Sharing Success Factors for Enterprise

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Nov 30, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Sharing Success Factors for Enterprise
Architecture


Sally Bean

sally@sallybean.com


© Sally Bean 2012





1

Who am I?


EAC Europe Program Director/Chair since 2006


10 years as an independent EA consultant


EA frameworks


EA team/skills development


Social architecture of EA


Prior to that, 25 years at British Airways


10 years as a Business Systems Architect


Championed cross
-
departmental collaborative projects


Worked on major change programmes


Organised Architects’ community


Special interest in EA and Systems Thinking/Cybernetics


2

How do I know Martin?

3

What am I going to talk about?


Some of my thoughts and ideas for the future of EA


Taking the Key Success factors described in “Building an
EA Practice” as a framework for the talk



4



Key Dimensions of Architecture

5

Vision

Process

Plan

Product

People

From Building an EA Practice

(page 3)


Key Success Factors for Architecture

(Summarised)

6

Vision

Process

Plan

Product

People

Be Clear on the Why and
What of Architecture

Integrate Architecture with
Business Strategy AND
Projects

Ensure Architecture
actually steers
behaviour towards
business goals


Think outside
-
in


Involve the right
stakeholders in the
right manner

Balance Thought and Action

Since 2006….

What’s changed?


Increasing fragmentation


globalisation, outsourcing,
virtualisation,
consumerization
, cloud,
shared services


Role of IT department in
flux


Increasing interest in
Business Architecture


Getting easier to find EA
success stories


What hasn’t changed?


Need for coherence and
agility in organizations


We are still arguing about
what EA is, and what its
value is


Basic success factors still
apply


7

Key Success Factor: VISION

8

Vision

Process

Plan

Product

People

Be Clear on the Why and
What of Architecture

Will we ever have a universal
definition of EA?

9

An

enterprise architecture (EA)

is a
rigorous description of the

structure

of
an

enterprise,

which comprises

enterprise
components

(business entities), the
externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships (e.g.
the

behaviour) between them.

18
th

April 2011

The Enterprise Architecture Research Forum defines the practice of enterprise
architecture as follows:

Enterprise Architecture is the
continuous practice of describing the essential
elements

of a
sociotechnical

organization, their relationships to each other and
to the environment, in order to understand complexity and manage change.
[1]

7
th

January 2012

……….Gartner, one of the leading business research firms, defines the practice
of enterprise architecture as follows:

Enterprise architecture (EA) is the
process of translating

business vision and
strategy into effective enterprise change by creating, communicating and
improving the key requirements, principles and models that describe the
enterprise's

future state and enable its evolution.

2
nd

Feb 2012

10

The Building Metaphor is often used to illustrate
the importance of Architecture

Source:
http://www.winchestermysteryhouse.com/press.html

The Winchester Mystery House

The ‘Gherkin’

11

All is not what it seems:


Winchester Mystery
House?


Built in San Jose, California by Sarah Winchester, the rifle
heiress, after death of husband and child


Built continuously over 38 years; 22 carpenters


Approximately 160 rooms


40 Staircases


Filled with unexplained oddities and bizarre features


Lots of dead ends
-

a house "where downstairs leads
neither to the cellar nor upstairs to the roof “



Design Objective:

Confuse the Spirits

12

All is not what it seems:

The Gherkin

The ‘Gherkin’

Design objective:

“Symbolise the innovation and success of Swiss
Re’s

complex products and services portfolio”

So what
buildings
does
Tom like?

The reality?

“…..fabulous from the outside, but inside it’s completely
banal and it’s not functioning very well in terms of
workplace culture. …..”

(Tom
Dyckhoff
)

An alternative metaphor for the enterprise?


Is it possible to distribute capacities for intelligence and
control throughout an enterprise so that the system as a
whole can self
-
organise and evolve along with emerging
challenges?

(Gareth Morgan, Images of Organization, 1997)


What does this mean for EA?


What can EA learn from systems thinking & cybernetics?


13

The ‘Why and What of EA’


My view


Metaphors are great for bringing the idea of EA to life, but we
should apply them thoughtfully and not extend them too far


The Building metaphor has limitations, and does not reflect the
dynamic complexity and human qualities of the enterprise


We need to consider more organic metaphors


EA seems to be most successful when there’s a clear primary
motivation for it aligned with the values of the organisation


If there isn’t one, ask ‘Where’s the pain? And ‘Who cares’?


Organisations should develop a ‘pragmatically loose’
description of EA that fits their context and evolves over time

14

Key Success Factors: PROCESS and PEOPLE

15

Vision

Process

Plan

Product

People

Integrate Architecture with
Business Strategy AND
Projects


Think outside
-
in


Involve the right
stakeholders in the
right manner

What I see: Mainstream EA approaches are
inaccessible to non
-
architects

16

Zachman


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㬠n漠
pr潣e獳)

T佇䅆


䥔⁰I潣es猠潲楥nted

The DYA


灲潣敳p 晲慭敷潲欠楳f浵捨m敡獩敲e
for a non
-
EA person to understand

17

What does increased fragmentation and a stronger
emphasis on Business Architecture mean for EA?

18

?

?

?

?

?

My view: A generic model of enterprise change,
without architecture

Change the Business

Change
Programmes

& Projects

(People, Process, IT, Facilities)

Strategic Dialogue
and Planning

19

Run the

Business


Day
-
to
-
day Operations and Management
Processes


Core Processes

Enabling Processes

Guiding Processes

External environment

(market, legislators, supply chain, etc)

How does architecture contribute?

Change the Business

Change
Programmes

& Projects

(People, Process, IT, Facilities)

Strategic Dialogue
and Planning

20

Run the

Business


Day
-
to
-
day Operations and Management
Processes


Core Processes

Enabling Processes

Guiding Processes

More coherent
business change by
design

Efficient and Coherent

Change Projects

A more coherent, resilient and adaptive
Enterprise

External environment

(market, legislators, supply chain, etc)

Improved

capabilities

Change

directives

Understanding

Of Performance

Operational

Expertise

Collaborative

Practices

EA

EA can be positioned as a collaborative
PRACTICE that facilitates business change

Change the Business

Change Projects

(People, Process, IT, Facilities)

Strategic Dialogue
& Planning

21

Run the

Business


Day
-
to
-
day Operations and Management
Processes


Core Processes

Enabling Processes

Guiding Processes

External environment

(market, legislators, supply chain, etc)

Collaborative

Practices

EA

Helpful to distinguish Core activities from
extended activities

External environment

(market, legislators, supply chain, etc)

Change the Business

Change Projects

(People, Process, IT, Facilities)

Strategic Dialogue
& Planning

22

Run the

Business


Day
-
to
-
day Operations and Management
Processes


Core Processes

Enabling Processes

Guiding Processes

Holistic
Business/IT
change design

Enterprise Model
Management

Project Guidance
and Assurance

Standards,
Policies and
Governance

Investment &
‘Roadmap’


planning

Asset
Optimisation?

Business &
Technology Trend
assessment

Training?

EA is more a discipline than a department, with a
wide community of interest


Core


People accountable for
EA practice, process and
coherence


Extended


People who contribute
to the production of EA
or are involved in its
governance


Consumers


People who make use of
EA content





23

Practices

EA

BPM

OD

PM

Dev

CORE EA people must engage with many other
different practice communities

Change the Business

Change Projects

(People, Process, IT, Facilities)

Strategic Dialogue
& Planning

24

Run the

Business


Day
-
to
-
day Operations and Management
Processes


Core Processes

Enabling Processes

Guiding Processes

External environment

(market, legislators, supply chain, etc)

etc

Key Success Factor: PRODUCT

25

Vision

Process

Plan

Product

People

Ensure Architecture
actually steers
behaviour towards
business goals

Architecture is not always user
-
friendly or
actionable


Unwieldy, full of
abstractions


Lacks rationale


Incoherent,
incomprehensible
inconsistent
notations…….


Random levels of
precision


26

What I see: 3 types of EA content


Prescriptive



Stating fundamental principles, policies, guidelines and standards to support
the organisation’s operating model, cohesiveness and strategic direction.


Models that must be adhered to, to maintain coherence


Descriptive


Models, inventories and other artifacts that describe key elements of
business, its information systems and technologies


Descriptions of pattern
-
based knowledge


Contextual descriptions that help to make architecture more relevant and
understandable


Programmatic


Content with a time
-
based element to it, incorporating interdependencies


E.g. Presenting a target state architecture and a coordinated portfolio of
projects to achieve it, including building blocks that can be shared by
organisations or projects

27

A way of think about selecting, communicating
and managing architecture content

Prescriptive

Programmatic

Descriptive

Provide
direction and
guidance


or protocols
for communicating .
Must
be authoritative,
widely communicated
and supported by
governance procedures

Primarily provide
information.
Must ensure
ownership,
audience, usage and value is
clearly understood

Time
-
based element
-

Primarily
coordinate
architectural change
dependencies

28

Any given deliverable may contain any or each of
these elements

Prescriptive

Programmatic

Descriptive

29

e.g. Architecture

Principles

e.g. Technology Road Maps

The EA team does not maintain
all the content, but provides the
framework, structure and
governance to ensure that it’s
self
-
consistent and accurate

Key Success Factor: PLAN

30

Vision

Process

Plan

Product

People

Balance Thought and Action

In Summary

31

Vision

Process

Plan

Product

People

Make sure you keep moving

Use the content triangle to
ensure architecture
products are purposeful

Promote collaborative
practices as well as
processes

Design for

adaptation and learning

as well as execution