e-Governance in Iraq

povertywhyInternet and Web Development

Nov 18, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

316 views







e
-
Governance in Iraq

Content Management and Portal Management






Trainers’

Resource Book







Christine Apikul



October

2012



2







3


Contents

List of Abbreviations and Acroynms

................................
................................
...........................

7

About the Training Programme

................................
................................
................................
..

8

Module 1: Trends, Terminologies and Transformations in e
-
Governance
................................
..
10

Objectives

................................
................................
................................
.............................
10

Summary

................................
................................
................................
...............................
10

1.1 Global Status and Trends in e
-
Governance

................................
................................
.....
12

The Digital Divide

................................
................................
................................
...............
12

Global Trends

................................
................................
................................
....................
13

1.2 Stages of e
-
Governance

................................
................................
................................
..
21

1.3 e
-
Governance in the Arab region and in Iraq

................................
................................
...
23

e
-
Governance in Iraq

................................
................................
................................
.........
26

1.4 The Role of Chief Information Officers

................................
................................
.............
27

1.5 Definitions

................................
................................
................................
........................
29

Content, Content Management, Content Management Systems and Enterprise Content
Management

................................
................................
................................
......................
29

Portal and Portal Management

................................
................................
...........................
31

1.6 Technological Trends

................................
................................
................................
......
33

Mobile Technology and m
-
Governance

................................
................................
..............
33

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Sensor Networks

................................
...........
37

Cloud Computing

................................
................................
................................
...............
39

Free and Open Source Software (FOSS)

................................
................................
...........
41

1.7 Challenges for e
-
Governance

................................
................................
..........................
44

Further Reading

................................
................................
................................
....................
45

Module 2: Strategies for Content Management and Portal Management
................................
...
46

Objectives

................................
................................
................................
.............................
46

Summary

................................
................................
................................
...............................
46

2.1 Introduction

................................
................................
................................
......................
49

2.2 Approaches to Policy Formulation and Strategy Development

................................
.........
49

Review Existing Policies and Plans

................................
................................
....................
49

Focus on Development Outcomes

................................
................................
.....................
50

Balance Choice and Flexibility with Fairness and Common Good

................................
......
50

Consult and Engage with Stakeholde
rs

................................
................................
..............
51

4


Promote Multi
-
Stakeholder Partnerships

................................
................................
............
52

2.3 Directions from the National e
-
Governance Strategy

................................
.......................
53

2.4 The Government Interoper
ability Framework and National Enterprise Architecture
Explained

................................
................................
................................
..............................
56

What are the Benefits of Achieving Interoperability?

................................
..........................
56

The Iraqi GIF/NEA

................................
................................
................................
.............
58

2.5 A Framework for Portal Management

................................
................................
..............
62

1. Implementation Approach / Strategy

................................
................................
..............
64

2. Governance

................................
................................
................................
...................
65

3. IT
Strategy

................................
................................
................................
.....................
67

4. Information Strategy

................................
................................
................................
.......
70

5. Service Delivery

................................
................................
................................
.............
71

6. Customer Orientation

................................
................................
................................
.....
72

7. Usability

................................
................................
................................
.........................
73

8.
Trustworthiness

................................
................................
................................
..............
74

2.6 Monitoring and Evaluation

................................
................................
...............................
77

What is Monitoring and Evaluation?

................................
................................
...................
77

Why is Monitoring and Evaluation Important
?

................................
................................
....
77

Issues to Consider

................................
................................
................................
.............
78

2.7 Financing Content Management and Portal Management

................................
...............
78

Public
-
Private Partnerships (PPPs)

................................
................................
....................
79

Conclusion

................................
................................
................................
............................
81

Further Reading

................................
................................
................................
....................
83

Module 3: Operationalizing the Strategy

................................
................................
...................
84

Objectives

................................
................................
................................
.............................
84

Summary

................................
................................
................................
...............................
84

3.1 Key Steps

................................
................................
................................
........................
87

3.2 Building a Project Management Team

................................
................................
.............
89

The Project Manager

................................
................................
................................
.........
89

Skills Required for e
-
Governance

................................
................................
......................
90

Skills for Content Management and Portal Management in a Collaborative Environment

...
92

3.3 A Content Management Framework

................................
................................
................
95

Users First

................................
................................
................................
.........................
96

5


Metadata and Taxonomy

................................
................................
................................
.

102

3.4 Building the Information Architecture

................................
................................
.............

108

Determining the Website’s Classification and Navigational Structures for Browsing

.........

108

Searching
................................
................................
................................
.........................

10
9

Web Layout and Design

................................
................................
................................
...

110

3.5 Managing Content

................................
................................
................................
.........

112

3.6 Designing for the Web

................................
................................
................................
...

123

Accessibility, Usability and User
-
centred Design

................................
..............................

124

Usability Test

................................
................................
................................
...................

131

3.7 Governance and Maintenance

................................
................................
.......................

134

Monitoring and Evaluation

................................
................................
................................

137

Further Reading

................................
................................
................................
..................

139

Module 4: Content Management System

................................
................................
................

141

Objectives

................................
................................
................................
...........................

141

Summary

................................
................................
................................
.............................

141

4.1 Features of a Content Management System

................................
................................
..

143

Allows those
without programming language knowledge to manage digital content

.........

143

Standard templates available for different content types (e.
g. news, events, blogs)

.........

144

Able to tag and categorize content

................................
................................
...................

145

Able to track and manage multiple versions of a single instance of content

.....................

147

Manages permissions for different users

................................
................................
..........

148

Controls workflow of different content

................................
................................
..............

149

4.2 Managing Multilingual Websites

................................
................................
....................

150

4.3 XML

................................
................................
................................
...............................

152

What are the benefits of XML?

................................
................................
.........................

153

4.4 Web Analytics

................................
................................
................................
................

154

Search

................................
................................
................................
.............................

156

Website Analysis vs. Granular Analysis

................................
................................
...........

156

User Experience

................................
................................
................................
..............

157

Further Reading

................................
................................
................................
..................

157

Module 5: e
-
Content Delivery

................................
................................
................................
..

158

Objectives

................................
................................
................................
...........................

158

Summary

................................
................................
................................
.............................

158

6


5.1 Different Ways
to Deliver e
-
Content

................................
................................
...............

160

5.2 e
-
Content Delivery on Mobile Devices

................................
................................
...........

162

Mobile Applications

................................
................................
................................
..........

163

Evaluating Mobile Application Concepts

................................
................................
..........

165

5.3 Managing e
-
Participation and Social Networks

................................
..............................

167

Moderation Policies

................................
................................
................................
..........

171

Social Media Tools

................................
................................
................................
...........

172

Further Reading

................................
................................
................................
..................

174

Conclusion: Checklists for Content Management and Portal Management

.............................

176

Trends

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

176

Principles

................................
................................
................................
.............................

176

Methodology

................................
................................
................................
........................

176

Building the Fundamentals

................................
................................
...............................

176

Developing the Networks

................................
................................
................................
.

176

Portal Management

................................
................................
................................
.............

177

Content Management

................................
................................
................................
..........

177





7


List of Abbreviations and Acroynms



24/7

24 hours a

day, 7 days a week (r
eferring to a service available at all times
without interruption)

App


Application

CIO


Chief Information Officer

CEDG


Center for Excellence in Digital Government (U.S.)

CSC


Community Service Centre

CSS


Cascading Style Sheet

FOSS


Free and Open Source Software

FSF


Free Software Foundation

GIF


Government Interoperability Framework

GIS


Geographic Information System

GSA


General Services Administration (U.S.)

HTML


Hypertext Markup Language

ICT


Information and Communication Techno
logy

IT


Information Technology

IVR


Interactive Voice Response

KSITM


Kerala State Information Technology Mission

(India)

NEA


National Enterprise Architecture

NGO


Non
-
Governmental Organization

OSS


Open Source Software

PC


Personal Computer

PDA


Persona
l Digital Assistant (electronic handheld information device)

PPP


Public
-
Private Partnership

RFID


Radio Frequency Identification

SDP


Service Delivery Platform

SMS


Short Message Service

UN


United Nations

UNDP


United Nations Development Programme

WYSIWY
G

What You See Is What You Get

XML


Extensible Markup Language



8


About the Training
Programme


The e
-
Governance Programme is considered a vital compo
nent for reforming and moderniz
ing
Iraq’s public sector. In April 2010, t
he Go
vernment of
I
raq
, with support from
the United Nations
Development Programme (
UNDP
)
,

formulated the
National e
-
Governance S
trategy and Plan of
Action 2012
-
2015
.

One of the top priorities outlined in the plan is human capaci
ty development.


In July

2010, the F
irst
Training

of Master Trainers P
rogramme was held that covered

five basic
modules:
(1) e
-
Governance Frameworks; (2) e
-
Governance Strategy; (3) e
-
Governance
Planning; (4) e
-
Governance Implementation;

and

(5) Change Management. Subsequently,
national e
-
governance train
ing w
as organized across the country and a Second Training of
Master Trainers Programme was held during 2011. In line with the e
-
Governance Programme
capacity development efforts, this Training of Trainers programme aims to boost the capacity of
Chief Info
rmation Officers
(CIOs)
,

i
nformation
t
echnology (IT)
professionals
, and other relevant
government officials in

Content Management and Portal Management
.


e
-
G
overnance

portals are one of the most popul
ar
ways to

deliver

government services online.
The management of portals and contents are complex undertakings that require skills in
multiple
disciplines
. It is therefore important for CIOs
,

IT professionals
, content managers, portal
managers

and other

key players

to have
a thorough understanding of the issues, trends and
challenges of content management and porta
l management; and are equipped with

a set of
stra
tegies, guidelines and tools to achieve the objectives set out in the
National e
-
Governance
S
trategy
and National
Development Plan.


The Training P
rogramme
on Content Management and Portal Management
consists of two
training of trainers courses. Each course will be six days in duration. The course is made up of
five modules to be conducted over five days.
Each module
will take a
n average
of
one day to
complete. The final day will be dedicated to a roundtable discussion with the participants of the
training course to evaluate and obtain fee
dback on the course, and develop an action plan for

the national roll
-
out of trai
ning courses on content management and portal management.

The
training curriculum for the national training course, including topics, case studies and exercises
will also be discussed and
agreed upon
.



The overall objectives of this training programme are

to:




Provide an overview of the global policy and technological trends in e
-
g
overnance (Module
1)



Examine the strategic aspects of content management and portal management (Module 2)



Examine the operational aspects of content management and portal managem
ent (Module
3)



Discuss the features and functions of a content management system (Module 4)



Explore the options and processes for diversifying e
-
content delivery and promoting e
-
pa
r
ticipation (Module 5)


The training course will highlight the technological trends related to content management and
portal management. However, it will
not

elaborate on the technical I
C
T aspects of designing
and running the e
-
g
overnance

portals. As e
-
governance

is more about go
vernment

and
governance

than the “e” technology, the focus of this training programme is on the
governance
and
management aspects.


9


Each module begins with a statement of module objectives and a summary of the
issues that
are discussed in the
module; and e
nds with a list of resources in order for training participants to
gain additional perspectives on the respective topics.


The module content is divided into sections that include case
studies,
exercises

and discussion
questions

to help deepen understanding of key concepts
, promote sharing of knowledge and
experience amongst the training participants, and
think reflectively on the issues presented
. The
training course will be comprised of a combination of presentations and intera
ctive sessions
amongst the training participants that draw upon these case studies, exercises and discussion
sessions.


A c
ollaborative workspace has been set up at
http://egov
-
iraq.dev.inigo
-
tech.com
1

and
pa
rticipants who have provided

their email address

will

be registered

as a member of the
collaborative workspace and also

in an email list to communicate with each other before and
after the training course.
This workspace
and

email list will be used
to
support and guide the
roll
-
out
-
trainers

once they have completed the

course.


As a member of the collaborative workspace, you will be able to experience the use of a content
management system to manage a portal and collaborate with each other. Resources and
information on content management and

portal management will be posted on the collaborative
workspace. Members can create pages and news, participate in polls, comment on resources
and posts, and connect with other members.







1

Special thanks to Inigo Consulting for the complimentary set up and hosting of the collaborative workspace for the
purpose of the two training courses.

10


Module 1
: Trends, Terminologies and Transformations

in e
-
Governanc
e



Objectives




Provide an overview of the global trends in e
-
governance



Discuss the status of e
-
governance in the Arab region and in Iraq



Define key terminologies including content, content management, portal and portal
management



Describe the technologic
al trends affecting content management and portal management



Highlight the s
trategic directions and challenges in content management and portal
management



Summary




According to the
United Nations e
-
Government Survey 2012
, progress in online service
delivery continues in most countries



Many countries have
an
e
-
governance strategy in place



Most countries have
established a national
e
-
governance portal



Some countries in the Arab region have made rapid progress in e
-
governance and there are
a number of b
est practices within the region that Iraq can learn from




Barriers and challenges remain

o

Low levels of e
-
governance uptake even in developed countries

o

The digital divide

further

impedes the uptake of e
-
governance

o

Internal challenges include i
nefficient and

ineffective government processes

and
mindsets, and political regulatory and budgetary constraints

o

Citizens are increasingly expecting government to go beyond online service delivery
,
moving from what the technological developments can do, to what citizens

want




To overcome some of the challenges, three global trends have been identified:

o

Countries are moving to an integrated unified whole
-
of
-
government model

o

Countries are paying closer attention to multichannel service delivery

o

Countries are engaging more
closely with citizens




e
-
Governance portals are one of the most popular channel
s

for offering government
services online.



Increasingly, t
hese portals aim to package and deliver content and services in ways that
directly fit citizens’ or businesses’ needs.



These portals aim to provide “one

stop” or “single window” for public information and
services, anytime and anywhere.




There are a number of technological trends that have implications for the management of
content and portals.

They include:

o

Mobile
technology and the deployment of m
-
governance tools

11


o

Geographic information systems and sensor networks

o

Cloud computing

o

Free and open source software




Deployment of technologies should be done in the context of social and economic
development goals and shou
ld support and enhance development outcomes




Shifting to a more citizen
-
centric, interconnected whole
-
of
-
government approach will require
collaboration and streamlining not only among governments but also with private sector and
civil societies.




True tran
sformation needs governments to pay close attention to re
-
engineering processes,
reforming institutions, and creating an environment for greater accountability and
transparency.




Content management and portal management needs to be take this broader contex
t into
consideration.






12


1.1
Global

S
tatus and

T
rends in e
-
Governance
2


According to the latest
United Nations e
-
Government Survey

of 2012
, many countries have e
-
govern
ance

initiatives and

are using

information and communication technology (ICT)
applications to enhance public sector efficiencies and streamline governance systems to
support sustainable development.


The survey rankings showed that the Republic of Korea is the world leader in e
-
governm
ent
development, followed by the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Denmark, with the United

States, Canada, France, Norway, Singapore and Sweden close behind. The steady
improvement in all the indicators of the e
-
government development index has led to a

world
average of 0.4877 as compared to 0.4406 in 2010
, showing a general improvement of countries’
online service delivery

to cater to citizens’ needs.



The Digital D
ivide


Despite progress, there remains an imbalance in the digital divide between develo
ped and the
developing countries, and within countries between different socio
-
economic groups and
localities.


The digital divide separates people in several ways:


1.

I
t can mean separation between those who have
access to technology

versus those who
do not
;

2.

I
t separates those who have
access to information

versus those who do not; and

3.

I
t creates a separation between those who are able to successfully
use ICTs

versus those
who are not able to.


The digital divide exists across international boundaries as we
ll as within countries along
various dimensions, such as socio
-
economic status (in which the poor cannot afford ICT
products and services), literacy and education levels (affecting users’ ability to read SMS and
online content), and gender (where women ten
d to have less access to ICTs than men). Without
adequate access and capacity to utilize ICTs, least developed countries and marginalized
populations risk falling further and further behind the rest of the world and may face great
difficulties catching up,

thus further widening the digital divide.

With the digital divide it means
that there are many communities and individuals that are unable to reap the benefits of ICT
initiatives
.


Broadband Internet access is perhaps the best and most important example
of this. In the 31
cou
ntries at the top of the list

those where broadband is most affordable

a fixed broadband
subscription costs less than 1 per cent of average monthly income. But for people who live in
the 32 countries where broadband is least affordabl
e

most of them UN
-
designated Least
Developed Countries

a fixed broadband subscription costs over half of average monthly
income. In 19 of those countries, a broadband connection costs more than the
full
average



2

This section is drawn heavily from the United Nations,
United Nations e
-
Government Survey
2012: E
-
Government
for the People
, New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2012.

13


monthly income. And in a handful of developin
g countries the monthly price of a fast Internet
connection is more than
10

times monthly average income.
3


The digital divide is a significant barrier to citizens’ uptake of e
-
governance.



Global T
rends



In the effort to bridge the digital divide and
increase citizens’ uptake of e
-
governance, and at the
same time, improve government processes and systems for more efficient and effective service
delivery, t
her
e

are three major trends taking place:


1.

Countries are moving to an integrated unified whole
-
of
-
government model

2.

Countries are paying closer attention to multichannel service delivery

3.

Countries are engaging more closely with citizens


Countries are moving to an integrated unified whole
-
of
-
governmen
t model


Previously
,

e
-
governance

efforts tended to focus

on the sh
ort term,
with individual ministries
gett
ing
their
isolated

services online, publishing information without

providing for regular
updates
,

and adding new features

to websites in response to changes in technology.


In recen
t years, there has been a
n
emphasis
on

a more integrated approach to public

service
deliv
ery.
Variously termed “one
-
stop government,”

“joined
-
up government” and “whole
-
of
-
government,” the

movement from isolated silos in public administration to formal

and
informal
networks is a global trend driven by various societal

forces

s
uch as
:




T
he growing complexity of problems that call for

collaborative responses



T
he increased demand on the part of

citizens for more personalized and accessible public
services,

whic
h are to be planned, implemented and evaluated with their

participation



T
he opportunities presented by the Internet to

transform the way the government works for
the

people


The model aims at centralizing the entry point of service delivery to a single
portal where
citizens can access all government
-
supplied services, regardless of which government authority
provides them.


The
United Nations e
-
Government Survey 2012
fi
nds that models

of an integrated portal diff
er
across countries

and regions. While
som
e

countries are progressing

towards one national
integrated portal, others have

d
eveloped
more than one portal, with thematic and/or functional

services

integrated in a manner that fi
nds e
-
information

separate from e
-
services or e
-
participation.


Australia
, Bahrain, Denmark, Israel, New Zealand, Norway, Qatar,
Republic of

Korea, United
Arab Emirates and
United States of America

has a

one
-
stop

shop

portal with information,
services and participation

services integrated on one site.

Most countries from the Eu
ropean



3

International Telecommunication Union, "Bring broadband to the world's poorest communities," 6 June 2011,
http://www.itu.int/net/pressoffice/pres
s_releases/2011/19.aspx.

14


Union

follow the approac
h of separate portals for their
information,

service and participation
off
erings.



Countries are paying closer attention t
o multichannel service delivery


Multichannel service delivery is the provision of public

services by
v
arious means in an
i
ntegrated and coordinated

way.
Citizens have diverse needs and

demands for services;
therefore it is no longer sustainable

for governments to utilize one preferred

way of service
provision over the other.

Citizens can make selections a
ccording to their needs and

circumstances and receive consistent information and services

across channels resulting in an
increase in their satisfaction and

trust in government.


It is now

ever more essential that governments exploit all

possible delivery
channels in order to
reach out to

as many people as possible, no matter how poor, illiterate

or isolated.

In
multichannel delivery,

public services can be delivered by using a

mix of channels,
complemented by human interaction

and networks. The intermediar
ies can be from

any
sector

public, private or
civil society
. Multichannel service

delivery is thus defined as involving
the organizational

interactions that make up the network,

rather than as just a collection of
access routes for

delivering the service.



C
ontact

centre



C
慮 桡湤l攠 v潩
捥c 捯cta捴s (e.g., t敬数桯湥), I
nt敲湥t 捯ct慣ts (e.朮g 捨慴a

敭慩l),
慮搠
writt敮 捯cta捴猠(攮朮g f慸敳Ⱐreg畬ar m慩l)



C慮 摥liv敲e獥牶i捥猠r慮ging from 獩m灬攠g敮敲el i湦ormati潮 req略獴s (e.朮,
獥sf
-
獥牶i捥c thr潵g栠
i
湴nr慣瑩a攠
v
潩捥c
r
敳e潮獥s
(IVR)
獹獴em猠 t漠 捯m灬數
tr慮獡sti潮 獥rvi捥猠c攮朮, i渠摩re捴 捯ct慣t wit栠愠桵m慮

ag敮t)



T
桥 畳u of
c
潭灵t敲
-
t
敬e灨潮y
i
湴敧r
ati潮
敮慢le猠it t漠扥 a

潮o
-
st潰
-
獨sp



C
桥慰敲eto 潰敲ete t桡n tr慤iti潮慬 捨c湮敬s



C
慮 扥 畳ud 慳⁡a a

-
潮 捨c湮敬 f潲 潴桥r 捨c湮敬s


C潭o畮ity
獥牶i捥c
捥ctre /
t敬散e湴ne /
ki潳k




I
湴敮摥d for u
獥rs w桯 桡v攠湯e慣捥獳sto t桥 I
nter湥t 慴 桯me



U
獵slly l潣ot敤 i渠灵扬i挠灬慣a猠wit栠摥摩捡瑥搠staff 慶慩l慢l攠e漠慳獩獴

畳敲e



P
桹獩捡c 摩獴慮捥慹 b攠愠
扡rri敲


C潵湴敲



P
r潶i摥猠摩r散琠慮d 灥rs潮慬 捯ct慣t



S
畩t慢l攠 f潲o 捯m灬數 獥牶i捥猠 t桡t 捡c湯t 扥 灲潶i摥搠 潶敲e 獥sf
-
獥svi捥

捨c湮敬s



E
灥湳nv攠e漠潰敲ote



P
桹獩捡c 摩獴慮捥⁡湤cmit敤 潰敮in朠桯畲g may 扥 愠扡ari敲


Em慩l



If 潲g慮iz
敤 慲潵湤 慵tom慴敤
r敳e潮獥s

-

S
畩t慢l攠f潲 獩m灬攠獥牶i捥猠c桡t 摯

n
o
t req畩r攠灥r獯s慬 捯ct慣a

-

A
v慩l慢l攠潮e愠㈴a
7 扡獩s



If 潲g慮iz
敤 慲潵湤 m慮畡l r敳e潮獥:

-

S
畩t慢l攠for 捯m灬數 i湦ormati潮 慮搠捯cm畮i捡ci潮 獥牶i捥猠t桡t

req畩re
灥r獯s慬 捯ct慣a

15


-

Less formal than regular
mail

-

Expensive to operate



V
i獵slly im灡ir敤 灥r獯s猠m慹 扥 慳獩獴敤 批 慵t潭慴敤 慴t敮摡湴s




慭am慹 摩獣s敤it t桥 捨c湮敬


I湳瑡nt
m敳獡ging /
O湬i湥 捨ct



S畩t慢le

f潲 慳king brief q略sti潮猠慮d for 潢t慩湩湧 愠ar潭ot 慮獷敲



F
慳瑥a t桡n 敭慩l



D
慮g敲 of m
i獵s摥rst慮摩湧 摵e to 扲敶ity of me獳慧es


I湴nr慣瑩a攠
v潩捥c
r敳e潮獥s
獹獴敭



A
捣敳獥搠潶敲ea 灨潮攠ei湥



S
畩t慢l攠f潲 獩m灬攠獥牶i捥c



Av慩l慢l攠潮e愠㈴a
7 扡獩s



S
敥渠批 m慮y 慳⁵獥r
-
unfri敮摬y


M潢il攠
摥vi捥



E
湡扬攠畳敲猠to 慣捥獳 s敲ei捥猠楲c敳e散tiv攠ef

lo捡瑩cn



Off敲 f畮cti潮猠獵捨 慳a
獨srt m敳獡ge 獥牶i捥c(
SMS
)
, e
m慩l, a捣敳猠t漠t桥
I
湴nr湥t (摥灥湤ing

潮 t桥 m潤敬), in 慤摩ti潮 t漠t敬数桯湹



R
慩獥si湣n畳u潮 i渠慲敡a wit栠灯潲汹 敳瑡扬i獨s搠fi敤 t敬数桯湥 li湥

獹獴em
批 潦o敲楮g t敬数桯湥, SMS 慮搠d
nt敲湥t (m
-
獥牶i捥猩



S
iz攠潦 s捲敥n i猠a limiti湧 f慣t潲 to 灲潶i摩湧 獥牶i捥c



F
畮捴i潮慬ity of 摩ffer敮t 摥vi捥猠is 捯cv敲ein朠(攮朮g
m潢il攠灨潮敳,
PDA猠
慮搠d慢l整 PCs
)


P敲獯湡e
捯浰畴er

(PC)



W
i
摥ly 畳ud 摥vi捥cto a捣敳猠t桥 I
nt敲湥t (at 桯m攬 at w潲k,
at 獣桯潬,

fr潭
灵扬i挠慣捥獳s灯i湴猩



䱩mit敤 湵m扥r of 畳urs t桡t 潷湳n 愠


wit栠 Int敲湥t 捯c湥捴i潮 in
摥v敬潰i湧 捯c湴ni敳


SMS



S
敮搠獨潲t (m慸. ㄶ〠捨慲慣aer猩 me獳sg敳 to a湤 fr潭 m潢il攠灨潮敳



S
畩t慢l攠f潲 湯tifi捡ti潮 s敲ei捥c


T敬数桯湥



R敬慴楶ely low 灥湥tr慴楯渠nat攠楮 摥v敬潰i湧 捯c湴ni敳



T
ype of services, “opening hours” and costs dependent on the receiving
=
敮搠
of the line (an administration’s em
灬潹敥I=a=c
潮t慣a=
捥ctre=ag敮tI=慮=
fso=
獹獴敭eor=慮=慮獷敲楮g=m慣ai湥F
=


P
ref敲r敤 批 m慮y u
獥牳 (i湳瑥慤 of e
-
捨c湮敬猩



S
灥散e 潲 慵摩tory im灡ir敤 m慹 扥 慳獩獴敤 批 t數t 灨潮e猠 慮d

捯浭畮i捡ti潮 慳獩st慮ts


P潲o慬

Web獩te



C
慮 捯ct慩渠n敲e l慲g攠e潬畭敳uof informati潮



Av慩l慢l攠潮e愠㈴a
7 扡獩s



P
慲慬l敬 潲o慤d
-
潮 捨cn湥l猠獵捨 慳 a c
潮t慣a

捥ctre 捡c make w敢獩t敳

慰灥慲am潲o 摩r散t



A
捣敳獩湧 摥vi捥c(PC, m潢il攠灨潮攩e摥termi湥猠viewi湧 慮搠t桵s

獥牶i捥c

-
獥rvi捥猬

m
-
獥rvi捥猩



P
桩獨sn
g

m慹 摩獣s敤it th攠捨慮e敬



Table 1: List of channels

16


(Source: Adapted from Interchange of Data between

Administrations, Multi
-
channel delivery of eGovernment
services, European Commission, June 2004)



A
mong the channels within multichannel

platforms,
mobile
-
based technologies

hold

tremendous promise, especially in developing countries, and can be expected

to play a leading

role in multichannel
service delivery
.

Research suggests that the economic and social

benefit of
mobile technologies will be highest in

rural areas, which currently have less telephony

services.

Mobile phones allow rural citizens access

to information, whether for
agricultural, business,
medical

or educational purposes. For those without fixed

addresses and without bank accounts,
a
mobile

phone

provides a place where they can be contacted and

a means through which they
can pay bills. Unli
ke

other forms of communication, including most

w
eb technologies, mobile
phones do not require

literacy, although they can play a role in its
d
evelopment.

(For further
discussion on mobile
-
based technology, see section
1.6

in this module).



Countries are
engaging more closely with citizens and are placing a greater emphasis on
how

citizens are using e
-
governance

services.


Generally, there is

a shift from what services governments can provide to what citizens really
need.

Previously, the
a
vailabil
ity of
online public services (“supply
-
side”
)
was
the prima
ry focus
of e
-
governance

studies and policy
-
making,

but over the past year
s, citizen usage of e
-
governance

services

(“demand
-
side”
) has also become a priority issue. An increasing

number of
governments
ar
e

making greater eff
orts to

increase usage of services. Th
ey start

by recognizing
that the benefi
ts of e
-
governance

services are

very much determined by the number and type of
users of these

services, and the frequency of their use.


According to

the
Unite
d Nations e
-
Government Survey 2012
, the level of e
-
govern
ment

usage is
generally

low, even as it is in most advanced countries. In

E
uropean
U
nion

countries, the
average usage rate is 32 per

cent, and in
member countries of the
Organisation for Economic
Co
-
operation and Development

(
OECD
)
, the average usage

rate in 2010 was only around 40
per cent
. I
n Lithuania, a

country with Internet penetration of almost 70 per

cent, e
-
government
usage is not

growing all that fast. Two thirds (66 per cent) of

the count
ry’s residents have never
used e
-
government

services.
All in all,
e
-
g
overnment usage has thus far been limited

and has
not kept up with the fast growing provision

and availability of e
-
services.


The focus on ci
tizen
-
centric portal design,

the
conduct of c
ustomer survey satisfaction and the
involvement of citizens in consultations and decision
-
making processes are evidence of this
trend.


To increase
citizens’ upt
ake of e
-
governance

it is important to understand and adapt to the
different needs of different

segments of society.



Citizen e
ngagement


e
-
Governance is no longer solely abo
ut
digitizing services and
reengineering

of
internal
processes, it is increasingly
concerned with creating a favourable environment

that empowers
citizens to be more involved
in

governance, promoting a citizen
-
centric and

participatory
17


approach, whereby citizens have a

voice in decision
-
making

processes
.

Citizens are no longer
regarded as passive recipients of information and services but are active contributors and
partner
s to

promoting good governance.


Governments are engaging with citizens at different degrees.

The
United Nations e
-
Government
Survey

measures the degree of e
-
participation
against three benchmarks:


1.

Does the national government publish information on

items und
er consideration?

(e
-
information)

2.

Are there ways for the public to engage in consultations

with policy makers, government
officials and one

another?

(e
-
consultation)

3.

Can citizens directly influence decisions, for example by

voting online?

(e
-
decision
-
makin
g)


The assess
ment of e
-
information determines

if governments are providing the kind of
information

that encourages and empowers citizen

participation. This includes online publishing
of

e
-
participation policies, a calendar of online discussion

forums, and

electronic notification
tools

to alert citizens who want to participate.


Governments
are increasingly using
interactive tools to conduct dialogue and receive

feedback
and inputs from citizens
as part of the e
-
consultation process. Tools used t
o collect
and discuss
citizens’ and businesses’ views include online

surveys and polls, electronic newsletters, email,
feedback forms, and
w
eb forums.
Social networking tools are also being used

such as
Facebook, Twitter and blogs
. Opinions, comments and suggestions

from these avenues can

supplement public forums or meetings.


The e
-
decision
-
making component of the
Survey

assesses the extent to which countries are
committed

to empowering citizens to be involved
,

and are committed to taking into account the
citizen’s

view when making policy decisions
, designing services and producing public content
.

About o
ne quarter of all countries
surveyed
publicly commit to

considering the results of e
-
participation in the

policy
-
making process.


To increase e
-
participation, there

i
s a need for raising awareness and improving performance of
online services, increasing information security and privacy, and enhancing trust and
government openness.


It also

involves engaging, educating and enrolling citizens as active partners in impr
oving
development outcomes

e.g. encouraging community participation to establish neighbourhood
safety teams; and harnessing people’s ICT skills, including businesses and non
-
governmental
organizations

(NGOs)
, to create better information and service delive
ry mechanisms.




Case Study: Social Outsourcing of IT Services to Women’s Social Enterprises of the
Kerala Poverty Eradication Mission


In India, the State government of Kerala launched the State Poverty Eradication Mission on 17
May 1998. The Kerala miss
ion came up with a new business model for IT services, which
Heeks has termed “social outsourcing”. Social outsourcing is defined as the contracting out of
goods and services to social enterprises, and in this case, it is to cooperatives formed by
unemploy
ed women from poverty
-
stricken families.


18


A group of women registers as a cooperative enterprise by each investing USD 30. The
Government of Kerala then supports the enterprise by providing a grant of ten times the group
investment and helps secure a match
ing amount as a bank loan. The women thus typically
register their cooperative enterprise with a starting capital of about USD 6,000, of which half
must be repaid.


As part of this scheme, over 200 IT social enterprises have been created, and they operate
in
three main areas of social outsourcing, as follows:




Data entry and digitization, e.g. digitizing the State’s voter records, and entering and helping
process the results of a state
-
wide poverty survey



IT training of students in the state secondary
schools



PC assembly and maintenance that include building PCs from parts, selling them (mainly to
public sector organizations) and arranging annual maintenance


This scheme has benefitted government since the services of these women addresses the
public se
ctor problem of retaining in
-
house IT staff. Furthermore, the outsourcing of IT services
to the women’s enterprises has provided low
-
cost IT service solutions.


The University of Manchester conducted a study that examined the impact of social outsourcing
o
n women in the poor communities of Kerala. Findings include the following:




Almost all the women were able to earn at least USD 1 per day, which made significant
difference in the household income. This income contributed to the cost of education, health
care, repairs and construction of the home, and payment of debts. Most women’s
enterprises were able to pay their initial loans to the bank and some had borrowed further
loans to update or expand their ICT infrastructure.




The women had gained ICT
-
related
skills and entrepreneurial and management capabilities
from their social enterprises.




Cooperative ownership of the women’s enterprise’s ICT infrastructure has supplied each
member with physical assets worth about two years their income. This works as
collateral
for additional loan to upgrade their PCs/infrastructure.




The social capital of the women had increased since they were able expand their network
not only in their community but in other parts of the district and with local government
officials.




The women spoke about their increased self confidence and having better status as they
are able to approach and deal with other people and institutions. The women talked about
gaining respect, recognition and acceptance in their communities since the ICT

jobs are
looked high upon as modern, progressive and with hope.


There are some concerns about the sustainability of this model as the development of these
social enterprises has required a significant degree of institutional support from government
depar
tments, banks, other financial intermediaries and other local organizations. The social
enterprises may find it difficult to sustain themselves without ongoing intervention and support.
Nevertheless, they have moved beyond the start
-
up phase, established n
etworks and gained
assets through this scheme (e.g. land, housing, education for children, health care for family
19


members), including assets that women can take forward into future employment, such as their
computing and entrepreneurial skills.


Source: Ci
ted in Maria Juanita R. Macapagal and John J. Macasio,
Module 7: ICT Project Management in Theory
and Practice
,
The Academy of ICT Essentials for Government Leaders Module Series
, Incheon: UN
-
APCICT/ESCAP,
2011.




The right to information and open data


Concurrent with implementing e
-
g
overn
ance

program
me
s

and to boost transparency
, some
countries have adopted legislation defining the right of public citizen
s to access government
records.


The
right to information

has been recogniz
ed as a fundamental human

right, intimately linked
to respect for the inherent dignity of all human beings. The right to information is also

essential
to accountability and good governance;
to curbing

corruption, abuse of power and
mismanagement. No government

can now seriously de
ny that the public has a right to
information or that fundamental principles of democracy and accountability demand that public

bodies operate in a transparent
manner
.


Sometimes called Fre
edom of Information Acts or Access to Information Acts
, these laws
provide

a general right to access official documents and other information held by government
bodies, subject to exemptions for certain sensitive information. Most of the laws establish
appeals and oversight processes.
4


The right to information

is an impo
rtant

cornerstone of

open data use because the latt
er

can
only take place when there is a right to access

government information.


Open data

is an important

source of information service provided by

governments and other
entities and presents

opportunities

for everyone to freely use, reuse

and integrate various data
pertaining to socio
-
economic

and environmental dimensions of sustainable

development

oft
en
in an easily accessible, localized and visualized

format.


A number of governments around the world hav
e
opened

previously

“locked
-
up”

government
-
held datasets, providing

raw data to their citizens. And citizens have actively

taken up and made
use of these data.

Open data also makes it easier to collaborate in co
-
producing value
-
added
information.
5


Th
e Ken
yan Government’s open data website

(htt
p://www.opendata.go.ke), which is one of the

most comprehensive portals in sub
-
Saharan Africa,

enables the integration of

data
-
sets
. Its

data
are drawn from several sources (e.g., Ministries

of Finance, Planning, Heal
th and Education and
the

Kenya Nat
ional Bureau of Statistics). Th
e website is

organized by six sectors

education,
energy, health,

water and sanitation, population and poverty.

Th
e new, consolidated and
combined database,

based on data from these sectors
and layered over

a map, can yield useful
insights into understanding

co
mplex issues.





4

infoDev/World Bank,
e
-
Government Primer
, Washington, D. C., 2009.

5

The examples below are taken from the
United Nations e
-
Government Survey 2012
.

20


Open data

offers opportunities

for citizen input, feedback and transparency,

which will increase
the chances for success of improved

public services and service uptakes u
nder

the right
circum
stances.
Openly Local

(
http://openlylocal.com
)
in the United Kingdom is a good example

of how open data can motivate citizens to engage

with
their local public services and
g
overnment,

enabling more efficient, bett
er quality services w
ith

more choices.


By involving citizens in holding government accountable, governments can foster a broader
awareness and sense of ownership among citizens and a willingness to act as co
-
producers.
Some governments are taking innovative approaches to maxi
mizing the value of open data by
encouraging people to interpret, analyse and present various visualizations of government data.


E
xamples of co
-
produced services come

from emergency situations with crisis mapping

(e.g.,
OpenStreetMaps¸ Sinsai.Info).
In th
ese examples
, a mashup

map with aggregated data enables
users to
v
iew

and add data

on the location of collapsed buildings, hospitals, relief camps, etc
.
This accelerates

the ability of communities of volunteers to co
-
produce public services, which
tend to
be faster

and more responsive in emergency situations than

those provided by
government
organization
s alone.


Important

i
ssues that warrant att
ention from policy

makers striving to get the most out of open
data and

f
acilitate e
-
service usage include: copyr
ight protection,

privacy law, existence of quality
data standardization,

digitization of data, basic collection and

standardization of data practices
across a country,

and
right to information

legislation.
6



Co
-
produced Map using Open Data
after 2010 Haiti Earthquake
(Source: http://haiti.openstreetmap.nl)



Question T
o
Think About





6

infoDev/World Bank,
e
-
Government Primer
.

21


What are the implications of these trends on content management and portal management?




1.2
Stages of e
-
Governance


e
-
Governance

ca
n be viewed as consisting of a s
et of phases not entirely sequential, but relying
on growing levels of capabil
ity, knowledge and infrastructure.

There are a number of
development/m
aturity models for e
-
governance
. Gene
rally, they start with a basic
w
eb presence
and move up through a number of levels (ranging from three to five stages). The United Nations
and the Wo
rld Bank proposes a four
-
stage model.
7


Stage 1



Emerging information services: Government information is published online on
government websites. These websites provide information on
laws, regulations, policies,
budgets, judicial opinions, official publ
ications and reports, forms, executive decisions, and a
wide range of government advice and information on matters such as health and agriculture. It
also can include government directories, organizational structures, and contact information for
government

offices and key officials, including addresses and telephone numbers.


Stage 2



Enhanced information services: Government websites

deliver enhanced one
-
way or
simple two
-
way
interactions between government and citizen.

Internet sites provide search
capabilities
, forms can be downloaded and, in some cases, submitted online.

In most instances,
this stage enables the public to access critical information online, but requires a visit to a
government office in order to complete the task. Interact
ion

tools

include email, web
-
based
feedback
forms, chat roo
ms,
w
eb forums, bulletin boards and

listserv
es
.


Stage 3



Transactional services: Government websites engage in two
-
way communication with
their citizens, including requesting and receiving inputs on
gover
nment policies, programmes
and

regulations
.

Some form of electronic authentication of the citizen’s identity is required to
successfully complete the exchange. Government websites process non
-
financial transactions,
e.g. e
-
voting, downloading and uploading

forms, filing taxes online or applying for certificates,
licenses and permits. They also handle financial transactions, i.e. where money is transferred
on a secure network to government.


Online “transactions” make government services available at any tim
e from any Internet
-
connected computer and more and more frequently via a smart mobile phone. Traditionally,
government services may have required long waits, confrontation with time
-
consuming
bureaucracy, and the occasional bribe. Innovations such as citi
zen service k
iosks located in
shopping centre
s in Brazil, portable government computers that can be carried into rural
villages

of India, or medication reminders available through SMS
, bring e
-
g
overnance

directly to the
citizens.


Business process
reengineering

is critical in the streamlining of time
-
consuming procedures,
saving labo
u
r costs and increasing productivity in the long run. In addition, governments can
automate processes

and transactions, and create an audit trail
,
to eliminate

corruptio
n.


Consequently,
this stage of e
-
governance

require
s

significant investments in back
-
end

consolidation and harmonization of information and technology systems, as well as changes for



7

United Nations e
-
Government Survey 20
12
; and infoDev/World Bank,
e
-
Government Primer
.

22


the government workforce. The success of these transactions, as with oth
er e
-
g
overn
ance
applications, will likely depend on assessing and responding to the needs and capabilities of the
intended users.


Stage 4



Connected services: Government websites have

changed the way governments
communicate with

their citizens. Th
ey are
proactive in requesting information

and opinions from
the citizens using Web 2.0

and other interactive tools. e
-
S
ervices and e
-
solutions

cut across the
departments and ministries in a seamless

manner. Information, data and knowledge are
t
ransferred

from go
vernment
organizations

through integrated

applications. Governments have
moved from a government
-
centric to a citizen
-
centric approach, where e
-
services

are targeted
to citizens through lifecycle events

and segmented groups to provide tailor
-
made services.

Governments create an environment that empowers

citizens to be more involved with
government activities

so as to have a voice in decision
-
making.


This

fourth stage is characterized by redefined relationships between government, citizens,
businesses, comm
unities and employees delivering seamless experiences and rich levels of
engagement derived from new connectivity, interoperations and business models for service,
and policy design and development.


The integration of information, processes and channels a
cross multiple government, non
-
government, and private sector organizations enable a user to start and complete an
entire task
easily, confidently

and securely. This underpins the concept of integrated and transformational
service. Users are able to access any service or information in a complete “end
-
to
-
end” package
where the existing boundary between departments/ministry or organizations do not in
terfere
with or interrupt the service outcome, and where the services are clustered along com
mon
“customer” needs.


The integration demands are substantial and require:




Understanding and regular monitoring of customer experiences and expectations



Trained
and informed staff



Interoperability and standardization of information, processes, and technologies particularly
at interfaces of organizations



Multi
-
channel strategies

ensuring consistent and reliable experiences for users within and
across individual cha
nnels of service (online, on
-
call, on
-
paper, onsite)



Cross
-
organizational governance controls

i.e., m
emoranda

of understanding, contracts,
funding, service level agreements.


M
ost countries reach
stage

2, which is easier to achieve (e.g., supplying applica
tion forms,
email contacts, and information requires little change in current systems). However fewer
countries reach
stage

3, which is harder to achieve because establishing transaction services
requires substantial intervention in the back
-
end

systems an
d negotiation across different
organizations and jurisdictions.





23


1.3

e
-
Governance in the Arab region and in Iraq


According to the
United Nations e
-
Government Survey

the United Arab Emirates
i
s the leader in
e
-
governance in the Arab region, in 28th
place.



E
-
Government Development Ranking
(Source: UN e
-
Government Survey 2012)
Country
2010
2012
Republic of Korea
1
1
United Arab Emirates
49
28
Bahrain
13
36
Saudi Arabia
58
41
Qatar
62
48
Kuwait
50
63
Lebanon
93
87
Jordan
51
98
Syria
133
128
Iraq
136
137
Yemen
164
167
Somalia
N/A
190



Some countries in the Arab region have made rapid progress in e
-
governance and there are a
number of best practices within the region that Iraq can learn from

in e
-
governance in general
and more specifically in content
management
and portal management
.


It is worth noting that Arabic
has been

the fastest
-
growing Internet language
;
from 2000 to 2012,
the number of Arabic speaking Internet users rose from a low l
evel by 2,501 per cent.
8

Yet, only
1
-
2 per cent of
w
eb contents are in Arabic.


Growing numbers of Arab users are using social networking sites. When Facebook added an
Arabic
-
language interface, it gained 3.5 million Arabic
-
speaking users in a year.
9

Never
theless,
social media usage in the Arab

region

is low on average. The country average for Facebook
user penetration in the Arab region was only 5.94 per cent at the end of 2010.
10


Government
organizations

are using social media to improve public services,
reduce costs and
increase transparency. Through these media, they can inform citizens, promote their services,
seek public views and feedback, and monitor satisfaction with the services they offer so as to
improve their quality. As social media enable two
-
way communication in real time, government
organizations

can quickly engage citizens as co
-
producers of services, not just passive
recipients. According to the
United Nations e
-
Government Survey 2012
, about 40 percent of the



8

Internet World Stats, "Internet World Users by Language: Top 10 Languages,"
http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm.

9

Suzanne Locke, "The push for Arabic content online,"
MEED
, 9
-
15 July 2010,
http://www.meed.com/sectors/telecoms
-
and
-
it/the
-
push
-
for
-
arabic
-
content
-
on
-
line/3007704.article.

10

United Nations e
-
Government Survey 2012
.

24


government portals surveyed pro
vide a statement “follow us on Facebook or Twitter”

(see
section 5.3 for more details

on the use of social media for e
-
governance
).





Tab
le 2
. Assessment of national e
-
g
overnance portals of ESCWA member countries

(as of August 2011)

(Source: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA),
Regional Profile of the
Information Society in Western Asia 2011
, Beirut, 2012)



Highlights of
selected

countries’ achievements
and good practices
are given below.



Bahrain
(
http://www.bahrain.bh
)




The e
-
Government Authority was established in 2007 to coo
rdinate and execute e
-
governance

initiatives.



The Bahrain e
-
Government
S
trategy 2007
-
2010 focuses on ensuring delivery of
e
-
services
to
all
citizens, residents and businesses

effectively and efficiently.



Work teams were created in all government ministries and entities to accelera
te the
transformation towards e
-
s
ervices.



By the end of 2010, the customer satisfa
ction index reached 92 per cent among individuals,
93

per cent

among

businesses, and 70 per cent

among

government employees.



A new e
-
Government Strategy 2016 has been developed
that a
ims to achieve next
generation g
overnment excellence by delivering high quality services effectively, valuing
efficiency, advocating pr
oactive customer engagement, nurturing entrepreneurship,
collaborating with all stakeholders and encouraging innovation.

25




e
-
S
ervices

are delivered

through

multiple

channels: e
-
govern
ance

portal, mobile portal,
national
24/7
contact c
entre,

and

e
-
services ce
ntres and
public access points or
kiosks.



A customer charter ensure
s

customer centricity of service delivery
, and the set up of
systems and processes for

customer grievance redressal.



S
eparate high
-
level committees in each ministry headed by the Quality Ma
nagement
T
eams
have been established
to focus on the back
-
end support and process streamlining /
reengineering to support the implementation of
the customer
charter.



An

innovative feature is the e
-
govern
ance

toolbar

that

can be downloaded permanently to
a

browser. This allows direct access to e
-
services and RSS feeds without having to go to the
portal.



Qatar

(
http://portal.www.gov.qa
)




The Integrated e
-
Government Program (i
-
Gov) integrates all the services provided by the
Government of Qatar’s various ag
encies into one unified system.



e
-
Govern
ance

in Qatar was first launched in 2003. The planning process for

i
-
Gov began
three years later.



Hukoomi
(Qatar’s e
-
govern
anc
e

portal)
was launched in 2008 and revamped in 2010.

It is a
one
-
stop

portal for citizens,

residents, visitors and business

people to access government
information, interactions and transaction services.



A usage survey revealed that the portal has not been fully embraced by residents; two
-
thirds
of them are aware of its availability, but only o
ne
-
quarter have ever used its services.
Results from the survey informed the portal revamp in
2010 with a number of improvements
such
as a user
-
friendly navigation, a mobile version, and presence on various social media
networks.



A governance model was est
ablished that included: Sponsor Group, i
-
Gov Steering
Committee, Program Management Committee, Project Steering Committees, Project
Delivery Teams and User Committees.



Extensive new infrastructure has been constructed to support the full integration of
gov
ernment service
.

It

include
s
: Government Network, Government Data Center,
Government Contact Center, Government Resources Planning, Payment Platform, Public
Key Infrastructure

and
Information Security Governance Project
. T
hese initiatives were
launched to
provide the back
-
end required for the full functioning of Hukoomi and to
transform the existing ICT infrastructure.



Saudi Arabia (http://www.saudi.gov.sa)



T
he Ministry of Communications
and Information Technology

established the e
-
Government
Program
me

“Yesser” in 2005 in conjunction with the Ministry of Finance and the
Communication and Informat
ion Technology Commission
.



To guide the programme, a National e
-
Government Strategy and First Action Plan covering
the per
iod 2006 to 2010 was developed.



The sh
ared infrastructure built by

Yesser consisted

of the Government Service

Bus
,

Government Secure Network

and the Saudi Government Portal
.



The Second National Action Plan 2012
-
2016 has been developed that builds on the
achievements from the first action plan
.

26




Some government
organizations

have

been successful in implementing e
-
services,

delivering over 50 per cent

of their e
-
services as

full transactional services.



Over 875 e
-
services are now available,

including almost half of the list of 150 specified

in
the

first action plan.



A big development in the Saudi e
-
services is the eDashboard portal, which verifies the
identity of the citizen (Digital Verification) and serves as a single sign
-
on portal where
citizens can access all services p
rovided.



The Saudi Gover
nment also offers an Open Data Initiative

that

provides citizens with
documents and reports from ministries and government agencies, all publicly available. It
encourages e
-
participation to gather public opinion through surveys, public consultations
and bl
ogs.



Dubai, United Arab Emirates (
http://www.dubai.ae
)




In 2009, the Dubai e
-
Government Department was established, merging

the eServices and
Government Information Resource Planning teams into one department
.



While the Emirate of Dubai centrally

control
led and monitored the e
-
services development

overall, government departments were given

the freedom to creatively build their own e
-
services

in an

early phase of the project. Th
is accelerated

the process of making
government services available online.




Dubai adopted a hybrid approach to

implementing its e
-
govern
ance

initiative whereby

government departments focused on e
-
service enablement

while the central authority
focused on

building common parts (e.g., payment, customer

support, e
tc.) needed by all
of
fices. Th
is balance

between centralization of common aspects of e
-
services

implementation and decentralization of

e
-
services enablement was one of the key pillars of

success in the Dubai e
-
govern
ance

initiative, which

resulted in standardization, best
prac
tices sharing,

cost savings, and reduced time to market.



The eHost S
olution is a
w
eb platform
that intends

to unify the electronic presence of
government and semi
-
government departments.
The eHost S
olution
platform is

loaded with
management solutions inclu
ding content management, portal management and other
w
eb
management tools.



The eHost S
olution relieves the departments from the efforts and hassle of establishing their
own electronic presence. There is no need to double the effort and cost since
the
Duba
i e
-
Government
Department
has
put in place
the infrastructure and expertise that other
departments can utilize.



In 2006, the e
-
Government Department began to eva
l
uate the websites of all Dubai
government departments. This has become an annual activity and is based on website
standards and guidelines developed by
the
Dubai e
-
Government

Department
.



e
-
Governance in Iraq


The
Iraqi e
-
Governance Ministerial Steering
Committee

was

established
in

February 2009
. It is
chaired by the Minister of Science and T
echnology and is widely represented by the mi
nistries
across Iraq including t
he Presidency, Iraqi Council of Ministers Secretariat, Ministry of Finance,
Ministry of P
lanning, Ministry o
f Health, Ministry of Education
, Ministry of Higher Education,
Ministry of Scientific Research, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Interior, National Security
27


Commission, Deputy Prime Ministry,

and Kurdistan Regional Government
. In 2012 th
e

committee was expanded to include

the
Ministry of Municipalities and Public Work, Ministry of
Oil, Ministry of Electricity, Ministry of Housing and Construction, Ministry of Transportation,
Ministry of Industry and Minerals, Ministry of Justice, Ministry

of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of
Commerce, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Board
of Supreme Audit, and Comm
unications and Media Commission.


The National e
-
Governance S
trategy and Plan of Action 2012
-
2015 has
been developed

and
endorsed by the Cabinet of Iraq
.

The Iraqi Government Interoperability Framework

(GIF)

and
National Enterprise Architecture

(NEA)

have also been developed. They are elaborated and
further discussed in Module 2.


A

Training of Master Trai
ners P
rogram
me

on e
-
Governance

was initiated in July 2010, which
was followed by a roll out of e
-
governance training throughout Iraq to 3,000 government
officials.

The Training of Master Trainers Programme c
overs

five basic modules: e
-
Governance
Frameworks
, e
-
Governance Strategy, e
-
Governance Planning, e
-
Governance Implementation,
and
Change Management.

A Second Training of Master Trainers Programme was conducted in
2011 and e
-
govern
ance

training in different parts of Iraq is ongoing.


In July 2011, the e
-
G
overnance Iraq portal was launched (
http://www.egov.gov.iq
).

The content
in this
p
ortal is the result of a collaborative effort of various Ir
aqi
g
overnment
m
inistries. The
p
ortal is
a p
roject under the National e
-
Governance Ministerial Steering Committee,
maintained
by the Ministry of Science and Technology
.


In the effort to increase the up
take of e
-
govern
ance

services, C
ommunity

Service

C
entre
s
(CSCs)
will be established
within existing structure
s throughout Iraq. Post offices and youth
centre
s will repre
sent the point o
f entry for the
CSCs
.
The
CSCs

will be linked with the
implementation of the pilot e
-
services to promote access to information resources and
government programmes and se
rvices. Additionally, the
CSCs

will serve to addres
s local issues
and p
riorities.




Something To Do


Because Iraq is considered one of the late adopters of e
-
governance,
it has

the advantage of
learning from past lessons and failures and build upon and adapt the good practices from other
countries
.


Conduct an online resear
ch of e
-
governance in Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia or Dubai (select
one country)
.
Draw out the lessons learned and good practices for content management and
portal management in Iraq
.


Summarize findings on a flipchart for presentation in a plenary
.




1.4

The R
ole of Chief Information Officers
11




11

This section is drawn heavily from the
United Nations e
-
Government Survey 2012
.

28



Government
Chief Information Officers (
CIOs
)

are being asked to help transform government
and governance through ICT

a transformation that involves breaking old habits, learning new
ways to do business, and adoptin
g a radically different approach to serving constituents. To
meet that challenge, government CIOs need new capabilities

and new tools to look at ICT
from a business perspective