Insects and Nematodes.pptx

pumpkincentersulkyBiotechnology

Dec 16, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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INSECTS AND
NEMATODES

1)
Describe the biology of
insects


2)
Classify
insects


3)
Classify nematodes and describe their
biology


4)
Explain scouting and threshold in insect
management


5)
Describe methods of insect and nematode management


OBJECTIVES
:


Head
-

eyes, antennae, and
mouthparts



Thorax
-

wings and 3 pairs of
legs



Abdomen
-

contains organs for digestion, reproduction,
and excretion


3 MAJOR BODY SEGMENTS:


Chewing
-

bites off, chews, and swallows plant
parts



Sucking
-

pierces outer layer of plants parts and draws
sap from it


MOUTHPARTS:


Metamorphosis
-

stages of development where insects
go from egg to adult, there are 2 types:


Incomplete
-

3 stages: egg, nymph, adult


Complete
-

4 stages: egg, larvae, pupa,
adult



REPRODUCTION:

Incomplete


Scientific classification
-

phyla are further divide into
classes; classes are further divided into orders and
then families, genus, and
species



Insects
are in the arthropoda
phylum


Nematodes
are in the
Nematoda phylum


INSECT CLASSIFICATION


Beneficial insect
-

one that is of value for the role it
fills in the environment


Harmful insect
-

one that causes damage to plants,
animals or property


INSECT CLASSIFICATION


Mouthparts Classification
-

control measures must be
selected based upon the way an insect feeds


Reproduction classification
-

determined by the type of
metamorphosis they go through which also determines
control method


Feeding location classification
-

one of the 3 types
must be identified in order to effectively choose a
control method


INSECT CLASSIFICATION


External feeders
-

chew or suck form the exterior of the
plant


Internal feeders
-

chewing type that bore into the plant
and go inside to feed


Subterranean
-

species in the soil that attack plant roots.


INSECT CLASSIFICATION


Nematodes
-

damage plants by piercing and sucking
juice or tunneling inside plant roots and secreting a
substance that injures the roots. The injury allows fungi
and bacteria to enter the roots which can cause disease.


2 types root knot (attacks the roots) and foliar (attacks
the leaves or stem)


NEMATODE CLASSIFICATION AND
BIOLOGY:



Scouting
-

visually inspecting for the presence of insect pests
and damage



Threshold
-

density of the pest population that will justify
using pest management measures, there are 2 types of
thresholds
:



Economic
-

the balance of cost with
returns



Aesthetic
-

deals with the appearance of plants such as turf


METHODS OF INSECT AND
NEMATODE MANAGEMENT:



Quarantine
-

isolation or exclusion of a pest problem



Cultural management
-

preventing insect and nematode
problems by the practices used in growing the plants
such as:


Crop rotation


Residue management


Trap crops


Using resistant varieties


Sanitation


SELECTING MANAGEMENT
METHODS:



Releasing beneficial
insects





Disrupting
reproduction





Using bacteria and fungi


BIOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT:



Pesticides:


Insecticides
-

used to kill insects, classified by entry


Contact
-

absorbed through skin or exterior


Stomach
-

must be ingested


Respiratory
-

must be inhaled


Systemic
-

taken up by the plant and passed on to pest
through ingestion of plant


Formulation
-

the way pesticide is prepared


Active Ingredient
-

percent poison material in an
insecticide


Nematocides
-

used to kill nematodes



CHEMICAL
USE:



Used to genetically modify or alter an organism by adding or
subtracting qualities through the changing of the genetic code




Transgenic
-

plants altered by genetic engineering



GENETIC
ENGINEERING:



Plants can be damaged by nematodes and insect pests, the control
of these pests improves the quality and amount of plant
production. All known factors should be considered when
planning a method of control
.



Some insects are beneficial others are harmful. Knowing the
biology of insects affects the control method choice. Insects have
3 parts head, thorax, and abdomen
.



SUMMARY:



Insects feed in two primary ways, chewing and sucking
.



Some feed on the exterior of plants, some feed on the inside,
while others feed below the soil.


Damage
by insects often occurs at different stages of their
development. Insects have either complete or incomplete
metamorphosis.


The
larvae stage often causes the most damage to plants.


SUMMARY:


Nematodes live in the soil and attack plant roots like the cyst
nematode or live above the soil and attack plant leaves and stems.


There are various control methods used to combat insects and
nematodes.


Scouting
helps determine the threshold of insect impact thus
establishing grounds for the application of a control method such
as:


quarantine
, cultural control, biological control, chemical
control, and genetic engineering.


SUMMARY: