“man” in mangroves - Mangrove Action Project

prettyingmelonManagement

Nov 9, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Challenging the “man” in
mangroves: The missing
role of women in mangrove
conservation


Alyssa
Bosold

Gettysburg College ‘13


Goals of the Project



Determine the extent to which gender analysis is used
in mangrove conservation


Determine this through literature review



Annotated bibliography


Studies that mention gender in the context of mangrove
conservation



Paper describing my findings


Synthesize current research and illuminate gaps in
research


What Are Mangroves?



Mangrove
-

all species of
tropical trees and shrubs
that grow in saline soils
and intertidal/wetland
zones




Where are Mangroves
Located?

Why are Mangroves
Important?



Coastal Protection


From natural
disaster


From erosion


Filter pollutants



Climate change
regulation


Benefits for local communities



Forest products


Wood, charcoal,
honey



Fishery products


Fish, prawn, crab,
mollusk



Other products


Medicines, feed for
livestock


Current Threat to
Mangrove Ecosystems

“More than one in six
mangrove species
worldwide are in danger
of extinction due to
coastal development and
other factors, including
climate change, logging,
and agriculture”



International Union for
the Conservation of
Nature and Natural
Resources (IUCN)

Mangroves and Gender



A gendered approach


Gender is socially
constructed


Power relations


Male and female
roles



Differing male and
female perspectives on
mangrove conservation



Connection between
gender and improved
resource management
in other conservation
contexts

Research Question:

To what extent is gender analysis
used to examine mangrove
conservation?

Search Results show that gender is often
overlooked:

Database

Number of hits
for the search:
“mangrove*”

Number of hits
for the search
“mangrove*”
and
“community*”

Number of hits
for the search
“mangrove*”
and “women*”

Number of hits
for the search
“mangrove*”
and “woman*”

Number of hits
for the search
“mangrove*
and gender*”

Google Scholar

190,000

52,000

19,000

11,400

7,940

Environment
Complete

3,439

338

14

1

11

World CAT

10,117

489

1

30

33

Scopus

8,894

1,431

1

24

18

Academic
Search Premier

2,786

186

12

6

5

Contemporary
Women’s Issues

57

47

52

27

24

Gender Studies
Database

31

12

22

3

10

Articles Reviewed:

57 articles with discussion of “community” or
“social” perspective




26 articles specifically mention


“women” or “gender”




These articles were coded and analyzed

Coding Scheme: Decision Tree

Observed Gaps in Literature


Gaps in regional data on gender and mangrove
conservation



Disconnect between theoretical framework and
practical applications



Lack of evaluation for gendered mangrove
conservation strategies





Where is gender a part of mangrove conservation?

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Eastern and Southern
Africa
South America
South-East Asia
South Asia
North and Central
America and the
Caribbean
Number of Articles that Mention Gender

Region

Studies on Gender and Mangrove Conservation

Total
Theoretical framework: WED vs. GED


Gender, Environment,
Development (GED)

Women,
Environment,
Development (WED)

Focus is on women
specifically.
Encourages women to
restore and conserve
mangroves, but can
put an extra burden on
women.

Focuses on both men and
women and the power
relations between them.
Encourages gender
mainstreaming.

Disconnect


Author

Title

Year

Region

Conceptual
Approach

Approach
for Action

Zorini, Contini, Jiddawi, Ochiewo,
Shunula, Cannicci

Participatory appraisal for potential community
-
based mangrove management in East Africa


2004


Africa


WED


WED

D'Agnes, D'Agnes, Schwartz,
Amarillo, Castro

Integrated management of coastal resources and
human health yields added value: A comparative
study in Palawan (Philippines)


2010


Asia


GED


GED


Srinath

Gender and Coastal Zone Biodiversity

2008

Asia

GED

GED


USAID (United States Agency for
International Development)

Gender and Community Conservation

2001

South America


GED


GED

D'Agnes, Castro, D'Agnes,
Montebon

Gender issues within the population
-
environment
nexus in Philippine coastal areas

2005

Asia

GED

GED


Wells, Makoloweka, Samoilys
(Ed.)

Putting adaptive management into practice:
collaborative coastal management in Tanga,
Northern Tanzania

2007

Africa

GED

WED/GED


Wells, Samoilys, Makoloweka ,
and Kalombo

Lessons Learnt from a collaborative management
program in Coastal Tanzania

2010

Africa

GED

WED/GED

Chowdhury

Men, women and the environment: gender issues
in climate change

2007

Asia

GED

WED


Stone, Bhata, Bhatta, Mathew

Factors influencing community participation in
mangroves restoration: A contingent valuation
analysis

2008

Asia

GED

WED

Thamizoli

Integrating gender concerns into natural resource
management

2008

Asia

GED

WED/GED

Torell, Crawford, Kotowicz,
Herrera, Tobey

Moderating our expectations on livelihood in
ICM: Experiences from Thailand, Nicaragua, and
Tanzania

2010

Asia

GED

WED

Mohs

The multidimensional aspects of agro
-
biodiversity
management in India: The case of mangroves and
millets

2006

Asia

GED

WED

Lack of Evaluation: Does it Matter?


There is no common framework for evaluation of
current gendered approaches to mangrove
conservation



Few studies seek to demonstrate a connection
between integrating gender concerns into
mangrove conservation and improved ecosystem
health


Next Steps…

International Collective in Support of
Fishworkers

(ICSF)

Future research in Vietnam’s Mekong
Delta (SIT Spring 2012)


ES 460: Comparative Study with India

In Conclusion…

The future of mangrove
forests depends on our
ability to create and
implement sustainable
and equitable
management solutions
that involve both men
and women.

Thank You!

PICTURES:



ileap.org


pinellas.fnpschapters.org



mangroveactionproject.org


http://www.nestle.com.my/CSV/CreatingSharedValueCaseStudies/AllCaseStudies/Pages/
setiu_wetlands.aspx


http://www.unv.org/index.php?eID=tx_cms_showpic&file=fileadmin%2Fphotodb%2FSa
moa%2FFig%201.JPG&md5=249eaaf9f5d5fb581f37ac90bbc77a50


http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/OCB3043_37.html


http://www.thailandqa.com/forum/showthread.php?29548
-
Khlong
-
Khon
-
reclaims
-
its
-
mangrove
-
forest


http://www.xn
--
krinfo
-
wxa.hu/drupal/en/node/10073


http://printsho.server313.com/php/wordpress/archives/2007/04/24/requiem
-
for
-
the
-
honey
-
bee/



sea
-
ex.com



shutterstock.com



cakeandcarrots.wordpress.co


xray
-
mag.com


goodtours.com.vn


news.mongabay.com


eoearth.org


http://earthlede.wordpress.com/


http://www.climateshifts.org/?p=5272



INFORMATION:


D'
Agnes
, H., Castro, J., D'
Agnes
, L., &
Montebon
, R. (2005).
Gender issues within the
population
-
environment nexus in Philippine coastal areas.

Coastal

Management, 33
(4),
447
-
458.

D'
Agnes
, L., D’
Agnes
, H., Schwartz, J. B., Amarillo, M. L., & Castro, J. (2010).
Integrated
management of coastal resources and human health yields added value: A comparative
study in Palawan (Philippines).

Environmental Conservation, 37
(4), 398
-
409.

Elmhirst
, R. &
Resurreccion
, B.P. (2008). Introduction. In B.
Resurreccion

& R.
Elmhirst

(Ed.),
Gender and Natural Resource Management
(pp. 3
-
20). Sterling, VA:
Earthscan
.

Florida Museum of Natural History. In
South Florida Aquatic Environments: Mangroves
.
Retrieved June 18, 2011, from
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/southflorida/mangrove/importance.html

International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). (2010). In
Mangrove Forests in Worldwide Decline.

Retrieved June 18, 2011, from
http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/species/red_list/?5025/Mangrove
-
forests
-
in
-
worldwide
-
decline

Kathiresan
, K. In
3.5 Importance of Mangrove Ecosystem
. Retrieved June 18, 2011 from
http://ocw.unu.edu/international
-
network
-
on
-
water
-
environment
-
and
-
health/unu
-
inweh
-
course
-
1
-
mangroves/Importance
-
of
-
mangroves.pdf

Maliao
, R., &
Polohan
, B. (2008). Evaluating the impacts of mangrove rehabilitation in
Cogtong

Bay, Philippines.

Environmental Management, 41
(3), 414
-
424.

Siar
, S. V. (2003). Knowledge, gender, and resources in small
-
scale fishing: The case of Honda
Bay, Palawan, Philippines.

Environmental Management, 31
(5), 569
-
580.

Stone, K.,
Bhat
, M.,
Bhatta
, R., & Mathews, A. (2008). Factors influencing community
participation in mangroves restoration: A contingent valuation analysis.

Ocean & Coastal
Management, 51
(6), 476
-
484.