A technology to increase transistor density by vertically
integrating two or more dies.
A chip or co
processor that has been specialized to very
efficiently perform certain kinds of calculations (e.g.,
related to processing video,
audio, artificial intelligence,
A compilation process that adapts
, both in the short and
in the long term,
code to the underlying
hardware and to any changes in the execution
, machine learning based
The automatic reactions and sensitivity of electronic
devices to the presence and actions of nearby humans.
where deadlines are not necessarily observed,
the system will nevertheless try its best to finish all
task on time.
Chip binning consists of grouping manufactured chips
according to their capabilities at the factory. These bins
can be used sal
vage otherwise unusable chips by
creating a diversified product range (different
processing speeds, number of functional cores, …)
An encoding of a computer program designed for
efficient interpretation or further compilation down to
refers to the, usually external, confirmation
of certain characteristics of a process, person or device.
Examples are the
EU's CE certification mark found on many products, and
the ISO 90
00 quality management certification.
A computing process whereby the
data is represented
using varying concentrations of chemicals and
computations are performed by naturally occurring
A technique that
prunes the clock signal
circuits, thereby eliminating the switching power of cut
An environment whereby computing power, storage
and other resources are procured on
services, from Internet
categories include "Infrastructure as a service" (IaaS,
e.g., a bare
virtual machine), "Platform as a
e.g., Google App
, a platform for
developing and hosting web applications in Google
managed data centers
) and "Software as a Service (SaaS,
e.g., Google Docs
, a web
based office suite
A system design principle whereby individual system
components can be combined and assembled in many
different ways in order to promote reusability and
Concurrency is the amount of
parallelism in an
algorithm or code fragment: the degree to which it can
be run in parallel on a multi
A programming paradigm where the programmer
specifies to w
the code may be run in parallel,
but foregoes explicitly specifying how many threads
should be created and which specific data they should
A programming language th
in terms of black boxes
with inputs and
outputs, rather than in terms of a sequence of
commands that has to be executed in a particular order
Design space exploration (DSE) consists of looking
through the possibl
hardware or software design
to find an optimal design. DSE can both be
structural (different components) and parametric (fixed
set components of which the parameters are tuned).
The displacement of metal atoms of a conductor caus
by the current running through it.
Computing systems that perform operations in the
order of 1 exaflop/s (10^15 floating point operations
Fabless companies design chips, but outsource the
manufacturing to other
A fablight company
outsources part of its chip
manufacturing business, but also owns (part of) some
A requirements, design, or implementation flaw or
deviation from a desired or intended state. A
gate oxide wearout
Under stress, imperfections in the SiO2 atom bonding in
oxide insulation layer between the gate and
channel of a CMOS transistor grow to conductance paths
between the gate and the channel. This causes the
leakage to incr
ease and, eventually, the transistor to fail.
This problem becomes more severe as transistors
shrink and the insulation layer becomes thinner.
A permanent, unrecoverable error.
A system wherein
result of an
is equivalent to
producing the wrong result
orizontalization means that many different
companies are involved in the value chain, rather than
the chain from raw resource to final product is
controlled by only a few companies
Instruction level parallelism denotes how many
operations in an instruction stream can be executed in
parallel. Hence, a more correct t
erm would be
instructions per clock
The number of instructions per clock cycle is a measure
for the degree of concurrency, as described by the ILP,
that the processor can exploit by executing multiple
ns in parallel.
A compilation process whereby the compiled program is
tested and profiled, and the results of these
runs are fed
back into the compiler to generate a more optimal
version of the program during a subs
Leakage power is the power that is consumed by
nductor devices apart from the switching power
Some causes are quantum tunneling and relatively
slowly switching transistors.
reduce is a data
processing strategy to exploit
scale concurrency that consists of two phases.
phase, the data is pre
divided into work units. These work units are then
divided over multiple computing nodes and processed
Mechatronics is an engineering discipline that combines
electronics, mechanics and computing to design new
signal circuit contains both digital and analog
ng uses DNA, biochemistry and
molecular biology to perform computations.
More than Moore
A paradigm whereby system functionality
is improved not only by relying on faster and smaller
using holistic system design
es that will eventually result in a convergence of
biology, chemistry and digital computing.
A multiprocessor system
chip is a system
) that uses multiple, often heterogeneous,
A program is multi
ded if the operations it
performs are split over multiple execution threads that
can be executed in parallel on a system with more than
one processor core.
A nanotube is a nanometer
The most commonly known variant is t
nanotube with its very strong bonding structure.
example application of nanotubes is the "carbon
nanotube field effect transistor".
Neuromorphic architectures are v
integrated systems containing ana
log circuits that
emulate the behavior of neural systems.
functional properties of a system are those
properties that are not related to the correct functioning
of the system, but which describe other qualities such as
Organic computing is a form of implementing
computing systems based on how organic entities are
organized and perform their tasks (such as cells, or
Parallelism measures the amount
of concurrency that is
exploited during a
execution of a program
See page 11.
Portable performance means that platform
software adapts itself to and make
s optimal use of the
hardware resources available on a
See page 30.
Probability based transistors trade off accuracy in
return for reduced power consumption.
This can be
useful for applicatio
ns such as video and audio
decoding, which degrade gracefully when only a few bits
are calculated wrong.
Process virtualization refers to running a single
application process isolated in a virtual machine. In
many cases, the applica
tion is encoded in
Examples are Java and .NET.
Quantum computing directly uses quantum
phenomena to perform computations.
A reactive system does not compute one partic
output, but instead continuously acts based on both
internal and external inputs and stimuli.
time system is a system whereby the correctness
or quality of the output not only depends on the
produced value, but also on when this valu
Use knowledge of the program to configure its use of the
processor to maximize the energy
delay product, e.g., by
making optimal use of
Reversible computing is a computing model where the
computations can be, to a certain extent, reversed. Both
physical and logical reversibility exist, with the former
depending on the latter. Reversible computing is
predicted to be more energy
icient than non
A small but very
memory that is explicitly managed
by the run time system or programmer. Conceptually, it
is similar to a manually managed cache.
adaptive system con
tains control logic to let the
system modify its execution based on the input and
environment without requiring external intervention.
Sensor fusion means that the inputs from different
sensors are combined in a way that
results in a quality
that is higher than when the inputs would be used
System in Package
, see page 35.
Chip is a system whereby all components
of the entire computing system have been integrated on
a single integrated circuit.
soft error is a transient or recoverable error. See also
In a soft real
time system the result of a calculation that
becomes available only after the deadline has passed
will at worst cause graceful degradation, but otherwise
he system will keep functioning correctly.
threading means that multiple
threads are created that perform operations that may or
may not be beneficial to the main thread(s) of execution.
known example i
s speculative prefetching,
whereby a secondary thread touches memory that will
hopefully be required soon by one of the main thread(s).
Spintronics exploits the spin of the electron, and the
associated magnetic moment,
in addition to its
With split compilation the compilation stage is divided
into two or more stages.
First, the compiler used by the
application developer transforms
the program into a
form that can be easily processed and optimized in
stages. The final stage is either an install time or
run time compilation wherein the application is
specialized for the actual device or run time
Given a set of data (a stream), a series of operations
(kernel functions) are
applied to each element in the
stream. Kernel functions are usually pipelined, and local
chip memory is reused to minimize external memory
A synchronous language is a programming language
that is optimized for programmi
deals with time at a logical level and treats everything
that occurs during a single logical time cycle as
A system virtual machine creates an abstraction layer
that is either almost or completely
from a particular kind of physical machine, and which
can run the same software stack (including the
operating system) as the machine it virtualizes.
Transactional memory groups memo
ry loads and stores
into transactions, which are then atomically committed
to memory at synchronization points.
A tunable compiler offers interfaces to influence the way
it generates code at a very fine
grained level and is often
the purpose of
process of establishing that a product,
service, or system
conforms to the needs of an external
user of a product
of reviewing, inspecting and
testing to determine whether the product or process
meets the imposed regulatory or technical standards
case execution time (WCET) is the time
necessary for a pa
rt of a program to perform its task
under the worst possible circumstances.
from the glossary come from
and the entire glossary is licensed under the
ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License