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Nov 30, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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Traditions of
Communication Theory

Chapter 3

Robert T. Craig, Ph.D.


“Communication theory as a field”


Published in 1999


Lead to the 7 traditions of
comm

theory


Areas of scholarly focus based on researchers interest in
how communication works to spread thoughts, influence
individuals, and shape our world

Semiotic Tradition


Views communication as the mediation by signs


Objects and words are symbols


Symbols have meaning because:


They relate to other symbols


You organize them to understand life


Semiotics is:


Study of signs & what they represent

Signs vs. Symbols


Wedding Rings


How are they a sign?


What do they symbolize?

Triad of Meaning


Semiosis

Three Divisions of Semiotic


Semantics


What meaning?


Ex. Pink Sky at night . . .


Syntactic


Relationship between signs and rules used to combine
into meaning


Verbal and nonverbal


Pragmatics


Practical relationship between context and meaning


Phenomenological Tradition


Defined: Interpretation by the individual


Key Ideas:


Phenomenon


Observable event, object, or condition through individual
perception


Phenomenology


How we understand the world

Three Basic Principles of
Phenomonology


Knowledge comes from direct experience


How you relate to an object determines its meaning


Language is the vehicle of meaning

Variations of
Phenomenological Tradition


Classical


Edmund Husserl


Used bracketing to create highly objective view


Phenomenology of Perception


Maurice
Merleau
-
Ponty


Perception provides foundation for understanding


Subjective view

Hermeneutic Phenomenology



Martin Heidegger


Knowledge gained by experience through
interpreting communication

Cybernetic Tradition


Communication is system created by the sum of its
parts


Complex system that uses networks to connect
different parts

Variations in Cybernetic
Tradition


Basic System


Formalized structures that can be observed and
analyzed from outside


Cybernetics


Emphasis on the feedback loop and how circular forces
can be used to maintain balance & create change


Information Theory


Evaluates signal transmission and the impact of noise


General System Theory


Looks for commonalities among different systems


Second


order cybernetics


What we observe


Determined by how we observe it


Impacted by what is observed


Sociopsychological Tradition


Focus on Individual


Key Ideas:


“Science of Communication”


Research focuses on message processing


Provide insight into how information is processed


Evaluates inputs and
outputs of Cognitive system



Behavioral Theories


Looks at how people behave in communication
situations


Cognitive Theories


Evaluate thought


Biological Theories


How genetics affects behavior

Sociocultural Tradition


Evaluates interaction in social groups


Variations:


Symbolic Interactionism


Social structures are created and maintained through
interaction


Social Construction


Evaluates how knowledge in constructed through
interaction


Social groups create common experience



Sociolinguistics


Impact of culture


Philosophy of language


Language games


Ethnography


Groups create meaning verbally and nonverbally


Ethnomethodology


Science of observing behavior

Critical Tradition


Evaluates production of privilege, power, and oppression
through communication


Key Ideas:


Work to understand power structures that dominate society


Evaluate oppression through communication






Rhetorical Tradition


Rhetoric


Use of symbols


Five Cannons of Rhetoric


Invention


Arrangement


Style


Delivery


Memory