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Chapter 11


Information and
Data Management

Discovering Computers

Technology in a World of Computers,

Mobile Devices, and the Internet

Objectives Overview

Define the term,
database, and explain
how a database
interacts with data and
information

Define the term, data
integrity, and describe
the qualities of valuable
information

Discuss the terms
character, field, record,
and file

Describe file
maintenance
techniques and
validation techniques

Differentiate between
the file processing
approach and the
database approach

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for Detailed Objectives

Objectives Overview

Discuss the functions
common to most
database management
systems

Describe characteristics of
relational, object
-
oriented, and
multidimensional
databases

Discuss web databases

Identify database design
guidelines and understand
the responsibilities of
database analysts and
administrators

Describe various
information systems used
in an enterprise

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for Detailed Objectives

Databases, Data, and Information

Database


Collection of
data organized
in a manner
that allows
access,
retrieval, and
use of that
data

Data


Collection of
unprocessed
items


Text


Numbers


Images


Audio


Video

Information


Processed data


Organized


Meaningful


Useful

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Databases, Data, and Information

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Figure 11
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1

Databases, Data, and Information


Database software
,

often called a
database
management system

(
DBMS
), allows users to:

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Create a computerized
database

Add, modify, and
delete data

Sort and retrieve data

Create forms and
reports from the data

Databases, Data, and Information


Data integrity reflects the quality of the data


The more errors the data contains, the lower its
integrity


Data integrity is important because computers and
people use information to make decisions and take
actions

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Databases, Data, and Information


Valuable information should have the following
characteristics:

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Accurate

Verifiable

Timely

Organized

Accessible

Useful

Cost
-
effective

Databases, Data, and Information


Data is organized in layers


Files, records, fields, characters

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Figure 11
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Databases, Data, and Information


A
character

is one byte


Numbers, letters, space,
punctuation marks, or
other symbols


A
field

is a combination
of one or more related
characters


Field name


Field size


Data type

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Figure 11
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Databases, Data, and Information


Common data types include:

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Text

Number

AutoNumber

Currency

Date

Memo

Yes/No

Hyperlink

Object

Attachment

Databases, Data, and Information

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Figure 11
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4


A
record

is a group of related fields


A
primary key

is a field that uniquely identifies each record


A
data file

is a collection of related records

Databases, Data, and Information


File maintenance

refers to the procedures that
keep data current

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Adding
records

Modifying
records

Deleting
records

Databases, Data, and Information


Users add new records to a file when they obtain
new data

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Figure 11
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Databases, Data, and Information


Users generally modify a record to correct
inaccurate data or update old data

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Databases, Data, and Information


When a record no longer is needed, a user deletes
it from a file

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Databases, Data, and Information


Validation

compares data with a set of rules or
values to find out if the data is correct

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Alphabetic/Numeric
check

Range check

Consistency check

Completeness check

Check digit

Other checks

File Processing Versus Databases

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File processing system


Each department has its
own set of files


Have data redundancy


Isolate data

Database approach


Programs and users share
data


Reduced data redundancy


Improved data integrity


Shared data


Easier access


Reduced development
time

File Processing Versus Databases

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Figure 11
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9

Database Management Systems


A
data dictionary

contains data about each file in
the database and each field in those files

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Figure 10
-
10

Database Management Systems


A DBMS provides several tools that allow users
and programs to retrieve and maintain data in the
database

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Query language

Query by example

Form

Report writer

Database Management Systems


A
query language

consists of simple, English
-
like statements that
allow users to specify the data to display, print, store, update, or
delete


Structured Query Language
(
SQL
) is a popular query language that
allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data


Many DBMSs provide tools to guide nontechnical users through
the steps of creating a query

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Database Management Systems

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Figure 11
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12

Database Management Systems


Most DBMSs include
query by example
(
QBE
), a
feature that has
a graphical
user interface to assist
users with retrieving data

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Figure 11
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13

Database Management Systems


A
form

is a window on the screen that provides areas for
entering or modifying data in a database


A
report writer
allows users to design a report on the
screen, retrieve data into the report design, and then
display or print the report

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Figure 11
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14

Database Management Systems

A DBMS provides means to
ensure that only authorized
users access data


Access privileges


Principle of least privilege policy

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Database Management Systems


A DMBS provides a variety of techniques to
restore the database to a usable form in case it is
damaged or destroyed

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Backup

Log

Recovery
utility

Continuous
backup

Relational, Object
-
Oriented, and
Multidimensional Databases

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Table 11
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2


A
data model

defines how users view the
organization of the data

Relational, Object
-
Oriented, and
Multidimensional Databases


A
relational database

stores data in
tables

that consist of rows and
columns


Each
row

has a primary
key


Each
column

has a
unique name


A
relationship

is a link
within the data


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Figure 11
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15

Relational, Object
-
Oriented, and
Multidimensional Databases


An
object
-
oriented database
(
OODB
) stores data
in
objects


Examples of applications appropriate for an
object
-
oriented database include:

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Media
database

Groupware
database

CAD
database

Relational, Object
-
Oriented, and
Multidimensional Databases


A
multidimensional
database

can store data in
more than two dimensions
of data


Sometimes known as a
hypercube


Can consolidate data much
faster than a relational
database


A
data warehouse
is a huge
database that stores and
manages the data required
to analyze historical and
current transactions

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Figure 11
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17

Web Databases


The web offers information about:

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Jobs

Travel

Destinations

Television
programming

Photos

Movies

Videos

Local and
national
weather

Sporting
events

Legislative
information

Database Administration

Database analysts and administrators are responsible
for managing and coordinating all database activities

Database Analyst

(
DA
)

Decides on proper placement of
fields, defines data relationship,
and identifies users’ access
privileges

Database Administrator

(
DBA
)

Creates and maintains the data
dictionary, manages security of
the database, monitors the
performance of the database,
and checks backup and recovery
procedures

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Information Systems in the Enterprise


An
information system

is a set of hardware,
software, data, people, and procedures that work
together to produce information


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Table 11
-
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Information Systems in the Enterprise


Enterprise Resource Planning

(
ERP
) integrates
MRP II with the information flow across an
organization
to manage and coordinate the
ongoing activities of the enterprise,
including
product
planning, manufacturing and distribution,
accounting and finance, sales,
human resources
,
and customer support

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Information Systems in the Enterprise

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Figure 11
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18

Information Systems in the Enterprise


A
document management system
(
DMS
) allows
for storage and management
of a
company’s
documents, such as word processing documents,
presentations, and
spreadsheets


A
content management system
(
CMS
) enables
and manages the publishing,
modification,
organization
, and access of various forms of
documents and other files, including
media and
webpages, on a network or the web

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Information Systems in the Enterprise


A
transaction processing system
(TPS) is an
information system
that captures and processes
data from day
-
to
-
day business activities

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494

Figure 11
-
19

Information Systems in the Enterprise


A
management information system
(
MIS
) is
an information

system
that generates accurate, timely, and organized information, so that
managers and
other users can make decisions, solve problems,
supervise activities, and track progress

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495

Figure 11
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20

Information Systems in the Enterprise


A
decision
support system
(
DSS) helps
users
analyze
information and
make decisions

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Figure 11
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Information Systems in the Enterprise


An
expert system
is an information system that
captures and
stores the
knowledge of human
experts and then imitates human reasoning and
decision making

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Figure 11
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22

Summary

How data and
information are
valuable assets to
an organization

Methods for
maintaining high
-
quality data

Assessing the
quality of valuable
information

Advantages of
organizing data in a
database

Various types of
databases

Roles of the
database analysts
and administrators

Database design
guidelines

Information
systems used in an
enterprise

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Chapter 11


Information and
Data Management

Discovering Computers

Technology in a World of Computers,

Mobile Devices, and the Internet

Chapter 11 Complete