Chapter 8- Curriculum Design

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Feb 5, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Chapter 8
-

Curriculum
Design

Design


the arrangement of the
elements of a curriculum into a
substantive entity

Elements of Curriculum
Design


Aims, Goals, and Objectives


Subject Matter


Learning Experiences


Evaluation Approaches

Sources for Curriculum
Design


Science


Society


Eternal and Divine Sources


Knowledge


Learner

Science as a Source


Scientific method provides meaning
for the curriculum design


Designs that stress learning how to
learn or “thinking” curricula
emphasize scientific procedures


Coincides with the scientific and
rational world of Western culture

Society as a Source


School is an agent of society, thus
the school should draw its ideas for
the curriculum from the analysis of
the social situation


Curriculum design can only be
completely understood if it is
contextualized socially,
economically, and politically

Eternal and Divine
Sources


Draw on the past for guidance
as to what is appropriate
content


Related to eternal truth
revealed through such sources
as the Bible or other religious
documents

Knowledge as a Source


Disciplined Knowledge


has a particular method or
methods by which scholars extend
its boundaries


Undisciplined Knowledge


does not have unique content, but
has content that is clustered
according to the focus of the
investigation

The Learner as a Source


Curriculum should be derived
from what we know about the
learner
---
how he learns. Forms
attitudes, generates interests,
and develops values

Conceptual Framework


Horizontal organization


scope and integration


side by side arrangement of
curriculum elements


sequence and continuity


longitudinal placement of curriculum
elements

Design Dimension
Considerations


Scope


Sequence


Continuity


Integration


Articulation


Balance

Scope


breath and depth of curriculum
content

Sequence


vertical relationship among
curricular areas


the occurrence and
reoccurrence of content and
experiences so that students
will have opportunities to
connect and enrich their
understanding of the curriculum
presented or experienced

Continuity


vertical manipulation or
repetition of curriculum
components

Integration


linking of all types of knowledge
and experiences contained
within the curriculum plan


enables the individual to
comprehend knowledge as
unified

Articulation


Vertical Articulation


depicts the relationships of certain
aspects in the curriculum sequence to
lessons, topics, or courses appearing
later in the program’s sequence


Horizontal Articulation


refers to the association between or
among elements occurring
simultaneously

Balance


giving appropriate weight to
each aspect of the design so
that distortions do not occur

Representative
Curriculum Designs


Subject
-
Centered Designs


Learner
-
Centered Designs


Problem
-
Centered Designs

Subject
-
Centered
Designs


Subject Design


Discipline Design


Broad Fields Design


Correlation Design


Process Design

Subject Design


Based on the belief that what
makes humans unique and
distinctive is their intellect and
the searching for and
attainment of knowledge are
the natural fulfillment of that
intellect


Curriculum is organized
according to how essential
knowledge has been developed
in the various subject areas

Subject Design
-
Strengths
& Weaknesses


Emphasis on verbal
activities


Introduces
students to the
essential
knowledge of
society


Easy to deliver


Traditional


Prevents
individualization


Disempowers students


Fails to foster social,
psychological, and
physical development


Compartmentalizes
learning


Neglects students’
needs, interests,
experiences


Fosters passivity


Discipline Design


Based on the inherent
organization of content


The manner in which content is
learned is suggested by the
methods scholars employ to
study the content of their fields.

Discipline Design
-
Strengths &
Weaknesses


Students attain
mastery of
content and
independent
learning


Subjects to be
taught to any
child at any
stage of
development


Ignores information
that cannot be
classified as
disciplined
knowledge


Addresses only the
interests of the
college bound


Students must
adapt to the
curriculum

Broad Fields Design
(Interdisciplinary)


Attempts to integrate content that
appears to fit together logically


Allows students to discern
relationships among the various
aspects of the curriculum content,
as well as wholeness of meaning


Students are invited to participate
through the construction of meaning
in grasping the meaning or meanings
of the whole

Broad Fields
-

Strengths
& Weaknesses


Allows students
to discern
relationships
among various
aspects of
curriculum
content


Students
participate in
the construction
of meaning


Issue of breadth
vs depth

Correlation Design


Allows for some linkage of
separate subjects in order to
reduce fragmentation of the
curricular content

Correlation
-

Strengths &
Weaknesses


Allows linkage
of some
subjects to
reduce
fragmentation


Requires
alternative
forms of
scheduling


Requires
teachers to plan
differently
(cooperatively)

Process Design


Gives attention to the procedures
and processes by which individuals
advance knowledge, either in
specific disciplines or in general


Emphasizes those procedures and
dispositions to act that enable
students to analyze their realities
and create frameworks by which the
knowledge derived can be arranged

Process
-

Strengths &
Weaknesses


Teaches how to
learn and think
critically


Lacks emphasis
on content

Learner
-
Centered
Designs


Child Centered Designs


Experience
-
Centered Designs


Romantic (Radical) Designs


Humanistic Designs

Child Centered Designs


Students must be active in their
environments if we are to
optimize learning


Curriculum should be based on
students’ lives, needs, and
interests

Child
-
Centered
Strengths &
Weaknesses


Empowers
students
through
ownership of
knowledge


Allows for
constructivist
learning



Content not
specific

Experience Centered
Designs


Everything has to be done “on
the spot”
---
we cannot anticipate
the interests and needs of
children

Experience Centered
Strengths &
Weaknesses


Based on
natural
experiences of
children


Not specific

Romantic (Radical)
Designs


Emancipation is the goal of education


Individuals should gain those
awarenesses, competencies, and attitudes
to enable them to take control of their
lives


Learning results from the interaction
among people; by challenging content and
permitting different views about the
content, as well as from critiquing the
purposes of the information presented

Romantic Strengths &
Weaknesses


Emancipates the
learner


Threatens
status quo

Humanistic Designs


The focus of attention should be on
the subject nature of human
existence; there is a relationship
between learning and feeling


Empowering individuals


Stress the development of positive
self
-
concept and interpersonal skills

Humanistic Strengths
&Weaknesses


Promotes self esteem


Empowers individuals


Inadequate consideration
of methods in light of
consequences for
learners


Inconsistent emphasis on
uniqueness of individuals
and activities that all
students experience


Too much emphasis on
the needs of the
individual over the overall
society


Does not integrate what
is known about human
learning and development

Problem
-
Centered
Designs


Life
-
Situations Design


Core Design


Social problems and
Reconstructionist Designs


Persistent life situations are crucial to a society’s
successful functioning; it makes sense to organize
a curriculum around them


Students will see direct relevance to what they are
studying if the content is organized around aspects
of community life


By having students study social or life situations,
they not only study ways to improve society but
become directly involved in that improvement

Life Situation Design

Life Situations Strengths &
Weaknesses


Presents subject
matter in an
integrated
manner


Encourages
students to
learn and apply
problem solving
procedures


Relevant


How to
determine scope
and sequence of
essential areas
of learning


Does not expose
student
adequately to
their cultural
heritage


Nontraditional


Centers on general education
and is based on problems
arising out of common human
activities

Core Design

Core Strengths &
Weaknesses


Unifies content


Provides relevant
subject matter


Encourages active
processing of
information


Fosters democratic
processes in the
classroom


Nontraditional


Ignores the
fundamentals


Materials are
hard to find


Requires an
exceptional
teacher


Social Problems and
Reconstructionist
Design


Curriculum should address
contemporary social problems
and social action projects
aimed at reconstructing society


Educators will effect social
change and create a more just
society





Strengths &
Weaknesses