio

3. Data Transmission

Point to multipoint (PMP) connection : Wireless

Wireless Fidelity (
WiFi
), maximum indoor 46m, outdoor
92m, point to point >100km using
baloon

CSMA/CA
digunakan

Ad hoc and Infrastructure networks

802.11

protocol

Freq.

(GHz)

Bandwidth

(MHz)

Data rate

per stream

(
Mbit
/s
)

Modulation

a

5

20

6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54

OFDM

3.7

b

2.4

20

1, 2, 5.5, 11

DSSS

g

2.4

20

6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54

OFDM
,
DSSS

3. Data Transmission

Point to multipoint (PMP) connection : Wireless

WiMAX
: Worldwide interoperability for Microwave
Access:
upto

50km

Polling
dan

CSMA/CA
digunakan

Frame n
-
1
Frame n
Frame n
+
1
Preamble
FCH
DL
-
Burst
#
1
DL
-
Burst
#
i
...
DL
-
MAP
UL
-
MAP
SSs Downlink Allocation
TTG
Initial
Ranging
BW
Request
UL
-
Burst
#
1
UL
-
Burst
#
i
...
RTG
Preamble
SSs Uplink Allocation
1
2
...
k
DL
-
Subframe
(
BS to SS
)
UL
-
Subframe
(
SSs to BS
)
Request slots
WiMAX

standard: 802.16e
-
2005,802.16d
-
2004,

-

Fast Fourier transform (FFT)

-

channel bandwidths 1.25 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz or 20
MHz.


-

Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA).

-

hybrid automatic repeat
-
request (HARQ)

-

Adaptive antenna systems (AAS) and MIMO technology

-

quality of service (
QoS
)

-

2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz and 3.5 GHz

3. Data Transmission

Point to Point connection : Cellular networks

1997


Delivery of digital wireless data and voice networks (2G): GSM and IS
-
95

1998


WAP 1.0 specifications published.

2000


Camera phones introduced in Japanese market.

2002


Delivery of digital wireless data and voice enhanced networks (2.5G),


GSM with GPRS and upgraded IS
-
95 (CDMA2000) with 1xRTT

2003
-

2.75G technologies were introduced,


Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS).

2004
-
2008: 3G technology was introduced :EV
-
DO, EV
-
DV, HSUPA, HSDPA,

2008


FCC no longer requires cellular providers to support analog service.

Now
-

LTE and Advance LTE are popular issue to support 4G all
-
IP network

Standalone:

In the past, these used the PCMCIA,
ExpressCard

and Compact Flash. Now: USB
-
based
modems.

Integrated router:

provide traditional networking
interfaces such as Ethernet, USB and Wi
-
Fi.

Smartphones
:

the phone has the same capabilities
as a standalone modem.

3. Data Transmission

Point to Point connection : Next? LTE

LTE
, an

initialism

of

Long Term Evolution
,
marketed as

4G LTE
, is a standard
for

wireless

communication of high
-
speed data
for mobile phones and data terminals. It is
based on
the

GSM
/
EDGE

and

UMTS
/
HSPA

network
technologies.

4. Analysis?

Attenuation, Signal distortion, Aliasing, Noise,
Interferences, etc