Running head: Video Captioning for Accessibility 1

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Nov 18, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Running head:

Video Captioning for Accessibility

1








Video Captioning
for Accessibility

Stephani Roberts

EDU623



Designing Learning Environments

Dr. Dianna Smith


Final project link:
http://sublimestudies.com/welcome/final
-
project/






VIDEO CAPTIONING FOR ACCESSIBILITY

2


Introduction

On

the web, your phone, your tablet, you don’t have to look far to see that video is
literally
everywhere and everyday there’s more and more
of it

available to watch.
Given the
abundance of video
at your fingertips

you might think that something as simple as

captioning,
with all its benefits
,

might catch on. Or that some brilliant mind in technology would make it
easy enough for a child to create
them
; alas, we are not quite there yet.

So, in the meantime,
there’s work to be done move us ahead until that bril
liant mind comes along.


The

Video Captioning for Accessibility training session
is designed for video content
specialists,
web producers
, and design firms
who are directly responsible for posting video to
MIT
websites. The overarching goal for this course

is to give participants the skills necessary to
add captions to their web based videos and increase the level of overall captioning at the
i
nstitute. This will
expand

our ability to meet

federal guidelines for accessibility
,
furthering our
compliance with

Section 504 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the new
Communications and
Video Accessibility Act (CVAA).

Analysis

MI
T’s
web based
TechTV channel has supported captioning for
close to two years
but
only a small fraction of our overall video

content has been

captioned. There are many reasons for
this but the two main issues are lack of awareness and lack of support. Currently, anyone wanting
to caption video on campus can search MIT Web for a way to do so i.e. search for existing
services in
place to help, online res
ources, a number to call, etc. b
ut the framework to assist and
encourage captioning solutions is lacking due
a mixture of internal politics

and
a severe
lack of
funding in
what

one would expect to be

the most influential areas.


VIDEO CAPTIONING FOR ACCESSIBILITY

3


T
he 21
st

Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act was passed by President
Obama in 2010 and recently went into effect (
"21st century communications,”)
. This law will
promote captioning of live television programming and will ensure that this progr
amming retains
captions when ported to the web for viewing audiences. As such, captioning is positioned to
become the new norm. Viewers will see more of it and will expect it to be available as a vi
ewing
option by clicking the “CC
” (closed captioning) butt
on on their video player. If captioning is not
available, it sends the wrong message to
our audience
regarding
ou
r sensitivity to disabled users,
accessibility compliance
, and our ability to provide cutting edge solutions.

Why training is needed

Taking
action to

correct our low captioning ratio now,
will allow us to avoid

uneccessary
criticism and legal action.

Stand up Training

will

enable departments with small budgets to
caption thei
r video without having to pay the reasonable, but often unfeasible,
v
endor
negotiated
rate of
$2.50
-

$5/minute. Classroom training will allow the instructor to demonstrate the process
using free tools and will promote
do
-
it
-
yourself
captioning as
a
part of general web develo
pment,
site launch, and updates;
thus
reinforcing

it as a requirement for all MIT community
development and production.

How training will close the instructional gap

By offering free training for captions at MIT, several changes will occur. MIT will
be
seen as officially supporting captions

as part of th
e web development process. This will create
awareness around captioning across campus and encourage producers to step up and lear
n more
about the process and it
s benefits.

Captioning broadens a
n

audience to include hearing impaired users and non
-
native
English

speakers; furthermore, it increases
learning reinforcement

and engagement, improves
VIDEO CAPTIONING FOR ACCESSIBILITY

4


search e
ngine optimization and extends

user time spent viewing videos

(Fast, 2010)
. All of these
tangible results are positives for MIT but the key residual benefit

is
that we make a

public

gesture supporting
all our viewers needs
which shows

we are happy to go the extra mile;
this
conveys

MIT’s
belief in
accessibility principles and equal rights for all.

Audience

This training is aimed at MIT’s web producers, conte
nt specialists, video producers,
developers, and external design firms who retain people in the aforementioned positions.
In
terms of demographics, the students range in age from early 20’s to late 50’s and the majority
have a bachelor’s degree with a mini
mum of two years work experience. Students are computer
savvy and have experience with standard web development software.

Learning Environment



There are

several classrooms available
to

my department for training that have

projection
which
is

necessary t
o allow students to walk through the captioning process step by step along
with the instructor.
The best scenario will include projection

with computers available for each
student, or they may use their laptops

wirelessly
.
Personal headphones will be available for
concentrating on the captioning tasks.
MovieCaptioner
software
will be downloaded
at no cost

via MIT’s site license
. S
tudents will
also require
an Internet connection
to

create captions via the
online captioning si
te Universal Subtitles.

Task analysis and content mastery

The intended audience has experience with video content. Most
students will
have
already
expressed an interest in learning more about captioning their video to

increase search
engine results
,

exten
d learning,
viewership
, and improve accessibility
. The range of
previous
experience
expected but not required for this course include:

VIDEO CAPTIONING FOR ACCESSIBILITY

5




Writing scripts



Producing segments




Editing video/audio



Posting video to various websites i.e. primarily MI
T’s TechTV,
Y
o
uTube, etc.



Skills
necessary

for captioning include:



Understanding

of spoken English



Ability to type
30+ wpm with solid punctuation



Normal

hearing


though
anyone
hearing impaired who read lips can learn to
caption video where users face/lips are always v
isible.

Situational analysis



The main challenges to overcome with this training are:



A
pproval by Information Services and Technology,



S
electing the best cross
-
platform software for group licensing,



G
aining

approval and identifying where the funds from
the software and the
training.



Getting
the

training scheduled and publicize
d may also prove challenging, since
accessibility related content has not been included in the public training schedule
for several years.

Design

The design document is intended fo
r Information S
ervices and Technology at MIT

to
d
ocument the design plans for a proposed

Video Captioning Accessibility Training one
-
day
course.

VIDEO CAPTIONING FOR ACCESSIBILITY

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Schedule

for Lesson Plan

The Video Captioning Accessibility course will consist of a full day of training.
Assuming

training is approved, t
he
course can be created within eight

week
s
. Pr
inted training
materials are minimal and can be designed in less than a week. Reserving rooms and equipment
for in
-
person training can be accomplished with an
8
-
week
time frame
.

The curriculum, slides,
sample movies and script will take 4 weeks.
And p
ilot testing or a dry run with co
-
workers can
be arranged
in a 2 to 3 week timeframe.

Development Tools:

This course will be assembled in Microsoft Word
, PowerPoint,

and
Adobe’s
Pho
toshop.
Additional tools used in class are:



Latest version of
QuickTime

Pro



Universal Subtitles

website



MIT’s TechTV website



SynchriMedia’s MovieCaptioner software



Headphones for listening to video clips while writing captions



Full screen projection with
speakers for instructor’s machine

Course Outcomes and Objectives



Participants should be able to list three key reasons why captioning is beneficial
to any website that serves video.



Participants should be able to successfully caption a two
-
minute video cli
p
accurately.



Participants should be able to determine an online or software workflow process
for captioning content they own or are linking to from their website.

VIDEO CAPTIONING FOR ACCESSIBILITY

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Learning Theory

This course most directly follows Kolb’s Experiential learning theory. It pl
aces value on
the concrete experiences where the student observes, reflects, conceptualizes
learning
and is then
able to actively experience what they’ve learned. In this case
,
the student will be captioning
video in two different ways. The active experien
ce combined with the repeti
ti
ve nature of the
process
will reinforce learning and retention (“Learning
-
theories.com,” 2011). This approach
also incorporates the constructivist
method,

as all learning is active and synthesizes previous life
knowledge with n
ew information gained

("Learning
-
theories," 2012)
.

Lesson Structure

The lesson is
mostly
structured
around

Gagne’s 9 events of instruction (“University
of
florida”,).

It
begins by

gaining

the

attention

of the audience
and moves through each

of the 9

event
s
;

it
enhances attention
and focuses on hands
-
on learning and experimentation that

transfers
to the job
. Information dispensed in
training is chunked in a way that builds from one major
section to the next and the most essential steps are repeated as
necessary to reinforce learning
and assure learners that captioning can be simple and easy.

They can do it.

Assessment

Formative

assessments
of students progress will be based on observation of their work,
questions asked in training, and whether or not th
ey are able to successfully complete the training
by uploading captioned video their account on TechTV.



A.

Students
will

listen to a video, type, pause, retype, move forward and repeat this
process until the t
wo or three minute clip is fully
captioned.

B.

Logging into their TechTV accounts, they will
set up a private directory for their
captioning workshop files.

VIDEO CAPTIONING FOR ACCESSIBILITY

8


C.

Their

captioning
work

will be saved and they will

export .srt files
, upload video
clips and .srt files to TechTV
,

and successfully map video clips

to caption files.

Students will only be
given a certificate
when the above steps have been completed.

The
assistant and lead trainer will walk the room and check for successful
completion of the above
assessments
.

Students who are unable to perform the re
quired tasks will be invited back for
future training and interviewed for feedback and constructive suggestions to improve the training
process.

Media Specs

The classroo
m training will require use of Windows and Mac

desktop machines with the
latest browser
s available.
The s
oftware

and two
-
minute video clip samples
used
in class will

be
pre
-
downloaded to the
training

machines
,

and online captioning sites will be bookmarked for the
course prior to the training. The room must have a projection screen available

for the instructor
to lead the participants through the steps required for captioning.

Development

The accompanying
PowerPoint

file (
Stephani_Roberts
-
finalproj
-
storyboard
-
final
) serves
as the storyboard for the first portion of this full day course. The storyboard details the onscreen
visuals and the script up to the first third of the course. The visual design for the final
PowerPoint

slides used in the course has been incorpor
ated into the storyboard itself; it contains
the MIT logo that will be used and the text colors have been modified to pass accessibility
contrast requirements.

Implementation

As a pre
-
requisite, it is expected that participants will have created a TechTV
account
prior to joining the class. All student TechTV accounts will be verified before they are allowed to
VIDEO CAPTIONING FOR ACCESSIBILITY

9


register for this course.

This stand up training

session

will occur quarterly or bi
-
annually
and last

a full day: 9am


5pm. The instructors are an
assistant TA and
I
. We
will
require practice using the chosen tools
but no specific training will be required.

Training will consist of a brief slide deck

but primarily

using

public captioning website Universal Subtitles, MIT’s video repository TechTV, and

local
software installed on instructor and student machines. The visuals included in the storyboard are
screen captures of the aforementioned websites. The bulk of the training will be comprised of
live onscreen demonstrations of the Universal Subtitles w
ebsite and the captioning software
projected onscreen during the course.

Hands
-
on Captioning and Upload Workshop Time

Students will be working independently using the same source files and websites
projected in class. During the two 40
-
minute captioning w
orkshop times students will be wearing
headphones and working on their own to caption their files via Universal Subtitles and
MovieCaptioner. They have the option to ask questions of the instructors circulating around the
room and the main instructor will
be available to re
-
demonstrate key aspects of the captioning or
file upload process for the entire class via projection. Students can pause to watch re
-
demonstrations or continue captioning their work at their own pace.



Session 1:

Introduction to captions

using Universal Subtitles



Independent work: Hands
-
on captioning workshop: 40 minutes (instructors available)



Session 2:

Introduction to TechTV and uploading files



Independent work: Hands
-
on uploading workshop: 15 minutes (instructors available)



Session 3:

Introduction to MovieCaptioner software to caption offline

VIDEO CAPTIONING FOR ACCESSIBILITY

10




Independent work: Hands
-
on captioning workshop: 40 minutes (instructors available)

Evaluation

Full day a
ccessibility training is not the norm at MIT and
in
-
person training has

not
occurred

in

years. In order to maintain
quality
and encourage in
-
person instruction in this are
a,
evaluation of the training,
the student’s perspective on the clarity and
its
value
will be an
essential part of the process
;
just as important will be
evaluations

that c
apture
the
level of

captioned video content across
MIT’s web sites

after the training occurs
.

Level 1: Reaction



all students will have two

opportunities to share their thoughts
during this course. A short survey will be given in the middle

of the class just after the

lunch
break and before the second block begins. During lunch, many students
discuss the course and
formulate

likes and dislikes about content or training approach.
To

leverage the newness of the
course
we will

poll them while t
heir thoughts are fresh. This will also shed some light on how
students feel moving int
o the course content: are they intimidated?
Confused
?
Do

they feel
comfortable with what’s being asked of them? There will also be an exit poll to see if their
thoughts
on training improved or
not

between the first and second half of the course.
T
his will
allow us to gain

insight
with regard to the s
tudent who was intimidated early on
to see if they

become more rel
axed and enjoy the captioning or if a

relaxed student can
become intimidated by
what’s expected of them with relation to
the hands
-
on work.

Leve
l

2: Learning

-

prior to attending video captioning training, students will be sent a
short online questionnaire to assess their knowledge of captioning and accessibility

basics. This
will be compared against the exit survey, which include
s L
evel 2 learning oriented questions.
There will be an instructor portion of this survey to gain the perspective of the trainer as well.
Apart from the surveys
,

it will be clear whether
each student was able to create captions based on
VIDEO CAPTIONING FOR ACCESSIBILITY

11


the
work
they’re expected to perform in class

and what’s been uploaded to their TechTV site
.

Conclusion

This training

will benefit MIT and its staff by creating a viable
self
-
supporting model for
captioning

where content producers have the ability to create and caption their o
wn work cost
effectively; it
will save the institute on captionin
g costs paid to outside vendors
where vendor
fees are fall outside the project scope
and
will
result in a greater per
cen
tage of MIT videos
captioned and greater compliance with the ADA and Section 504.


A new focused
training

session
, captioned videos that are visible to all, a campaign of
awareness through articles, blogs, mentions, tweets, and a proposed “request/fix capt
ions”
function on TechTV, will raise the level of expectation for video content consumers and the hope
is that over time captioning will become the norm. We need help from people with influence
that

can

create a new web development process that incorporate
s captions within the overall site
budget.
Captions are no longer
optional;

this is the message we need to send
. Fully supported
captioning training
is a
helpful

way of taking the lead

and owning the responsibility as
Accessibility
, Usability,

and Disability advocates

and will bolster our standing in support of all
three practices.



VIDEO CAPTIONING FOR ACCESSIBILITY

12



References

Burnham, D., Leigh, G., Noble, W., Jones, C., Tyler, M., Grebennikov, L., & Varley, A. (2008).
Parameters in Television Captioning for Deaf and Hard
-
of
-
Hearing Adults: Effects of
Caption Rate Versus Text Reduction on Comprehension.
Journal Of Deaf Studies & Deaf
Education
,
13
(3), 391
-
404. doi:10.1093/deafed/enn003

Clark, D. (2011, October 05).
Gagne
. Retrieved from
http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/lea
rning/id/nine_step_id.html

Fast, K. (2010). Captioned Video in the Listening Classroom: Some Considerations.
Perspectives
(TESOL Arabia)
,
17
(1), 8
-
12.

Hodell, C. (2011).

Isd from the ground up
. (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Society for
Training & Dev
elopment.

Illinois teacher applies closed captioning to help youngsters learn vocabulary. (1997).
T H E
Journal
,
24
(10), 47.

Khatri, S. S. (2005, Jan 17). Consumer technology; seen, not heard: Closed captioning has never
caught on outside television shows;

thanks to technology, that's starting to change.

Wall
Street Journal,
pp. R.8
-
R.6. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com/docview/398888244?accountid=39363

Learning
-
theories.com
. (2011, November). Retrieved from
http://www.learning
-
theories.com/experiential
-
learning
-
kolb.html

Learning
-
theories
. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.l
earning
-
theories.com/constructivism.html

Moallem, M. (2001). Applying constructivist and objectivist learning theories in the design of a
web
-
based course: Implications for practice. Retrieved from
VIDEO CAPTIONING FOR ACCESSIBILITY

13


http://www.ifets.info/journals/4_3/moallem.html

(n.d.). 21st century communications and video accessibility act. Retrieved from
http://www.nad.org/issues/civil
-
rights/communications
-
act/21st
-
century
-
act

Unity for gallaudet

[Web]. (2006). Retrieved fr
om
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FVfyrJXYSQs&feature=player_embedded

University of florida: Center for instructional technology and training. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.citt.ufl.edu/toolbox/toolbox_gagne9Events.php

What is captioning
. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.captionit.net/9.html