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COPYRIGHT © 2006 Thomson South
-
Western, a part of The Thomson Corporation. Thomson, the Star logo, and South
-
Western are

trademarks used herein under license.

COPYRIGHT © 2006 Thomson South
-
Western, a part of The Thomson Corporation. Thomson, the Star logo, and South
-
Western are

trademarks used herein under license.

Roger D. Blackwell

Paul W. Miniard

James F. Engel

Consumer Behavior

Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be
mailed to the following address:

Permissions Department, Thomson
Business and Economics

5109 Natorp Boulevard

Mason, OH 45040

800

423

0563

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Making Contact

CHAPTER 14

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Exposure

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Exposure

Exposure
: occurs when there is
physical proximity to a stimulus
that allows one or more of our five
senses the opportunity to be
activated

Activation happens when a
stimulus meets or exceeds the
lower threshold
: the minimum
amount of stimulus intensity
necessary for sensation to occur

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Exposure

Firms must bring their messages
and products into sufficient
physical proximity for consumers
to have the opportunity to notice
them

Companies must identify those
advertising mediums, promotional
programs, and distribution
channels that provide access to
their target market

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trademarks used herein under license.

Reaching the Consumer

Traditional media and distribution
channels

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trademarks used herein under license.

Reaching the Consumer

Traditional media and distribution
channels

Media giants have made changes to
satisfy their clients’ need for flexibility
to deliver different messages to
different sections of the country


Other tactics include product
placement and advertiser sponsoring

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Reaching the Consumer

The Internet

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Reaching the Consumer

The Internet

Business Websites


Search Engine Marketing


Online Advertising


E
-
mail Marketing


Instant Messaging


Blogs

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trademarks used herein under license.

Reaching the Consumer

Business Websites
: the company’s
online presence should facilitate its
bricks
-
and
-
mortar operations to
attract new customers and satisfy

its existing customer base

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trademarks used herein under license.

Reaching the Consumer

Business Websites
: the company’s
online presence should facilitate its
bricks
-
and
-
mortar operations to
attract new customers and satisfy

its existing customer base

Search Engine Marketing
: search
engines lead consumers to company
websites and provide a way to reach
new customers

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trademarks used herein under license.

Reaching the Consumer

Online Advertising
: advertising
content delivered in different forms
such as
static
,
pop
-
up
, or
floaters

COPYRIGHT © 2006 Thomson South
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Western, a part of The Thomson Corporation. Thomson, the Star logo, and South
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Western are

trademarks used herein under license.

Reaching the Consumer

Online Advertising
: advertising
content delivered in different forms
such as
static
,
pop
-
up
, or
floaters

E
-
mail Marketing
: although a
relatively inexpensive way to deliver
content, problems include “bounce
back” and getting the recipient to
open the e
-
mail

Permission
-
based e
-
mails

are more
likely to be successful than
spam

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trademarks used herein under license.

Reaching the Consumer

Instant Messaging
: very popular
among different consumer segments
due to the interactive nature or
messages

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trademarks used herein under license.

Reaching the Consumer

Instant Messaging
: very popular
among different consumer segments
due to the interactive nature or
messages

Blogs
: the online journal community,
traditionally free from corporate
influence, is being infiltrated by
companies

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trademarks used herein under license.

Reaching the Consumer

Additional modes of contact

Viral Marketing


Mobile Marketing


Advergaming




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trademarks used herein under license.

Reaching the Consumer

Viral marketing
: a company creates
something that is so compelling

that consumer spontaneously

pass it along to others they know

COPYRIGHT © 2006 Thomson South
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-
Western are

trademarks used herein under license.

Reaching the Consumer

Viral marketing
: a company creates
something that is so compelling

that consumer spontaneously

pass it along to others they know

Mobile marketing
: transmission of
text and multimedia content to cell
phones and wireless communication
devices are increasing in popularity

COPYRIGHT © 2006 Thomson South
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Western, a part of The Thomson Corporation. Thomson, the Star logo, and South
-
Western are

trademarks used herein under license.

Reaching the Consumer

Viral marketing
: a company creates
something that is so compelling

that consumer spontaneously

pass it along to others they know

Mobile marketing
: transmission of
text and multimedia content to cell
phones and wireless communication
devices are increasing in popularity

Advergaming
: games contain
product associations

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trademarks used herein under license.

Selective Exposure

Even though advertisers may get
their message out, exposure may
still not occur because consumers
sometimes avoid exposure

Occurs when people do something
other than watch television during
commercial breaks or fail to click
onto banner ads on the Internet

Selective exposure reduces the
size of audience being reached

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Overexposure

Habituation
: when a stimulus
becomes so familiar/ordinary that
it loses its attention
-
getting ability

Advertising wearout
: describes ads
that lose their effectiveness
because of overexposure

One solution to wearout involves
varying advertisement execution

Overexposure extends beyond
advertising to the product

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Attention

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Attention

Attention
: the amount of thinking
focused in a particular direction

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Attention

Attention
: the amount of thinking
focused in a particular direction

Focus

(direction of attention) and
intensity

(degree of attention) are
key to understanding attention

Before companies can expect to
get consumers’ money, they must
get their attention

With attention, products get into
consumers’ consideration sets

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Attention

Mental capacity

is the cognitive
resource for attention

Cognitive psychology focuses on
understanding humans’ mental
capacity


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Attention

Mental capacity

is the cognitive
resource for attention

Cognitive psychology focuses on
understanding humans’ mental
capacity

Mental capacity:

Sensory memory


Short
-
term memory


Long
-
term memory

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trademarks used herein under license.

Attention

Sensory memory
: part of capacity
used when initially analyzing a
stimulus detected by one of our

five senses


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-
Western are

trademarks used herein under license.

Attention

Sensory memory
: part of capacity
used when initially analyzing a
stimulus detected by one of our

five senses

Short
-
term memory
: the stimulus is
interpreted and contemplated using
concepts stored in long
-
term
memory (where thinking occurs)


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Western, a part of The Thomson Corporation. Thomson, the Star logo, and South
-
Western are

trademarks used herein under license.

Attention

Sensory memory
: part of capacity
used when initially analyzing a
stimulus detected by one of our

five senses

Short
-
term memory
: the stimulus is
interpreted and contemplated using
concepts stored in long
-
term
memory (where thinking occurs)

Long
-
term memory
: mental ware
-
house where knowledge is stored

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trademarks used herein under license.

Attention

Short
-
term memory is a limited
mental resource

Span of attention

measures how
long short
-
term memory can be
focused on a single stimulus

Short commercials overcome
consumers’ limited attention spans

Information must be activated to
remain in short
-
term memory

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Attention

The size or capacity of short
-
term
memory is also limited

Size of short
-
term memory is
measured in informational chunks,
a grouping of information that can
be processed as a whole unit

Capacity varies from 4 to 7 chunks

Disclosing more product
information may actually confuse
consumers rather than help them

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Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

Consumers are bombarded with
product information and
advertisements each day

Companies have the formidable
task of breaking through the clutter
to attract consumers’ attention


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Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

Connect with consumers’ needs

People are attentive to stimuli
perceived as relevant to their needs

Gaining consumers’ attention might
require reminding them of their needs

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trademarks used herein under license.

Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

Use

permission marketing
: asking
consumers for their permission to
send them product
-
related materials

Connect with consumers’ needs

People are attentive to stimuli
perceived as relevant to their needs

Gaining consumers’ attention might
require reminding them of their needs

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trademarks used herein under license.

Gaining Consumers’ Permission

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Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

Pay consumers to pay attention

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Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

Getting attention with motion

Stimuli in motion are more likely to
attract consumers than stationary ones

POP displays may use moving parts
and ads may use simulated motion

Pay consumers to pay attention

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trademarks used herein under license.

Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

Use isolation

Place only a few stimuli in an
otherwise barren perceptual field

Getting attention with motion

Stimuli in motion are more likely to
attract consumers than stationary ones

POP displays may use moving parts
and ads may use simulated motion

Pay consumers to pay attention

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trademarks used herein under license.

Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

Larger ads and larger pictures within
those ads tend to grab more attention
than smaller ones

Products have a greater chance of
being noticed as the size or amount of
shelf space allotted to them increases

Make it bigger

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trademarks used herein under license.

Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

Larger ads and larger pictures within
those ads tend to grab more attention
than smaller ones

Products have a greater chance of
being noticed as the size or amount of
shelf space allotted to them increases

Make it bigger

Colors are nice

The attention
-
grabbing and holding
power of an ad may be increased
sharply with use of color

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trademarks used herein under license.

Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

Make it more intense

Loud sounds and bright colors are
more likely to attract attention

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Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

Location affects attention

Products may gain more attention
depending on where in the store they
are located (end
-
of
-
aisle or eye
-
level)

More attention is given to ads
appearing in the front of magazines

Upper
-
left corner gets most attention

Make it more intense

Loud sounds and bright colors are
more likely to attract attention

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Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

The surprise factor

Stimuli congruent with our expectations
may receive less attention than those
which deviate from what is expected

Ads and packaging may feature
unusual elements to gain attention

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Using Unexpected Stimuli

to Grab Attention

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Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

Distinctiveness

Products, ads, and packaging may be
altered to stand
-
out from others using
color and other elements of design

The surprise factor

Stimuli congruent with our expectations
may receive less attention than those
which deviate from what is expected

Ads and packaging may feature
unusual elements to gain attention

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trademarks used herein under license.

Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

The human attraction

Celebrities can attract attention in ads
and on packaging

Attractive people, often scantly
dressed, attract attention for a variety
of products and brands

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Using Celebrities to

Grab Attention

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Using Attractive People

to Grab Attention

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Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

The entertainment factor

Stimuli that entertain and amuse us
draw our attention, even if they
happen to come in the form of an ad

The human attraction

Celebrities can attract attention in ads
and on packaging

Attractive people, often scantly
dressed, attract attention for a variety
of products and brands

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trademarks used herein under license.

Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

Learned attention
-
inducing stimuli

Some stimuli attract attention because
we have learned to react to them

We react to sounds, such as doorbells,
and words, such as
free

and
sale


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trademarks used herein under license.

Grabbing Consumers’ Attention

Find a less
-
cluttered environment

This includes less
-
cluttered advertising
mediums and consumer environments

Learned attention
-
inducing stimuli

Some stimuli attract attention because
we have learned to react to them

We react to sounds, such as doorbells,
and words, such as
free

and
sale


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trademarks used herein under license.

Attracting Consumers’ Attention

The use of attention
-
getting stimuli
carries some risks:

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trademarks used herein under license.

Attracting Consumers’ Attention

The use of attention
-
getting stimuli
carries some risks:

A stimulus might gain so much
attention that the rest of the message
is ignored

A stimulus may interfere with
information processing if it requires
too many cognitive resources

If consumers perceive the stimulus
as manipulative, it can reduce
advertising effectiveness

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trademarks used herein under license.

Attracting Consumers’ Attention

Can consumers be influenced if
they don’t pay attention?

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Attracting Consumers’ Attention

Can consumers be influenced if
they don’t pay attention?

Subliminal persuasion
: notion that
people are influenced by stimuli
below our conscious level of
awareness

The use of subliminal messages is
prevalent today

The ability of subliminal stimuli to
affect consumer behavior is highly
questionable