Administration and Supervision

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Nov 30, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Administration and Supervision

Of ECE Schools

Topic Outline


Definition of Management


Management: art or science?


Management and Education


Goals of Organizational Behavior


Models of Organizational Behavior


Characteristics of Organizations


Significance of Administration and Supervision

Major Functions of Supervision


Introspection


Research


Training


Guidance


Evaluation


Studying the teacher
-
learner situation


Improving the teacher

learner situation


Evaluating the means,
methods, and
outcomes
of
supervision

Supervision


Emphasis on Administration


Emphasis on Curriculum


Emphasis on Instruction


Emphasis on Human Relations


Emphasis on Leadership


Emphasis on Evaluation

Administration Dimension of
Supervision


The Administrator


Administer process, programs and services,
and personnel


Task planning, setting, and prioritizing of
goals, establishing standards and policies,
budgeting, allocating resources, staffing,
coordinating and monitoring performance,
conducting meetings, and reporting


Interact with …


Communicate …..


Purpose
-

provide effective instruction to their
clientele


Administration of Process


Initiates the planning of programs and
strategies


Long
-
range: on in
-
depth needs assessment,
based on clear goals and objectives


Short term: immediate needs of the incoming
school year


Administration of Programs and Services

-
development of curricular, co
-
curricular, and
extra
-
curricular programs.

-
student services (guidance, health, and
medical, canteen, and athletics


Administration of Personnel

-
interview, hire, evaluate, and training,


Administration of Budget

-
prepare and administer the approved budgets

-
Is education and business poles apart?

1)
Capital Budget

2)
Personnel Services

3)
Operating Expenses


Emphasis on Instruction

Values

Clinical Supervision

Traditional Supervision

Aim

To help improve
instruction

Evaluation Instruction

Basis

Classroom Data

Observer’s rating

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Frequency

Based on need

Based

on policy

Philosophy

Promotes
independence

Promotes

dependence

Process

Cyclical

Linear

Responsibility

Shared

between
teacher and supervisor

Supervisor’s
responsibility

5 Phases of the Clinical Sup

Planning

Observation

Analysis

Feedback

Reflection

What is management?


Management is not carrying out a


prescribed task in a prescribed way:


Management is:


Setting directions, aims, and objectives


Planning how progress will be made


Organizing available resources


Controlling the process


Setting and improving organizational


standards

Valuable Practices


Learning how to run a successful business


Automating your facility


Sound financial planning


Establishing effective marketing and public
relations strategies to promote your services


Knowing, implementing, and often exceeding
licensing standards


Being aware of legal issues


Developing a work plan (assigning roles and
responsibilities).


Action plan

The Manager and his Roles


(1) integrate its resources in the effective
pursuit of its goals


(2) be agents of effective change


(3) maintain and develop its resources

ETHICS AND THE MANAGER


The manager is the leader and has potential
powerbase



Whether the staff are happy or unhappy with
their work


Their work priority


Standard which they observe and reflect

Mangement: Art or Science


Art


art is based on the fact that
a man, receiving through his
sense of hearing or sight
another man's expression of
feeling, is capable of
experiencing the emotion
which moved the man who
expressed it.’


Science


The scientific nature
of management is
reflected in the fact
that it is based on a
more or else codified
body of knowledge
consisting of theories
and principles that
are subject to study
and further
experimentation.

Education and Management


It is argued that schools, with their deep
rooted educational values and academic
professionalism, are not the kind of
organizations that ought to be managed by a
“linchpin head” or even a senior manager or
leadership group
-

they ought to be self
-
managing communities with access to power
dispersed equally among the staff.

School as a Learning Organization


Schools should be places where
participants continually expand their
capacities.


Participants pursue common purposes
with a collaborative commitment to
routinely assessing the value of those
purposes, modifying them when
appropriate, and continually developing
more effective and efficient ways to
achieve those purposes.

Managing Schools by Filipino Values

The school administrator must be:


Makatao


Marunong

makipagkapwa
-
tao

-

isa

sa

lahat

-
para

sa

lahat

-
pinakamahusay

sa

lahat


Marunong

makisama


Marunong

magtrabaho

at
magpatrabaho




Management by Objectives

Maangement by Objectives


Peter Druker


Management by objectives (MBO) is a systematic and
organized approach that allows management to focus
on achievable goals and to attain the best possible
results from available resources.


It aims to increase organizational performance by
aligning goals and subordinate objectives throughout
the organization. Ideally, employees get strong input to
identify their objectives, time lines for completion, etc.
MBO includes ongoing tracking and feedback in the
process to meet objectives


MBO: Main Principles


The principle behind Management by
Objectives (MBO) is to make sure that
everybody within the organization has a clear
understanding of the aims, or objectives, of
that organization, as well as awareness of
their own roles and responsibilities in
achieving those aims.

Where to use management by
objectives


Knowledge based enterprises



Appropriate to build employees management
and self
-
leadership and tap their creativity,
tacit knowledge and initiative.

MBO: Key Result Areas


Marketing


Innovation


Human organizing


Financial resources


Physical resources


Productivity


Social responsiblity


And profit requirements

MBO: Principles


Cascading organizational goals and objectives


Specific goals for each member


Participative decision making


Explicit time period


Performance evaluation feedback

Organizational Goals


There should not only
be a clear sense of
direction but also
markers whereby we
can assess progress
from the broad to the
more specific.


Goals



Targets



Success Criterias



Milestones

Models of Organizational Behavior


The Classical Model


Emphasizes characteristics such as rationality, high job
specialization, centralization, a command system, a tight
hierarchy, strong vertical communication, tight control, rigid
procedures and an autocratic approach.


Rational Systems: A Machine Model


Individuals can be programmed to be efficient machines.
Workers are motivated by economics and by limited
physiology, needed constant direction.


Rational Systems Model


Frederick Taylor


“Time and Motion” studies.


Henri Fayol
-

administrative behavior consist of
Planning, organizing, commanding,
coordinating and controlling.


Luther Gulick
-

POSDCoRB


-

principle of homogeneity

Rational Systems:

Concepts and Propositions


Goals


Division of Labor


Specialization


Standardization


Formalization


Span of Control


Hierarchy


Exception Principle


Coordination


Humanistic Model


respect for the individual and other human
values, job breadth, consultation, consensus,
decentralization, loose project organization,
flexible procedures, multidirectional
communication, management by objectives
and a participative approach.

Natural Systems


Natural System


“the fundamental problem in organizations was developing
and maintaining dynamic and harmonious relationships”.


Mary Parker Follet


Natural
-
systems view focuses on similarities among
social groups, thus driven primarily by the goal of
basic survival
-
not goals of the institutions.


Individuals are never simply hired hands but bring
along with them their heads and hearts.

Concepts and Propositions


Survival


Individual


Needs


Specialization


Formalization




Informal Norms


Hierarchy


Span of Control


Communication


Informal Organization

Comparison


Rational Systems


Structure without
people


Formal


Structural arrangements


Organizational demands


Natural System


People without
organization


Informal


Social groups trying to
adapt


Human needs

Open System: An Integration


A reaction to the unrealistic assumption that an
organizational behavior can be isolated from external
forces.


Organizations are not influenced only by the
environment but also dependent on them.


“The opens systems model stresses reciprocal ties
that bind and interrelate the organization with those
elements that surround and penetrate it. Indeed,
the environment is even seen to be the source of
order itself”.

Social System


The school is a system of social interaction; it
is an organized whole comprising interacting
personalities bound together in an organic
relationship, interdependence of parts, clearly
defined population, differentiation from its
environment, a complex network of social
relationships, and its own unique culture.

Social Systems


Key Elements of the Social Systems Model


Structure


Culture


Politics


Environment


Outcomes

Systems Model: Management Cybernetics


Stafford Beer


Has taken the metaphor of living organisms a stage
further. Human physiological is applied to industrial
organizations. It states that there are 5 tiers of the
subsystems in the central human nervous system,
which have their counterparts in the organization.
The successful survival of the human is an evidence
of the effectiveness of such a system. Diagnose in
what respects they fall short and strengthening the
subsystem that seem weekly developed.

Management Cybernetics


examine the health or viability of an existing
organization


evaluate the proposals for new organization
structures; and


clarify the purpose of committees or roles.

Management Cybernetics


The model can be used in three main ways:


examine the health or viability of an existing
organization


evaluate the proposals for new organization
structures; and


clarify the purpose of committees or roles.

Management Cybernetics

Decision Model


Contingency Model


Organizations should be different from one
another and from part to part.



Organizations left to themselves organization
departments and individuals tend toward
specialization, carving out a more distinctive
niche for themselves.

Effective Integration


Each unit or individual can report to a manager who is
made accountable for synergizing the two roles


a third unit or individual seen by the other two as
understanding their roles and standing as a midway
between them, act as intermediary


some kind of training or image exchange can be undertaken
to help each unit understand more accurately why the
other units behaves as it does.


Interdepartmental groups or task force to resolve issues
between departments. Tis can be temporary or permanent

Elements of Organizations


Technology


Structure


People


Culture

Interlocking Systems


Technology



Social



Economic

Hallmarks of Effective Schools


Professional Leadership


Shared vision & goals


Learning Environment


Concentration on Learning and Teaching


High Expectations


Positive Reinforcement


Monitoring Progress



Hallmarks of Effective Schools


Student’s Rights and Responsibilities


Purposeful Teaching


A Learning Organization


Home School Partnership









End of Module 1