Nyoman Suryadipta, ST, CCNP

qualtaghblurtingMobile - Wireless

Dec 12, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Nyoman Suryadipta, ST,
CCNP

Sessions


I : Intro


II : Modulation


III :
Terestrial

Wireless


IV : Cellular Wireless


V : Satellite Systems


VI :
WLAN



VII : Special Study :
4G

Technology (
LTE
)


Score System

1.
Presence/
Kehadiran


:

10%

2.
Tugas

Harian
/Essay


:

5%

3.
Tugas

Project/Study Case

:

10%

4.
QUIZ




:

5%

5.
UTS




:

20%

6.
UAS




:

50%







------------------

+


Total




:

100%

References


ebooks.narotama.ac.id

Why Wireless?


Human freedom

o
Portability v. Mobility


Objective: “anything, anytime, anywhere”


Mobility

o
Size, weight, power

o
Functionality

o
Content


Client Infrastructure not required


Reduce Cost


Electromagnetic Spectrum

SOURCE:
JSC.MIL

SOUND

LIGHT

RADIO

HARMFUL RADIATION

VHF = VERY HIGH FREQUENCY

UHF = ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY

SHF = SUPER HIGH FREQUENCY

EHF = EXTRA HIGH FREQUENCY

4G CELLULAR

56
-
100 GHz

3G CELLULAR

1.5
-
5.2 GHz

1G, 2G CELLULAR

0.4
-
1.5GHz

UWB

3.1
-
10.6 GHz

Wireless Bands

Unlicensed Frequency

ISM Band (Industrial, Scientific & Medical)


900
-
MHz band: 902 MHz to 928
MHz.


2.4
-
GHz band: 2.400 GHz to 2.483 GHz (in Japan, this band
extends to 2.495 GHz.)


5
-
GHz band: 5.150 GHz to 5.350 GHz, 5.725 GHz to 5.825 GHz,
with some
countries supporting
middle bands between 5.350
GHz and 5.725 GHz. Not all countries permit

Wireless Telephony

SOURCE:
IEC.ORG

AIR LINK

PUBLIC SWITCHED

TELEPHONE NETWORK

WIRED

Cell Clusters

SOURCE:
IEC.ORG

ACTUAL COVERAGE

AREA OF CELL 1

ACTUAL COVERAGE

AREA OF CELL 3

CELL 1 OVERLAPS 6 OTHERS


DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES

MUST BE USED IN ADJACENT

CELLS


SEVEN DIFFERENT SETS OF

FREQUENCIES REQUIRED

Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)

PATTERN CAN BE

REPLICATED OVER

THE ENTIRE EARTH

200 FREQUENCIES

IN ONE CELL



TOTAL NUM

BER OF

FREQUENCIES = 1400

WORLDWIDE

MANY CELLS CAN SHARE

SAME FREQUENCIES IF

SEPARATED IN SPACE

Cell Handover

SOURCE: R. C. LEVINE, SMU

AS PHONE MOVES FROM CELL “A” TO CELL “B”:


• CELL “A” MUST HAND THE CALL OVER TO “B”


• PHONE MUST CHANGE FREQUENCIES


• CELL “A” MUST STOP TRANSMITTING

Minimum


performance

contour

Handover threshold

contour

A

B

x

y

z

ANIMATION

Cell Sizes

MACROCELL: $1M

MICROCELL: $250K

SLOW
-
MOVING

SUBSCRIBERS

FAST
-
MOVING

SUBSCRIBERS

PICOCELLS

GSM:


100m
-

50 km


250 km/hr

Multiple Access


Many users sharing a resource at the “same
time”


Needed because user must share cells


FDMA (frequency division)

o
Use different frequencies


TDMA (time division)

o
Use same frequency, different times


CDMA (code division)

o
Use same frequency, same time, different “codes”


Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDMA)

Advantages
:


No dynamic
coordination


Disadvantages:


Inflexible & inefficient if
channel load is dynamic
and uneven


k
2

k
3

k
4

k
5

k
6

k
1

f

t

c

Each channel gets a band (range) of frequencies

Used in traditional radio, TV, 1G cellular

EACH CHANNEL

OCCUPIES SAME

FREQUENCY

AT ALL TIMES

SOURCE: NORMAN
SADEH

Time Division Multiplexing (
TDMA
)

k
2

k
3

k
4

k
5

k
6

k
1

Each channel gets entire spectrum for a certain (rotating) time period

Advantage
: Can assign more time to senders with heavier loads


3X capacity of FDMA, 1/3 of power consumption

Disadvantage
: Requires precise
synchronization

SOURCE: NORMAN SADEH

f

t

c

FREQUENCY BAND

Combining
TDMA

and
FDMA

f

t

c

k
2

k
3

k
4

k
5

k
6

k
1

Each channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain amount of time.
Example: GSM

Advantages:



More robust against frequency
-


selective interference



Much greater capacity with


time compression



Inherent tapping protection


Disadvantages



Frequency


changes must


be coordinated

SOURCE: NORMAN SADEH

Time
-
Division Multiple
Access

SOURCE:
QUALCOMM

Code Division Multiplexing (CDMA)


Each channel has unique

“code”


All channels use same spectrum

at same time but orthogonal codes


Advantages:

o
bandwidth efficient


code space is huge

o
no coordination or synchronization

between
different
channels

o
resists interference and tapping

o
3X capacity of TDMA, 1/25 power
consumption


Disadvantages:

o
more complex signal regeneration


Implemented using
spread spectrum

k
2

k
3

k
4

k
5

k
6

k
1

f

t

c

Cellular Generations


First

o
Analog, circuit
-
switched (AMPS)


Second

o
Digital, circuit
-
switched (
GSM
, Palm) 10 Kbps


Advanced second

o
Digital,
circuit switched
, Internet
-
enabled (
WAP
)

10 Kbps


2.5

o
Digital,
packet
-
switched
,
TDMA

(
GPRS
, EDGE)

40
-
400 Kbps


Third

o
Digital,
packet
-
switched
,
wideband CDMA

(
UMTS
)

0.4


2 Mbps


Fourth

o
Data rate 100 Mbps; achieves “
telepresence





GSM Architecture

SOURCE: UWC

LIST OF

ROAMING

VISITORS

LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS

IN THIS AREA

STOLEN, BROKEN

CELLPHONE LIST

ENCRYPTION,

AUTHENTICATION

INTERFACE TO LAND

TELEPHONE NETWORKS

HIERARCHY

OF CELLS

CELL TRANSMITTER

& RECEIVER

PHONE

SIM:

IDENTIFIES A

SUBSCRIBER

DATA RATE: 9.6 Kbps

SMS



Short Message Service


Integral part of GSM standard

o
Added to other standards as well


Uses control channel of phone

o
Send/Receive short text messages

o
Sender pays (if from mobile phone)


Phone has "email" address

o
SMTP Interface


Only in the US, not the rest of the world


Allows messages to be sent for free!

o
3125551234@wireless.att.net


1 BILLION SMS/day worldwide

Technology

Message
Length

2

way?

GSM

160 bytes

Yes

TDMA/PDC

160 bytes

No

CDMA

256 bytes

Yes

iDEN

140 bytes

Yes

SOURCE: GEMBROOK SYSTEMS

SMS

Banking

Credit card used

Joe’s HiFi

$1245

Bank

Back
-
end

Systems








Internet

Bank Web Site

Message from YourBank: Credit card


purchase of $1245 at Joe’s HiFi.

Message appears within seconds


on the customer’s phone

SMS

Monitoring


Application

Customer

Alert me to all credit


card transactions


greater than $100.

Cell Tower

Air

Wireless

Carrier

SMS

Carrier

SOURCE: GEMBROOK SYSTEMS

Satellite Systems

SOURCE:
WASHINGTON UNIV.

GEO

M

EO

LEO

GEO (22,300 mi., equatorial)


high bandwidth, power, latency

MEO


high bandwidth, power, latency

LEO (400 mi.)


low power, latency


more satellites


small footprint

V
-
SAT (Very Small Aperture)


private WAN

SATELLITE MAP

Geostationary Orbit

SOURCE:
BILL LUTHER, FCC

GPS Satellite Constellation



Global Positioning


System



Operated by
USAF



28 satellites



6 orbital planes at a


height of 20,200 km



Positioned so a


minimum of 5 satellites


are visible at all times



Receiver measures


distance to satellite

SOURCE: NAVSTAR

GPS Trilateration

DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS

MUST BE VERY PRECISE


LIGHT TRAVELS 1018 FEET

EACH MICROSECOND

SOURCE: PETER DANA

Automatic Vehicle
Location (AVL)

SOURCE: TRIMBLE NAVIGATION


Benefits of AVL



Fast dispatch



Customer service



Safety, security



Digital messaging



Dynamic route optimization



Driver compliance


Sample AVL Users



Chicago 911



Inkombank, Moscow



Taxi companies

Intelligent Highway demo

CA

Location
-
Aware Applications


Vehicle tracking


Firemen in buildings, vital signs, oxygen
remaining


Asset tracking


Baggage


Shoppers assistance


Robots


Corporate visitors


Insurance


Barges

Wireless LAN


Idea: just a LAN, but without wires


Not as easy since signals are of limited range

o
Unlike wired LAN, if A can hear B and B can hear C,
not necessarily true that A can hear C


Uses unlicensed frequencies, low power


802.11 from 2 Mb to 54 Mb


Bluetooth


UWB

Wireless LAN Components

SOURCE: LUCENT

WavePOINT II

Transmitter

Extended

Range

Antenna

Ethernet

Converter

11 Mbps WaveLAN

PCMCIA Card

WaveLAN ISA

(Industry Standard

Architecture) Card

Wireless LAN Configurations

SOURCE:
PROXIM.COM

WIRELESS PEER
-
TO
-
PEER

CLIENT AND ACCESS POINT


MULTIPLE ACCESS POINTS + ROAMING


BRIDGING WITH

DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS


UP TO 17 KM !

Bluetooth



A standard permitting for wireless
connection of:


Personal computers



Printers


Mobile phones


Handsfree

headsets


LCD projectors


Modems


Wireless LAN devices


Notebooks


Desktop PCs


PDAs

Bluetooth Characteristics



Operates in the 2.4 GHz Industrial
-
Scientific
-
Medical (ISM)


(unlicensed)! band. Packet switched. 1
milliwatt

(as opposed


to 500
mW

cellphone. Low cost.



10m

to
100m

range



Uses Frequency Hop (
FH
) spread spectrum, which divides


the frequency band into a number of hop channels. During


connection, devices hop from one channel to another 1600


times per second



Bandwidth 1
-
2 megabits/second



Supports up to 8 devices in a
piconet

(two or more Bluetooth


units sharing a channel).



Built
-
in security.




Non line
-
of
-
sight transmission through walls and briefcases.



Easy integration of TCP/IP for networking.


Bluetooth Devices

NOKIA 9110 + FUJI

DIGITAL CAMERA

ERICSSON

COMMUNICATOR

ERICSSON R520

GSM 900/1800/1900


ALCATEL

One Touch
TM

700

GPRS, WAP

ERICSSON

BLUETOOTH

CELLPHONE

HEADSET

Bluetooth Piconets



Piconet = small area network



“Ad hoc” network: no predefined structure



Based on available nodes and their locations



Formed (and changed) in real time


802.11b

(2.4 GHz 300’ radius 11 Mbps)




802.11a

(5 GHz 54 Mbps incompatible with b)


802.11g

(2.4 GHz 54 Mbps backward compatible with b)


802.20
(<3.5 GHz >1 Mbps @250
kph
)


BlueTooth

(2.4
Ghz

30’ radius)


GSM
(9.6 Kbps)

GPRS

(28.8 Kbps up to 60 Kbps )


3G

(
UMTS

1.1 Mbit/s shared typically giving 80 Kbit/s )


4G

2010? (10
Mbs
?
)

Wireless Standards

SOURCE:
JOHN DOWNARD

Conclusions


Mobile growing very rapidly


Cell systems need large infrastructure


Wireless LAN does not


Content preparation is a problem


Wireless business models largely unexplored


Bandwidth, bandwidth, bandwidth