UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF MATTER

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Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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1


UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF MATTER

AND
IT’S

CLASSIFICATION

Historically, much of the evidence and reasoning used in developing atomic/molecular theory was
complicated and abstract. In traditional curricula too, very difficult ideas have been offered to
children before most of them had any chance of understanding.

The atomic theory of matter suggests that:

By the end of the 8th grade, students should have sufficient grasp of the general idea that a wide
variety of phenomena can be explained by alternative

arrangements of vast numbers of invisibly
tiny, moving parts.

1.


All matter consists of atoms.

2.

All atoms of an element are identical.

3.

Different elements have different atoms with a different number of protons, neutrons and
electrons.

4.

The center of the atom
contains the nucleus that has most of the mass of the atom. Holy Cow
batman it takes 2000 electrons to make one proton or neutron.

5.

The charge of the atom is neutral because the number of protons in the nucleus equals the
number of electrons in the space o
utside the nucleus.

6.

Electrons orbit the nucleus. When an electron moves from an outer orbit to an inner orbit, it
gives off energy (including light). When an electron moves from an inner orbit to an outer orbit,
it absorbs energy.

7.

The packets of energy el
ectrons absorb or give off are called photons.

8.

The atomic number is the number or protons.

9.

A stable electron arrangement is an atom that has all the electrons at the lowest energy (orbital)
levels.

10.

The atomic mass is the number of protons and neutrons.

11.

Th
e atomic mass is an average since the number of neutrons can vary in the atoms of one
element.

Distinguish among the types of matter (e.g. elements, compounds, mixtures).

1.

ELEMENT



An element is a substance that
cannot

be broken down into other substances.

We
need to know there are 100 elements on the periodic table.

2.

ATOM



An atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains its properties of that
element.

3.

COMPOUND



A compound is made of two or more elements that have been chemically
combined by s
haring electrons. They are combined in definite proportions. 2 hydrogen and 1
oxygen
make

H
20 or water.

2



o

COMPOUND DIAGRAM
-

This is hydronium not Hydrogen. Notice the three
hydrogen atoms are sharing electrons with one oxygen atom. There are 4 atoms
and the formula is H30.


o


-


-

This is the Lewis structure or electron dot diagram for the hydronium ion.



4.

CHEMICAL BOND



A chemical bond is the force of attraction that holds atoms together by
sharing electrons.

5.

LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS

-

says

that elements in a compound always combine in the
same proportion to make the molecules that make up the compound.

6.

MOLECULE



t
he smallest part of a compound is a molecule which is elements combined in a
definite proportion or set ration.

7.

CHEMICAL FORMULA

that reactant + reactant


product, is a shorthand way of showing the
elements of a molecule of a compound.
2 hydrogen + 1 oxygen


H20 or water. NOTICE
THERE ARE 3 atoms in
water.
2 H and 1 O.

8.

For our purposes


Elements are made of atoms, Compounds are made of molecules. Both are
pure substances.


COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES ARE SIMILAR IN THAT THEY ARE MADE UP
OF
TWO OR

MORE SUBSTANCS
.

Compounds (pure substance)

Mixture (not a pure substance)

1.


Made of one kind of particle (H20
molecule, NaCl molecule,
etc.
).

2.

Formed during a chemical change.

3.

Broken down only by chemical changes.

4.

Properties are different from its

parts.
Hydrogen and Oxygen are gases that burn.
H20 is a liquid that does not burn. Na
(Sodium) and
Chlorine

(Cl) are poisons but
you can eat table salt (NaCl).

5.

There is a set formula and a specific
amount of each ingredient in the
molecules making the co
mpound.

1.

Made up of two or more molecules and
the amount can vary.

2.

Not formed by chemical change.

3.

Can be separated by physical changes.

4.

Properties are the same as its parts. Sugar
water is sugar and water. The amount of
each can vary.

5.

Does not have a defini
te amount of each
ingredient.

6.

Heterogeneous


䤠捡渠I敥 瑨攠摩晦敲敮琠
p慲瑳a


s慬aTⰠ扬HoTⰠH敲敡e



Homogeneous


I can’t see the different
p慲瑳⸠⁓畧慲⁷a瑥爬r獡汴s睡瑥爬r
Kool
-
䅩T
.

3



PHYSICAL AND

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES.

Students should become familiar with
characteristics of different states of matter

now including
gases

and transitions between them. Most important, students should see a great many examples
of reactions between substances that produce new substances very different from the reactants.
Then th
ey can begin to absorb the rudiments of atomic/molecular theory, being helped to see that
the value of the notion of atoms lies in the explanations it provides for a wide variety of behavior of
matter.

PHYSICAL PROPERTY



A physical property is one that ca
n be observed without changing the identity of
a substance. You can describe color, mass, shape, and volume.

CHEMICAL PROPERTY



Chemical properties describe the ability of a substance to be changed into new
substances.

PHYSICAL PROPERTY

CHEMICAL PROPERTY
(NEW
SUBSTANCE)

1.


Color

2.

Dissolving.
Same as
solubility
.

3.

Solubility


周T⁡ oun琠o映愠獵a獴慮捥s⡳(汵瑥⤠瑨慴W
睩汬⁤楳獯lve⁩湴 ⁡湯瑨敲esub獴慮捥s⡳o汶敮琩⸠
卡瑵牡瑥T⁩猠睨敮o more⁣慮⁢攠慢so牢敤eo爠
T楳獯汶敤e⁄数敮e猠on⁨敡琠of⁳ lv敮e
瑨Wn欠o映fo琠
瑥愠慮a⁩ 攠W敡e



Mass


M慳猠楳⁴h攠me慳ar攠of⁴h攠amoun琠o映m慴瑥爠
楮⁡渠 b橥
c




The idea of gravity

up until now seen as something
happening near the earth's surface

can be
generalized to all matter everywhere in the
universe. Some demonstration, in the
laboratory or
on film or videotape, of the gravitational force
between objects may be essential to break through
the intuitive notion that things just naturally fall.

6.

Weight


Weight is the measure of a planet’s pull of
g牡癩瑹n⁡ bj散e⸠.
If I take my
science book to the
moon, the mass stays the same but the weight
changes and is less than on earth.

7.

Volume


Vo汵m攠楳⁴he⁡mounWf⁳灡捥⁡渠 bj散e
h慳⸠剥杵污l ob橥j瑳⁡牥敡獵牥e⁩渠 m3⁡湤⁩牲敧ul慲a
ob橥jW猠慲s敡獵牥e⁩ l
m楬汩汩W敲猩eby⁰污捩cg
瑨em
楮⁡ g牡ru慴aT⁣y汩nT敲e



Density


D敮獩瑹⁩猠瑨攠ma獳f⁡ 獵s獴慮s攠con瑡楮敤
楮⁡ un楴f⁶o汵m攮†D=MI嘮†D敮獩瑹⁩猠m敡獵牥⁩渠
gI捭3 o爠楮⁧Im氮




A change in color (A rotting
banana, a burning chair).

2.

Combustion


周攠h敡ef
捯mbu獴楯n⁩猠she⁨敡 f
牥慣瑩on.



Explosiveness

4.

Flammability

5.

Reactivity

6.

PH (acids 0 and bases 14,
remember 7 is neutral)

7.

Cooking




4


9.

Specific Gravity


楳⁴he⁲慴 o o映fhe⁤敮獩Wy o映愠
獵s獴慮捥sWo 瑨攠摥湳W瑹 of⁷慴敲⸠e䥦⁴I攠獰s捩
晩挠
g牡癩瑹⁩猠汥l猠sh慮 on攠瑨攠ob橥jW⁦汯a瑳Won⁷慴a爮 1
gIm氠l猠she⁤敮獩Wy o映fa瑥r.

㄰1

Conductivity


周攠慢楬楴i⁴o⁣慲ay⁨敡琠o爠rl散e物捩瑹⸠
M整慬a⁡牥⁧ oT⁣onTu捴cr猠慮s⁎ nm整慬a⁡牥 poo爠
捯nTu捴o牳⁢r琠gooT⁩湳 污瑯牳r

ㄱ1

Changes in state


m敬瑩湧 p
o楮琬W晲f敺eng⁰ 楮琬⁢ 楬楮g
po楮琬WconT敮獡瑩on
po楮琮

ㄲ1

Hardness


How⁤楦晩捵汴⁩琠楳⁴漠i敡e o爠獣牡瑣s⁡
獵s獴慮捥s



PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

The elements in the Periodic Table are arranged in numerical order (1, 2, 3... 100) by the number of
protons.
This is known as the atomic num
ber.

ELEMENT KEY



周T⁥汥men琠步y⁳ o睳w慴a汥慳琠4⁰楥 敳eof⁩湦orm慴aon



Element symbol



䌠楳⁃慲 onⰠ乡⁩猠獯T極mⰠ䍬⁩猠sh汯r楮攬e慮T⁈⁩猠桹摲og敮e⁎oW楣攠瑨W⁦楲獴
汥瑴敲⁩猠捡c楴慬az敤e



The
Element name
.

3.

The
atomic number



numb敲eo映灲oWon献†s吠䥓⁔HE⁓M䅌A䕒ENUM䉅刮



The
atomic mass



瑨攠numb敲eo映灲oWon猠慮s敵瑲on献†sh楳⁩猠慬ao⁣慬a敤⁴桥 慴am楣i睥楧h琮⁉W
䥓⁔H䔠L䅒䝅删但⁔䡅O呗传N啍B䕒匮E




PERIODS



When I write a horizontal sentence, I end it with a period.

There are 7 periods.

FAMILIES or GROUPS



We are family, we go vertically. ELEMENTS IN A FAMILY OR GROUP HAVE
SIMILAR PROPERTIES AND ACT THE SAME AS OTHER ELEMENTS IN A FAMILY.


5


METALLOID DANCE Non
-
metals include non
-
metals, metalloids, and
Nobel
/inert gases.

METALS

(left hand)

Metalloid

(tushie)

Non
-
metal

(right hand)

Nobel/Inert Gas

(pinky)

Shiny, hard, conduct
heat, conduct
electricity, chemically
active or reactive,
bases, ductile,
malleable.


There is only one metal
that is not a solid


liquid mercury.

Have properties that
are in between metals
and non
-
metals.


FUSES, Semiconductors
like the element Silicon
Si)


PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


All solids that look
white and gray but are
not shiny. They will
conduct heat and
electricity but not as
well as metals and not
at all temperatures.


CHEMICAL PROPERTIES


Each metalloid must
be studied individual
and all have some
properties of metals
and some of nonmetals.

Dull, brittle, good
insulators and poor
conductors of heat and
electricity, acidic, s
ome
gases, some solids.


There is only one non
-
metal that is a liquid


liquid bromine.

Are all gases at room
temperature. They do
not react chemically
with other elements.
They are inert
(inactive).









6


UNDERSTANDING CHANGES IN MATTER

CHANGES IN
MATTER


analyzing physical, chemical, and nuclear changes in
matter and the factors that affect these changes.

Physical change


is a change that does not produce a new substance.

Chemical change (or chemical reaction( is any change of a substance (reacta
nt) into one or more other
substances


product.

PHYSICAL

PHASES OF MATTER


Solid


most common state of matter one earth.

Definite

shape, definite volume, low energy level
(cold), strong gravity attraction.

Liquid

Indefinite shape, definite volume
(can’t make it
smaller).

Gas

Indefinite shape (takes the shape of entire
container), indefinite volume, high energy level
(hot), week gravity attraction.

Plasma


most common state of matter in universe
found in stars and lightning.

Is a gas that has bec
ome so hot that electrons have
escaped leaving a positive nuclei (nucleus with no
electrons).





7



Physical Phase Changes

PHASE CHANGES ARE PHYSICAL CHANGES


Melting

Solid to liquid
-

endothermic

Freezing

Liquid to solid
-

exothermic

Boiling

Liquid

to gas that takes place inside the liquid and
on surface. Endothermic

Evaporation

Liquid to gas over time. Takes place only on the
surface of the liquid. Endothermic

Condensation

Gas to liquid. Exothermic.

Deposition



no liquid state

Gas to solid

Su
blimation


no liquid state

Solid to gas. Snow disappearing from a mountain
top where the temperature is below freezing.


CHEMICAL

Energy is released (exothermic) or absorbed (endothermic) in a chemical reaction.


8


Law of Conservation of Mass



Matter is neither created nor destroyed, just transformed. So chemical
equations must be balanced. 2H2 + O2


2H2O. reactant + reactant


become product (plus or
minus) energy
. Total matter and total energy remains the same.




NUCLEAR

Gamma
rays (y) are high energy electromagnetic waves. Protection from gamma rays requires lead or
concrete.

NUCLEAR FUSION

-

(join)


H
y
drogen nuclei fuse or join together to make helium nuclei. Nuclear

The
suns energy is generated by nuclear fusion.

NUCLEAR

FISSION

(split)


Nuclear fission is the splitting of a nucleus into smaller fragments by
bombardment with neutrons. Controlled fission is the source of energy in nuclear power plants.


Identifying the components and properties of solutions, including a
cids and
bases, and factors that affect solubility.

S
OLUTE, SOLVENT, SOLUTION
.

Solution



the homogeneous solution produced when a solute is dissolved in a solvent.

9


Solvent



the liquid that dissolves a solute. WATER

Solute



the solid that is dissolved
in the solute. Sugar, water,
Kool
-
Aid

powder.


Saturated


when no more solute can be dissolved or with a paper towel no more water can be
absorbed.

Unsaturated



no solute is present.

Supersaturated



A can dissolve a lot more sugar in boiling tea and make it super saturated with sugar.


ACIDS AND BASES

Think of a number line 0 to 14 with 7 being the middle or neutral number. 0 is the A or Acid. And at
the other end B is the base. 7 is the neut
ral number. The farther from 7 the more acid a substance as
you go to 0 and farther from 7 the more base of a substance as you reach 14.


10


Metals are bases. Non
-
metals are acids.

Water is a neutral and is at 7 on the PH scale.

Acids have a sour taste (vi
negar and lemon juice), Bases have a bitter taste and the stronger ones feel
slippery. Many household cleaning products are bases.

Water is formed and when an acid and a base combine chemically

and a salt is also formed.



ANALYZING FACTORS THAT AFF
ECT C
HEMICAL REACTIONS (E.G. TEMPERATURE
AND CATALYSTS).

Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Kinetic molecular theory says particles in stuff (matter) are in
constant motion. The particles do not lose energy in collisions. Most reactions increase tempera
ture
because more and more molecules have the kinetic energy to overcome the reactions activation energy.

Activation energy



Is the
minimum
energy required to loosen bonds in molecules to allow them to
become reactive. The energy you give a match when yo
u strike a match on the match box.

Catalyst



A catalyst is a material that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed
permanently itself.

Two ways to increase the rate of reaction

1.

Increase the temperature


meaning more molecules
collide per second, and these collision
occur with more energy and reach the activation level sooner. Try to start a fire on a hot day
compared to a cold day.

2.

Increase the surface area of the reaction.
We set twigs on fire and then the big log. We don’t

start with the big log. Sugar dissolves better in small particles.

IDENTIFYING CHARACTERISTICS OF A SYSTEM AT EQUILIBRIUM

The activation is the minimum energy needed to overcome the barrier to the formation of products.
Remember reactant + reactant (plus or minus) energy


product (plus or minus) energy.

Exothermic


the energy of the products is lower
than

the energy of th
e reactants.

Endothermic



the energy of the products is greater than the energy in the reactants.

*** Energy is not created. When you strike a match you give energy from the food you ate that is added
to the reaction.

UNDERSTAND PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS

RELATED TO ENERGY

11


At this level, students should be introduced to energy primarily through energy transformations.
Students should trace where energy comes from (and goes next) in examples that involve several
different forms of energy along the way: heat,

light, motion of objects, chemical, and elastically
distorted materials. To change something's speed, to bend or stretch things, to heat or cool them, to
push things together or tear them apart all require transfers (and some transformations) of energy.

Food, gasoline, and batteries obviously get used up. But the energy they contain does not disappear;
it is changed into other forms of energy.



Identify forms (e.g. mechanical, chemical) and types (e.g., potential, kinetic) of
energy and their characteris
tics.

MEMORIZE


1.

Friction is not energy. Friction is a force.

2.

Energy is the ability to do work or supply heat.

3.

Work is heat and heat is work. Work is the transfer of energy to move
a
n object.

4.

Heat is
not a form

of energy but a
method of transferrin
g energy
.


FIRST LAW OF THE
R
MODYNAMICS



Energy is neither created nor destroyed. Energy is merely
transformed or changed from one form to another.

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS



Heat can’t pass from a colder to a hotter body. And no machine
is 100% efficient. Some heat is lost to the environment and some sound is lost.

TWO TYPES OF ENERGY
-

Potential
(Position, An object’s energy stored in matter due to position
relative to ot
her objects).
Kinetic (
Moving, the energy of a moving object). A football in the air has both
types of energy.

KE = ½(m times v times v) or ½ mas times velocity squared.

PE = m times g times h. mass of the object times the gravitational pull on the ob
ject times the height
of the object.

o

Potential energy is stored energy. Kinetic energy is energy of motion.

12





Mechanical energy is the total potential plus the total kinetic energy.



THE ELEPHANT WITH A “P” ON HIS SWEATER JUMPS OFF A CLIFF.

Potential

Kinetic

G
-

Gravitational

M
-

Mechanical

E
-

Elastic

E


Electric (moving electrons)

N


Nuclear (energy in atoms nucleus)

R


Radiation or EM

C


Chemical (energy in chemical bonds)

T


(Thermal or heat)


S


Sound.

Common Energy Transform
ations


1.

Different types of stoves are used to transform chemical energy of fuel (gas, coal, wood,
etc.
)
into heat. Heat can then make water into steam and turn turbines to make electricity.

2.

Solar collectors can be used to transform solar energy into
electrical energy.

3.

Windmills make use of the kinetic energy of the air molecules, transforming it into mechanical
energy that turns turbines to make electrical energy.

4.

Hydroelectric plants transform the kinetic energy of falling water into electrical energ
y.

5.

A flashlight converts chemical energy stored in batteries to light energy and heat. Most of the
energy is converted into heat, only a small amount is changed into light energy.




13


Demonstrating knowledge of energy transformation and transfers (e.g. , h
eat
transfer, energy conversion) in a system.

A slightly more sophisticated proposition is the semi
-
quantitative one that whenever some energy
seems to show up in one place, some will be found to disappear from another. Eventually, the energy
idea can
become quantitative: If we can keep track of how much energy of each kind increases and
decreases, we find that whenever the energy in one place decreases, the energy in other places
increases by just the same amount.

The energy that is transferred into or

out of a system is heat transfer.

In a closed system, if one substance loses heat then another substance must gain heat.

Heat of fusion

is the amount of heat it takes to change from a solid to a liquid or the loss of
energy in going from a liquid to a so
lid.

Latent heat



The heat that is required to change a substance from one state to another.

Heat of vaporization



the amount of heat that it takes to change from a liquid to a gaseous
state.


Convection is not so much an independent means of heat transf
er as it is an aid to transfer of heat
by conduction and radiation. Convection currents appear spontaneously when density differences
caused by heating (conduction and radiation) are acted on by a gravitational field.


Conduction

Convection

Radiation

Medium needed

Yes

Yes

No

How many substances
or mediums


2 or more


1 one


None

Travel in
Outer space


No

No

Yes


Heat travels through
a heated solid or
between two heated
solids that are
touching

Heat travels through
a fluid (air or liquid)
because of
changing
density. Warm fluids
have a larger volume
as molecules move
faster and farther
apart so they are less
dense.

Heat transfer as the
result of
electromagnetic
waves of traveling
photons. The sun
warms the earth by
emitting radiant
energy. Photons ar
e
packets of energy.



14


Applying knowledge of the gas laws (e.g. Boyle’s law and Charles’s law).

The behavior of gases

such as their compressibility and their expansion with temperature

may
be investigated for qualitative explanation; but the mathematics o
f quantitative gas laws is likely to
be more confusing than helpful to most students.

PRESSURE is the force exerted on each unit of area of a surface.
P
ressure is measured in a unit called
Pascal.

Temperature, Pressure, and Volume are related.


Temperatur
e

Pressure

Volume


Boyle’s Law


No Change


If Pressure goes up

Volume goes down.
Think of a squeezed
balloon.


Charles’s Law


䥦⁴Imp敲慴畲攠go敳eup


No Change

Then volume goes up.
Think of the balloon
Amber in a hot car.



If temperature goes
up.
A
tire on a hot day
or a steel pressure
cooker.

Then Pressure goes
up because volume
does not change.


No Change.


Thermometers are an example of a one object with a constant volume (thermometer) and one
with a changing volume (alcohol or mercury inside).
When the temperature goes up, the liquid
expands inside because the volume does change.

Analyzing phase diagrams (e.g., heat versus temperature) and the flow of
energy during changes in states of matter.

The horizontal line where a solid object melts and a

liquid object freezes is important. On the
horizontal line, energy is being added (melting) or lost (freezing) BUT THE TEMPERATURE
REMAINS THE SAME because the energy is being used to overcome the intermolecular forces.

Heat capacity of an object is the
amount of heat energy that it takes to raise the temperature of
the object by one degree.



15


UNDERSTANDING ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

Identify the characteristics of static electricity and explaining how it is
generated.

A plastic rod that is rubbed with fur

or similar object will become electrically charged and will attract
small pieces of paper. The plastic rod gathers electrons while the fur loses electrons.

This is a change
creating positive and negatively charged objects.

NEUTRAL OBJECT



A neutral obj
ect has no net change. The plastic rod and fur are initially neutral.

CONDUCTORS



Materials through which electric charges can easily flow. Think metals.

INSULATOR


A material through which electric charges do not flow easily, it at all. Think non
-
metal
s.

GROUNDING



Charges can be removed from an object by connecting it to earth through a conductor.
The removal of electricity by conduction is called grounding.

Electrically charged objects share these characteristics.


1.

Like charges repel one another.

2.

Opposite charges attract each other.

3.

Charge is conserved.


Applying knowledge of the flow of electrons in circuits including the
relationships between voltage,
resistance

and current.

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT



An electric circuit is a path along which electrons flow.

LOAD


The light, ringing bell, television, in a circuit is an example of a load. A load is any device that
uses energy.

VOLTAGE


The energy behind the moving electrons in a circuit. Think of
a water faucet. The more I cut
it on the more voltage.

CURRENT



The number of electrons per second that flow past a given point. Think of water leaving the
water hose after going through the water hose.

RESISTANCE



The ability of the material to oppose

the flow of electrons through. Think of the friction of
the water hose one the water as the water goes through it. The longer the wire the more the
resistance. The thinner the wire the more the resistance. Think of a long water hose (high resistance)
a
nd think a thick wide water hose has less resistance compared to a thin narrow hose. Compare a
garden hose to a hose on a fire truck.

16


SWITCH



A switch is a device that opens or closes on a circuit. If you press a buzzer and it rings, the
buzzer is acting

as a switch.


Comparing and Contrasting series and parallel circuits and how they transfer
energy.



Series Circuit

Parallel

How many paths for the
electricity.

Only one

One or more.

If one light goes out.

All the lights go out.

The other lights stay
on.

If I add a light

The rest get dimmer because
resistance increases.

The brightness stays the same.
Since there are other paths the
resistance stays the same.


Recognizing the characteristics and uses of magnetic domains, magnets, and
magnetic fields.

Two ways to get rid of a magnet


hit it really hard making the electrons and their fields random. Or
making the object really hot giving the electrons enough energy to become random.

MAGNETIC FIELD



The space around a magnet where its force will act on o
bjects.

Magnetism

is the result of electrons in motion.

MAGNETIC DOMAIN



When electrons all spin in the same direction and set up magnetic fields going in
the same direction inside the metal object.

You can make a magnet out of an iron nail by repeatedly
stroking the nail in the same direction with
another magnet.

17


BAR MAGNET



The magnets on your refrigerator. If you break the magnet in half, each piece will still be
a magnet.

Magnets have a north and south pole. Opposite sides attract and the same sides r
epel.

NIC



Nickel, Iron, and Co
balt

-

three elements that are metals and easily become magnets or electro
magnets.


Demonstrating knowledge of the relationship between electricity and
magnetism and applications of electromagnetism and electromagnetic
ind
uction (e.g., motors, generators, transformers).

ELECTROMAGNET
-

A magnet can be made out of a coil of wire by connecting the ends of the coil to a
battery. When the current goes through the wire, the wire acts in the same way that a magnet does.
This is
called an electromagnet.

An electromagnet can be made more powerful in four ways.


1.


Make more coils.

2.

Move the coils closer together.

3.

Put an iron core (nail) inside the coils.

4.

Use a stronger battery source.

o

Magnets and Electricity

When the battery is disco
nnected, the compass
would point north. Notice the compass changes when the positive and
negative are reversed on the battery.



18




hese special properties of magnets can be used to make electricity. Moving
magnetic fields can pull and push electrons. Some
metals, like copper
have electrons that are loosely held. They can be pushed from their shells
by moving magnets. Magnets and wire are used together in electric
generators.




GENERATOR



A device

that turns rotary mechanical energy into electrical energy
.

TURBINES



Turbines are rotary engines that extract energy from moving fluids like air or water.
Turbines are attached to electrical generators which actually convert the mechanical energy in the
turbine into electricity.

Transformer



An electrical dev
ice that either increases or decreases the electricity voltage.


Step up transformer

-

Electricity comes in on a few coils and leaves on a lot of coils. Increasing voltage.

Step down transformer



Electricity comes in on a lot of coils and leaves on only
a few coils. Decreasing
voltage.




19


IDENTIFYINYING THE PROCESSES INVOLVED IN THE TRANSFORMATION OF
MECHANICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND THEN THE TRANSMISSION
OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY.

Almost any form of energy can be transformed into another form.
Often it is mechanical energy that is
transformed into electrical energy. Examples:

Hot gases or steam: Heat produced by nuclear reactions or the combustion of fossil fuels can be used to
boil water or create steam. Alternatively solar water can be captu
red to heat the water.

Water: As is seen in hydroelectric dams, the natural flow of water can be used to drive a turbine.

Wind: Naturally occurring wind can be collected using windmills, which directly link to the turbine.



20


UNDERSTAND THE PROPERTIES OF WA
VES, SOUND AND LIGHT.

Comparing and contrasting characteristics of longitudinal waves and transverse
waves.

Wave length should be the property receiving the most attention but only minimal calculation.

Disturbance



the initial event or vibration that star
ts the wave.

Wave



a rhythmic disturbance which travels through space (EM waves) and matter.

There are two types of waves.

T T T Transverse waves



the particles in the waves move perpendicular to the movement of energy.
The waves go up and down and the energy goes across.

L o o o o ngitudinal waves or compressional waves



the particles in the waves move parallel to the
movement of energy.

TTTr
ansverse

wave
-

crest, trough, rest position, amplitude (going up or going down),
wave length, nothing

Loooongitudinal

wave


rarefraction, compression, wavelength.



21



FOR OUR PURPOSES


Light waves are the example used for transverse waves and sound waves are
the example used for longitudinal or compression waves.

Parts of a Transverse wave



crest, trough, rest position, amplitude, wave length.

Parts of a Longitudinal

wave



compression, rarefaction, and wave length.

FREQUENCY



The number of waves that pass a given point in one second. Think of a runners on a track
crossing a line.

Long waves have a low frequency and short waves have a high frequency.

SPEED of wave


SPEED (V) = (wavelength)(frequency).


Analyzing how the behavior of waves is affected by the medium (e.g., air, water
solids) through which the waves are passing.

REFRACTION



The bending of waves as they enter a new medium. As EM waves enter the atmosph
ere
or waves enter water, the speed of the part in the new medium decreases.

REFLECTION



Waves that bounce of an object.

Sound waves need a medium in which to spread. Light waves are EM (electromagnetic) waves and do
not need a medium.


Sound travels fa
stest in solids. Slows down in a liquid. And is the slowest in air.

Light travels th
e fastest in
outer space
, slower

in air, slower in a liquid and slowest in a transparent solid.

Absorption



when the wave is absorbed by an object. Heat is absorbed by black objects.

When I see white all the colors are being reflected. When I see black, no light waves are being reflected
to my eyes. When I see a red shirt, red light waves are being reflected
to my eyes.


Analyzing the phenomena of
reflection
, refraction, interference, diffraction,
polarization, dispersion, and absorption.

REFLECTED



When light hits a surface, it is reflected. The angle of incoming light is the ANGLE OF
INCIDENCE) and the li
ght leaves at the same angle called the ANGLE OF REFLETION. You see objects
when the reflected light hits your eyes.

22


DIFFUSE REFLECTION



When light hits a rough surface, the light is scattered in many different
directions.

REFRACTION



When light enters
a second or new medium and bends.

o

refraction



Refraction

is the change in direction of a
wave

due to a change in its
speed
.
This is caused by light ente
ring a new medium
.

Going from air to water.
Note: Refraction does not stay in the same medium.


diffraction stays in the
same medium.

Refraction


change medium. Diffraction, same medium
.






o

refraction of light going through a different medium.
Notice in the first diagram
that when light leaves, it is at the same angle as when it entered the solid.








23


DIFFRACTION



When light stays in the same medium but bends around a barrier. Or light comes under
a door.


Wave interference


When two waves meet and cross paths in the same medium.

CONSTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE



When two crests meet and the amplitude becomes much larger. This
can also happen with two troughs meeting and there is a much larger amplitude. Energy
is increased.

DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE
.


When a crest of one wave meets a trough of another wave creating a
lower

amplitude or even the rest position. Energy is
decreased
.

Standing wave


2 waves, node, antinode, wavelength. Below is a noise cancelling

headphone. Notice you hear nothing since the amplitude is zero.




24


Absorption



Like water being picked up by a paper towel, energy from a wave can be absorbed. Black
clothes absorb energy and white clothes reflect energy.




Transparent Objects

Light

hits the object and is most of the light is
transmitted out the other side.

Details are clear
and
sharp
.


Translucent Objects

Light hits the object and some light is transmitted
out the other side but the details are no longer
clearly visible. Like looki
ng through a curtain.


Opaque

Light is reflected or absorbed but does not go
through

the object. No details are visible.



Demonstrate knowledge of characteristics and uses of electromagnetic
radiation.

Slow and Cold E
LECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM hot, high frequency

Radio

microwave

infraRED

Visible

ultraVIOLET

X
-
ray

Gamma

Turn on a
radio


R


Red in
RoyGBiv

RoyGBiv

V
-

violet in
RoyGBIV.


Grabba
Gamma


Used for
transmitting
data

Used to
heat
food and
deliver cell
phone
service

Night vision
goggles.


Causes
sunburn and
damage on
this side of
the
spectrum
injures
humans.

Used in
medical field

Useful in
field of
astronomy.








25



How is a mechanical sound wave (longitudingal) transmitted between astronauts?
It is not
transmitted. It is converted into a transverse EM sound wave which can travel in outer space and then
converted back to a mechanical sound wave inside the astronauts

space suit.

Concave mirrors
and lens

are thinner in the middle and thicker or the top and bottom.

Convex mirrors and lens
are thicker in the middle and thinner on the top and bottom. Think of a santa
clause belly.

Real images

-

Concave mirrors and convex

lenses can produce real images.

Fiber optics



use the internal reflection of light and are used to carry telephone messages and are
used to carry light inside our body to see inside our throats etc.







26



Demonstrate knowledge of the properties of sound

and light in everyday
phenomena (e.g. echoes, Doppler effect, magnification, and rainbows).


Sound (this is not a EM radio wave!)

Light (this is an EM wave)

T T T Transverse wave

Looooongitudinal wave.

M
echanical wave


needs a
m
edium

EM

wave


think
Em
pty it does not need a
medium.

Produced by a vibrating medium (solid liquid or
gas)

Produced by vibrating electrons that send out
photons which are packets of energy.

Travels fastest in a solid then liquid then gas and
cannot travel in outer space. It ca
n’t travel in space
because there are no particles to vibrate.

All waves travel the fastest and at the same speed
in empty outer space. They slow down and
separate in solids, liquids and gases.


Echos


are sound waves being reflected by a mediumand retur
ned to your ear. .

Rainbows


are light waves being refracted.

Refraction and Reflection in
a drop

since water is more dense
than air, light is refracted as
it enters the drop
-

red is
bent less, blue more some of
the light will reflect off the
back of the
drop if the angle
is larger than the critical
angle (48° for water) the
light is then refracted again
as it leaves the drop, the
colors of white light have
been dispersed.

blue light
will leave the drop
at an angle of 40° from the
beam of sunlight

red light
will leave the drop
at an angle of 42° from the
beam of sunlight

this process generates the
primary rainbow
-
>


Notice you can’t see two colors from one drop because the
wavelength of the other colors don’t come to your eye.
Only one wavelength per drop.

27


However, you can not see
the blue light and red light
refracted from the same
drop!!

So, many drops are involved
in producing the r
ainbow....




Loudness


The amplitude of a sound wave determines the loudness. Large amplitudes are loud and
have a large intensity of energy.

Intensity


The intensity of a sound wave is the amount of energy in a wave it is similar to loudness but
if you think about it, loudnes
s is subjective.

Frequency



The pitch of sound is based on how many waves are going by. High frequency means high
pitch. Slow means low.

Doppler effect



A duck swimming sends out round waves of energy. As the duck moves forward so the
circles in front a
re squeezed together (high frequency and pitch). The waves behind spread out as the
duck moves away (slow frequency and low pitch). THINK OF RACE CARS.

o

Doppler shift with light
. An object sending out light moving toward you shifts to
blue

(shorter wave l
ength) and the light shifts to red when the object is moving
away (longer wave length).




28


Color



The color of the shirt is the color being reflected to my eye the other colors are being absorbed.

Noise


Sound waves that do not happen with regularity and which are unpleasant are called noise.
Think of static.


Demonstrating knowledge of the relationship between properties of waves and
how they are perceived by humans (e.g., color, pitch)


When we refer
to light, we are usually talking about a type of electromagnetic
wave that stimulates the retina of the eye, or visible light.

Color



Each individual wavelength within the spectrum of visible light represents
a particular
color.

White


when all the colo
rs are reflected to my eyes I see white.

Black


when all the colors are being absorbed and no light waves are reaching
my eyes, I see black.

o




When we see red, all the colors are being absorbed except red which is
being reflected.






29





When we see black, it is because all the colors are being absorbed and
no colors are being reflected.




Noise


Sound waves that do not happen with regularity and which are unpleasant are called noise.
Think of static.

o

Primary colors of light



red, b
lue, gree

o

Primary colors of pigments



yellow, cyan, magenta.

o


-

Comparison of Additive and Subtractive Primay Colors

Secondary colors of one system serve as the primary colors for the other.

-





R

red slower frequency
and colder


VISIBLE LIGHT



ROYGBIV


So the hottest fires are
blue/violet in color and
the new cooler lightbulbs
put out more of a red
color.



V


violet and blue are
faster and hotter.

30






31


UNDERSTAND THE RELATIONSHIPS AMOUNG FORCE, MASS, AND THE
MOTION OF OBJECTS.

The

force/motion relationship can be developed more fully now and the difficult idea of inertia be
given attention. Students have no trouble believing that an object at rest stays that way unless acted
on by a force; they see it every day. The difficult notio
n is that an object in motion will continue to
move unabated unless acted on by a force. Telling students to disregard their eyes will not do the
trick

the things around them do appear to slow down of their own accord unless constantly pushed
or pulled. Th
e more experiences the students can have in seeing the effect of reducing friction, the
easier it may be to get them to imagine the friction
-
equals
-
zero case.



COMPARING TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF FORCES (e.g. frictional and
gravitational) and analyzing

the effects of forces on objects.


Dynamics


is the study of the relationship between motion and the forces affecting motion.

Force



Force causes motion.

Heat is work and work is heat.

If I go to the moon, the mass of my science book stays the same but
the weight changes.

Mass

Weight

Mass is the amount of matter in an object.

Weight is the measure of the pull of gravity of a
planet or moon on an object.

Mass stays the same

Weight changes.




Mass is also a measure of an objects resistance to
acceleration (going faster, stoping or changing
positions).

Momentum


Every object in motion has a property called momentum. Momentum = mass times
velocity (speed).

The greater the momentum of an object, the more force it takes to stop it. Harder to stop

a train at 10
miles per hour then it is to stop a first grader at 10 miles an hour.


FRICTION


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32


Friction
depends on 1) the type of surfaces touching and 2) how hard the surfaces are touching.


Four types

1.

Static friction


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Rolling friction


晲f捴con o映愠捡爠ah敥氮



Sliding friction


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ng⁡ bo砠慣ao獳⁴h攠晬oo爠o爠you爠獨ren 瑨攠杲ounT.



Fluid friction


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Analyzing the relationship between the displacement, velocity, and acceleration
of an object graphically, algebraically, and in w
ritten form.


To have movement, there must be a change in distance between two objects.

Speed

is how fast and object is traveling. Speed = distance / time.

Velocity

-

gives me the direction as well as the speed. How fast and object is traveling and in
which
direction it is traveling.

Instantaneous Speed



speed at a given instant.

Centripetal force


When an object moves in a circle, the centripetal force is the force that directs the
object toward the center of the circle and keeps it the object from g
oing in a straight line. The earth’s
gravity is the centripetal force that keeps a satellite and the moon going in a circle.

Average Speed

-

The average of all instantaneous speeds. Total distance / Total time.

ACCELERATION
-


Is the rate at which an ob
ject changes velocity. Said another way it is the change in
speed (faster or slower) or the change in direction (going in a circle).

Acceleration = (final velocity


starting velocity) /time.

33



Using Math


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Newton’s laws of motion and applying them to everyday situations.

Newton’s Three Laws of Motion


1.

The law of inertia

Objects at rest will remain at rest until acted on
by an external force and
objects in motion will remain at motion traveling at a constant velocity (at same speed in a
straight line) until acted upon by an external force. On earth, friction is an external force that
slows objects down.

2.

Force = mass times

acceleration. Memorize the formula. If a net force acts on an object, it will
cause the acceleration of an object (go faster, slower, stop, change direction).

3.

For every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction. When I kick a soccer ball, I exert

an
equal but opposite force on the ball and the ball exerts a force on your foot. Don’t believe me,
try kicking a wall.

PUSH AND PULL


Pushing a table or pulling a bowstring applies a muscular force when the muscles
expand and contract. This is an ela
stic force when any object returns to its original shape (your muscles
or the bow string).

-




Yes


for every action there is an equal but opposite reaction. When he pulls, an unbalanced
force is applied from wheels to ground and ground to wheels. So they

don’t cancel. No


tree did
not move. No. Must move to do work.



34


RUBBING


Friction opposes (goes in the opposite direction) the motion of one surface going past
another. The air hitting your face on a bicycle or the friction of the ground on a tire.

P
ULL OF GRAVITY


Any two objects, any two molecules, any two atoms have a force of attraction
between them called gravity. Basically, positive electrons of one object are attracted to negative
electrons of another object and vice a versa.

All masses are
attracted to other masses (gravity)

Gravity is changed by mass.



More Mass/Gravity Less Mass/Gravity

If the mass of one or both of the objects is
increased
,
then the gravity between them is also
increased
.

Gravity is changed by distance



If the distance between the objects is
increased
, then
the gravity between them is
decreased
.

The amount of gravity between two objects is called weight.




35



FORCES ON AN OBJECT AT REST


When all the forces on an object are balanced, the law of
inertia says
that the object does not move and continues to remain at rest. A boat wants to float down the river
because of the force of the water but the force of the rope holding the boat to the dock is greater and
the boat does not move.

FORCS ON A MOV
ING OBJECT


When forces are balanced, the law of inertia says that the object
continues traveling at the same speed and in the same direction.

Moving
-






乯N⁍潶楮朠

-






INERTIA AND CIRCULAR MOTION


The high banking of a curved race tack and the f
riction between the
wheels and the road keep an object moving in a circle called centripetal force.

Using Math


Which has more momentum a 3600 kilogram truck moving at 8 kilometers per hour or an 1800 kilogram
truck moving at 16 kilometers per hour.


Mome
ntum (force) = mass times acceleration (speed).

Truck = 3600 kg x 8 km/hr = 28800 kg/km/hr

Car = 1800 kg x 16 km/hr =28800 kg/km/hr.


What if the truck and car are moving at the same speed of 8 kilometers per hour

The car has ½ the momentum. Car

= 1800 kg x 8 km/hr = 14400 kg/km/hr.

36



APPLYING KNOWLEDGE OF CONEPTS OF WORK, POWER, EFFICIENCY, AND
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE.

Energy


The ability to do work.


Force

The method of transferring energy from one object to another.


Work


Work is done on an object when a force is applied and the object moves
some distance. IF the object does not move, no work is done.


Work = force times distance.


Power


Power is the rate at which work is done or how fast work is done. Power =
the amoun
t of work divided by time. Walking and running the same distance
do the same amount of work but running requires more power.


Efficiency


The law of conservation of energy says that energy cannot be created or
destroyed. It may be transformed from one for
m to another but the total
amount of energy never changes. Efficiency is the relationship between the
energy input and the energy output. A car loses some efficiency as energy is
transformed to heat and sound rather then making the car move.


% Efficienc
y = useful energy produced times 100 divided by total energy used.


Mechanical Advantage


There are two types of mechanical advantage.

1.

Ideal mechanical advantage


no energy is lost from friction, heat,
light, sound, etc.

2.

Actual mechanical advantage


The mechanical advantage the is
found in the real world where some energy is converted into wasteful
forms that are not useful.


Remember if distance goes up, force goes down but total work is always
the SAME. Think of a ramp compared to stairs.


37



I w
ork to make money to buy my lovely wife some
joules
.

Ask me what power is measured in?
Watt
?

I use force to open up my bag of fig
neutons

and eat them.

So work is measured in joules, power is measured in watt, and force is measured in neutons.

Accelerati
on is measured in
m/s2.

Sound is measured in
hertz

because it hurts my ears.







38


IDENTIFYING TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SIMPLE MACHINES.

6 types of Simple Machines


1.

Inclined plane

2.

Lever

3.

Wheel and axle

4.

Pulley


Changes direction of the force.

5.

Wedge


two inclined planes



the wedge moves doing the work over a greater distance so
less force.

6.

Screw


an inclined plane wrapped around.


Compound machines are two or more simple machines working together. A wheelbarrow is a
lever and a wheel and axle worki
ng together.


Increase efficiency by decreasing friction.


3 types of levers



First class lever

= The fulcrum is between the
effort force and resistance force.


See saw, scissors, pulling a nail with a hammer.


Second class lever = The resistance force is
between the effort force and the fulcrum.


Wheel barrow, pecan cracker, or a bottle opener.


Third class lever = The effort force is between the
resistance force and the fulcrum.


Raking leaves, hitting a b
aseball, using a fishing
rod.





Middle


First class lever

Effort Force

Fulcrum pivot.

Resistance force

Second class lever

Effort Force

Resistance

Fulcrum pivot

Third Class lever

Resistance force

Effort force

Fulcrum pivot.












39


Table of
Simple Machines



Simple
Machine

Description

What it does

Examples


The Lever Family

Lever

A stiff structure that pivots on a
support called a fulcrum

Lifts or moves loads

Shovel Nutcracker
Seesaw

Crowbar

Elbow

Tweezers

Bottle opener

Pulley

A grooved
wheel with a rope or
cable around it

Moves things up, down, or
across

Flag pole

Crane

Curtain rod

Tow truck

Mini
-
blind

Bicycle chain

Wheel
and axle

A wheel that turns about an axle
through its center; both wheel and
axle move together

Lifts or moves l
oads

Ferris wheel

Bicycle pedal

Bicycle wheel

Car wheel

Wagon wheel

Doorknob

Pencil sharpener

Wind
-
up hose

Inclined Plane Family

Inclined
plane

A sloping surface connecting a
lower level to a higher level

Things move up or down it

Wheelchair ramp

Slide

Stairs

Escalator

Slope

Wedge

An object with at least one
slanting side ending in a sharp
edge

Cuts or spreads an object
apart

Knife

Pin

Nail

Chisel

Ax

Hatchet

Fork

Snowplow

Front of a boat

Screw

An inclined plane wrapped around
a cylinder

Holds things together or lifts

Screw

Jar lid

Vise

Bolt

Drill

Corkscrew