How the visually impaired

pucefakeAI and Robotics

Nov 30, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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How the visually impaired

use computers

Contents


Visual impairment (
c
liff notes)


How VI users interaction with computers


Current

problems

&
solutions


Alternative solutions

Visual Impairment

Definition



A severe
reduction in vision
that
cannot be
corrected
with standard
glasses, contact
lenses
or surgery and
reduces a person's
ability to function at certain or all tasks
.

World Health Organization working definition [1]


Categories


Low

vision


Legally

blind


Totally

blind



Cataract
(47.9%)

Glaucoma
(12.3%)

Age
-
related Macular
Degeneration
(AMD) (8.7%)

Normal

Severe

Prevalence


285 million visually impaired worldwide


246 million: low vision (63% over 50 years )


39 million: blind (82% over 50 years)


Elderly are the most affected


females are more at risk


87% live in developing countries


85% of visual impairment is
avoidable


Including

c
ataract

and
Glaucoma


How the vision impaired

use computers

literature
review

Visual Impairment & HCI


Aim


What is the
current state
-
of
-
art

of research
in low
-
vision computer users and their
interaction with computers


What interactive
interventions
and
technologies have been investigated in this
domain in terms of
design

and
evaluation


Based on the findings, what are the
promising

directions

in this research area

Visual Impairment & HCI


Paper inclusion criteria:

1.
Papers that deal with the nature of the
diseases

2.
Papers that deal with
design

and use
(
usability
) of computerized technologies
and
accessibility

software that low vision
users use to improve their quality of life.

3.
Empirical studies
of low vision
computerized technologies in the domain of
HCI

4.
Papers published between
1990
-

2010

Visual Impairment & HCI

5. Keywords in tile or
abstract


Age related macular degeneration / macular
degeneration /
AMD / AMRD


Blind


Cataracts


Central
scotoma

/
Scotoma


Corneal Opacity


Diabetic retinopathy


Glaucoma


Legal blindness / Legally blind


Low vision


Partial vision / Partial sight / Partially
sighted


Reduced

vision


Vision deficiency / Vision impairment / Vision loss


Visually disabled / Visual disabilities / Visual impairment / visually
impaired

Visual Impairment & HCI


10
HCI Journals


Human Computer Interaction (6.190)


IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics: B (3.007)


International Journal of Human
-
Computer Studies (2.380)


User Modeling and User Adapted Interaction (2.345)


IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics: A (2.033)


IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics: C (2.016)


Interacting with Computers (1.698)


ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction (1.194)


Behavior & Information Technology (0.767)


International Journal of Human Computer Interaction (0.587)

Visual Impairment & HCI


Total results: 504


51 papers matched criteria (10.1% of results)


blind: 51%


cataract: 2%


glaucoma: 0%


macular degeneration: 6%


general: 41%


Problems


GUI and
Direct

manipulation


Web


A
ccessibility

and
usability


Confustion

page

layout


Inaccessible

images


Conflicts

between

accessibility

applications

and
software
programs


Misleading

info

Command

Line
Interfaces



Text only
interface that
allows a user to interact
with an OS or software
by
typing commands
to perform specific
tasks.




Cursor

postion

and
display

characters

were

mapped

to a
screen

buffer

in
memory

IBM
-
DOS

Hardware
solutions


Hardware


Alternative

keyboards


CCTVs


Brail

displays


Tactile

displays


Audio
tapes

Refreshable brail display

Reading from CCTV


Software


Screen

Reader


Most popular because Brail
literacty

is low


Screen

Magnifier


Self

voicing

applications

Software
solutions

Windows
start

menu
viewed

with

screen

magnification

Alternative solutions


Gaze

contingent

interfaces


Crowd

sourcing


Follow

the
path


Wizard

of OZ


Shared

display


Thank

You

Questions

Comments

Suggestions