UNIVERSITY TEKNOLOGI MARA

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UNIVERSITY TEKNOLOGI MARA
LEVERAGING AN OPENVPN TECHNOLOGY
TO END USER
MD IKHWAN BIN HAMDAN
Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of
Master of Science
Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences
June 2010
CANDIDATE'S DECLARATION
I declare that the work in this thesis was carried out in accordance with the regulations
of University Teknologi MARA. It is original and is the result of my own work, unless
otherwise indicated or acknowledged as referenced work. This topic has not been
submitted to any
other academic institution or non-academic institution for any other
degree or qualification.
In the event that my thesis be found to violate the conditions mentioned above, I
voluntarily waive the right of conferment of my degree and agree to be subjected to the
disciplinary rules and
regulations of University Teknologi Mara (UiTM).
Name of Candidate
Candidate's ID No.
Programme
Faculty
Thesis Title
Signature of Candidate:
Date:
Md Ikhwan Bin Hamdan
2007131549
Master of Science in Information Technology
Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences
Leveraging An OpenVPN Technology To End User
4P-+-^R
June 2010
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ABSTRACT
The vital part of internet to end user is file-sharing. This activity has been active ever
since the beginning of the evolution of internet. Significantly during 1999 to 2003 era
many P2P authors began to enhance the technology which has attained four generations
in that period. Incidentally the latest P2P technology involves "many to one" model
which predominantly exists in BitTorrent and its clones. This has been a very
innovative approach.
Meanwhile in 2001 Streamyx began to bring broadband to Malaysia. This quickly
attracted many waiting users which gradually boost up its one millionth subscribers
around 2007. However sometimes in 2006 Streamyx began to impose packet filtering
without notice in trend with most world ISPs. During that time most users began to
express their grouse. The issue has been also vigorously highlighted by a couple of local
press. Meanwhile the ISP alleges that the international lines are at fault which
coincidentally coincides with the Taiwan earthquake in 2006 and another incident of
cable fault in Middle East in 2008.
However according to Cisco Systems the issue of slow internet connection to end user
which deprived its user to enjoy its prescribed capacity as promised is not an issue
unless ISP has abide to the procedure of good network infrastructure.
Apparently for ISP to impose packet filtering there are various methods available.
Currently the Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) method is the most advanced option up-to-
date to prevent rampant P2P activities. Realizing the method used many P2P authors
began to include an encrypted technology in their products. However it has not given
much effect to counter DPI.
Hence with the issue of limited capacity to broadband service for end user this paper is
undertaking a task to address it.
After much thought one of the most promising technology in focus is Virtual Private
Network (VPN). This technology has been mainly adopted by most corporate users and
has the capability of a powerful encrypted traffic and secured network environment.
Thus this paper is basically to show that by leveraging on the strength of VPN the end
user has now an option to circumvent and address the stated issue indefinitely. In this
context there are two VPN options available. They are the Propriety and an Open
Source VPN. However to keep the cost low an Open Source VPN plus a couple of other
software are implemented. The result is shown in this paper with success to benefit the
end users in general.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to extend my gratitude to Allah S.W.T as for His grace to give me the
confidence and patience to complete this paper.
I would also like to thank my supervisor Mr. Farok Hj Azmat for his support, patience
and for being my examiner and coordinator for this program.
To all the lecturers involved I thanked them for the support and knowledge.
Subsequently I would also like to express my most appreciation to both my parents
without them I would not be here. All advices and supports shown to me are great
treasures.
Last but not least, to whom their names which are not mentioned here, many thanks for
your kindness and support. May Allah bless all of you.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
AUTHOR'S DECLARATION

11
ABSTRACT

111
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS

v
LIST OF TABLES

xii
LIST OF FIGURES

xiv
LIST OF GRAPHS

xviii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

xx
LIST OF TERMINOLOGIES

xxiii
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction

2
1.1 Problem Background

4
1.2 Problem Statements

5
1.3 Objectives

6
1.4 Project Scope

7
1.5
Research Significant

7
1.6 Summary of Chapter 1

8
CHAPTER 2:
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction

10
2.1 Background of Broadband

10
2.2 Advantages of Broadband

15
2.3 End Users Activities on The Broadband

15
2.4 File Sharing Overview

18
2.5 First Generation of P2P

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2.5.1 Napster

21
2.5.2 Napster Architecture

22
2.5.3 Napster Summary

23
2.6 Second Generation of P2P

23
2.6.1 Gnutella

23
2.6.2 Gnutella Architecture

24
2.6.3 Gnutella Protocol

24
2.7 Third Generation of P2P

26
2.7.1 KaZaA Protocol

27
2.7.2 FastTrack

28
2.8 Fourth Generation of P2P

28
2.8.1 BitTorrent

29
2.8.2 BitTorrent Protocol

31
2.9 P2P Effects on The Internet

31
2.10 Sharing Technology Advantages

32
2.11 Summary of File Sharing

33
2.12 Challenges of ISP

33
2.13 Managing Heavy Traffic

34
2.14 P2P Traffic Identification

35
2.15 Bandwidth Throttling

36
2.16 Bandwidth Throttling in Malaysia

36
2.17 Methods of Throttling

37
2.17.1 Traffic Shaping

37
2.17.2 Bandwidth Throttling

38
2.17.3 Bandwidth Capping

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2.17.4 Bandwidth Management

38
2.17.5 Rate Limiting

38
2.18 How Throttling is Implemented

39
2.18.1 Hardware Method

39
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2.18.1.1 Sandvine -Policy Traffic Switch (PTS)

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2.18.1.2 Cisco Bandwidth Control (CBC) Method

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2.18.1.3 Delaying Metered Traffic Method

40
2.18.2 Software Method

40
2.18.2.1 Dynamic Bandwidth Throttling

41
2.19 How Throttling Can Be Overcome

43
2.20 Advantages of VPN

44
2.21 Limitations of VPN

44
2.22 VPN Implementation

45
2.23 The Present and The Future Of Broadband in Malaysia

45
2.23.1 The Present

46
2.23.2 The Future

46
2.24 P2P is Legal

46
2.25 Summary of Chapter 2

48
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction

50
3.1 Methodology Overview

50
3.1.1 Phase 1: System Setup

52
3.1.1.1 Software

52
3.1.1.2 Hardware

52
3.1.1.3 Budget

53
3.1.2 Summary of Phase 1

54
3.1.3 Phase 2: Testing and Analysis

54
3.1.4 Summary of Phase 2

55
3.1.5 Phase 3: Observation and Results

55
3.1.6 Summary of Phase 3

55
3.1.7 Phase 4: Discussion and conclusion

56
3.2 Summary of Chapter 3

56
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CHAPTER
4: SYSTEM SETUP
4.0 Introduction

58
4.1 Schedule Feasibility

58
4.2 Economic Feasibility

59
4.2.1 Hardware

60
4.2.2 Software

60
4.3 Technical Feasibility

61
4.4 Operational Feasibility

61
4.5
Server Operating System

61
4.6 VPN Benchmark and Setup

62
4.7 Proxy Server

63
4.8 IP Blocker

63
4.9 Hardware and Software Setup

63
4.9.1 Hardware Configuration

64
4.9.2 Software

65
4.9.2.1 Server Operating System

65
4.9.2.2 OpenVPN

66
4.9.2.3 CCProxy Server

66
4.9.2.4 PeerGuardian 2

68
4.10 Summary of Hardware and Software Setup

69
4.11 Summary of Chapter 4

69
CHAPTER 5: TESTING AND ANALYSIS
5.0 Review of the System Implementation

71
5.1 Preliminary Overview of the VPN Solution

72
5.2
Behavior of Download

74
5.3
Background Knowledge

75
5.3.1
Simple Equations for User

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5.3.1.1 Changing bit/s to Byte/s

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5.3.2 Calculating Downloading Time

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5.3.3 Example 1

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5.3.4 Example 2

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5.3.5 Example 3

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5.4
P2P Verses "One to One" Sharing

84
5.5 Example 4

86
5.6
Problems during the Preliminary Experiment

87
5.7 Summary of Chapter

91
CHAPTER 6: OBSERVATION AND RESULTS
6.0 Introduction

93
6.1 Prerequisite to the Observation

93
6.1.1 Procedural Setup

95
6.1.2 Broadband Speed

95
6.1.3 uTorrent Performance on The Server

98
6.2 Benchmark Downloads Speed

99
6.2.1 Ubuntu Downloads Without VPN for One Week Duration

99
6.2.2 Analysis of Ubuntu Downloads Without VPN for One Week

103
Duration
6.2.3 Ubuntu Downloads With VPN for One Week Duration

103
6.2.4 Analysis of Ubuntu Downloads With VPN for One Week

107
Duration
6.3 Behavior of Download to Any Random File for One Week Duration

109
6.3.1 Random Files Downloaded Without VPN for One Week

109
Duration
6.3.2 Analysis of Random Files Downloaded Without VPN for One

113
Week Duration
6.3.3 Random Files Downloaded With VPN for One Week Duration

114
6.3.4 Repeat Observations and Remedial Action

118
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6.3.5
Analysis of Random Files Downloaded With VPN for One

121
Week Duration
6.3.6 Effect of seeds to download speed

122
6.3.7 Summary

123
6.4 Summary of Chapter 6

125
CHAPTER 7:
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
7.0 Introduction

127
7.1 Additional Observations and Conclusions

128
7.1.1 Conclusion on Streamyx

128
7.1.2 Conclusion One of the VPN Implementation

128
7.1.3 Conclusion Two of the VPN Implementation

128
7.2 Continuing Future Works

129
7.3 Further P2P Scenario

130
REFERENCES

131
APPENDICES
Appendix 1: Internet data rates backbone transmission technologies

139
Appendix 2: P2P software that supports Gnutella network

142
Appendix 3: P2P in general

143
Appendix 4: BitTorrent in action

144
Appendix 5:
Ports for Internet Services

146
Appendix 6: Cisco solution explanation

153
Appendix 7: Installation of OpenVPN for server

154
Appendix 8: Installation of OpenVPN for clients

169
Appendix 9: Installation of CCProxy server

174
Appendix 10: Installation of PeerGuardian 2 on the server

178
Appendix 11: Ubuntu download without VPN - uTorrent screenshot

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Appendix 12: Ubuntu download with VPN - uTorrent screenshot
209
Appendix 13: Random files download without VPN - uTorrent screenshot
237
Appendix 14: Random files download with VPN - uTorrent screenshot
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LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
Table 2.1: Protocol Type Distribution in Five Regions

18
Table 2.2: Recommendation of Network Planning by Cisco Systems

34
CHAPTER 4: SYSTEM SETUP
Table 4.1: Research Schedule

50
Table 4.2: VPN Software Compared

62
CHAPTER 5: TESTING AND ANALYSIS
Table 5.1: Problems Brief History

WE
CHAPTER 6: OBSERVATION AND RESULTS
Table 6.1: Ubuntu Download Performance without VPN For 24/7

99
Table 6.2: Ubuntu Download Performance with VPN for 24/7

104
Table 6.3: Random Files Download Performance without VPN for 24/7

110
Table 6.4: Random File Download Performance with VPN for 24/7

115
Table 6.5:
Remedial Observation on The Specific Days and Time

119
Table 6.6: Modify Table of Random File Download Performance with VPN for 120
24/7
APPENDICES
Table Al .1: Internet Transmission Technologies

139
Table A2.1: P2P software for Gnutella network

142
Table A5.1: Table for Internet Services Ports

146
Table A1l.1: Ubuntu download performance without VPN for 24/7

180
Table Al2.1: Ubuntu download performance with VPN for 24/7

209
Table A13.1: Random files download performance without VPN for 24/7

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Table A14.1: Random Files Download Performance with VPN for 24/7
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LIST OF FIGURES
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Figure 1.1: Internet Concept

2
Figure 1.2: VPN Concept

3
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
Figure 2.1: Coaxial Cable

11
Figure 2.2: Fiber Optic

11
Figure 2.3: UTP Cable

12
Figure 2.4: The Concept of DSL

13
Figure 2.5:
User Activities on Broadband Service

17
Figure 2.6: Usenet Overview

20
Figure 2.7: Napster Screenshot

21
Figure 2.8: Napster Architecture

22
Figure 2.9: Limewire Screenshot

23
Figure 2.10: Handshake Process

25
Figure 2.11: Node 1 Initiates Handshake Process

25
Figure 2.12: Node 2 Acknowledges

26
Figure 2.13: End of Handshake Process

26
Figure 2.14: Request Sequence

27
Figure
2.15: Acknowledge Sequence

28
Figure 2.16: BitTorrent Overview of "Many to One" Concept

29
Figure 2.17: BitTorrent Protocol

31
Figure 2.18: iAnywhere Throttle down Behavior

41
Figure 2.19: iAnywhere DBWT Option

42
Figure 2.20: DBWT Recovery Behavior

43
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CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
Figure 3.1: Methodology Overview

51
CHAPTER 4: SYSTEM SETUP
Figure 4.1: Online Server Configuration

64
Figure 4.2: Network Card Configuration

65
Figure 4.3: OpenVPN as a Service for Windows Server 2003

66
Figure 4.4: CCProxy Server in Action

67
Figure 4.5:
CCProxy with Four Users Using VPN

67
Figure 4.6: PeerGuardian 2 in Action

68
Figure 4.7: All Servers are Running

69
CHAPTER 5: TESTING AND ANALYSIS
Figure 5.1: Location ofVPN Server

72
Figure 5.2: Download Performance WITHOUT using VPN

73
Figure 5.3:
Download Performance WITH using VPN

73
Figure 5.4:
A Well-Mannered Download

74
Figure 5.5:
An Erratic Sample of Download

75
Figure 5.6:
Latency Value as Obtained from The ISP Line

79
Figure 5.7: File Size Versus Download Time

80
Figure 5.8: File Size Versus Download Time in MByte

82
Figure 5.9: File Size Versus Download Time in GByte

84
Figure 5.10: "Many to One" Model

85
Figure 5.11A: PeerGuardian 2 Setting One

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Figure 5.11B: PeerBlock 1.0 Setting One

88
Figure 5.12A: PeerGuardian 2 Setting Two

89
Figure 5.1213: PeerBlock 1.0 Setting Two

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CHAPTER 6: OBSERVATION AND RESULTS
Figure 6.1: The Arbitrary Tunnel Created by VPN

94
Figure 6.2: Streamyx Speedometer Speed Test

96
Figure 6.3: Speed Test by Jaring on Streamyx Line

96
Figure 6.4: Line Speed from VPN Server to Malaysia

97
Figure 6.5:
uTorrent Performance on The Server

98
Figure 6.6: Fluctuation of Download Speed Within
5 Seconds

108
Figure 6.7: Random Download Without VPN is Slow Even With Many Seeders 114
APPENDICES
Figure A3. 1: Ultrapeers scenario

143
Figure A4.1: Steps of BitTorrent in action

145
Figure A7. 1: Screenshot of creating [keys ] folder

154
Figure A7.2: Screenshot of an example of server key identification

155
Figure A7.3: Placement the two files in the [keys] folder

155
Figure A7.4: Screenshot of the progress when [ init-config.bat ] is run

156
Figure A7.5: Screenshot of the progress when [build-dh.batj is run

156
Figure A7.6: Screenshot of the progress when [build-ca.bat] is run

156
Figure A7.7: Screenshot of the progress when [build-key-server.bat server] is

157
run
Figure A7.8: Screenshot of the progress when [build-key.bat client] is run

157
Figure A7.9: Server configuration for office user

167
Figure A7. 10: Server configuration for home user

168
Figure A7.1 1: Screenshot of OpenVPN as a service

168
Figure A8. 1: Client configuration for home user

169
Figure A8.2: Client configuration for office user

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Figure A8.3: Establishing VPN connection to server

171
Figure A8.4: VPN icon connection shown on the toolbar

171
Figure A8.5: Setup for Yahoo messenger

172
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Figure A8.6: Setup for Mozilla firefox browser

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Figure A8.7: Setup for uTorrent

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Figure A9. 1: Main setup window

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Figure A9.2: CCProxy main window

174
Figure A9.3: CCProxy register window

175
Figure A9.4: CCProxy configure window

175
Figure A9.5: CCProxy user account setup window

176
Figure A9.6: CCProxy hide button location

176
Figure A9.7: CCProxy in the taskbar menu icon

177
Figure A10.1: PeerGuardian 2 setup window

178
Figure A 10.2: PeerGuardian 2 first configuration window

178
Figure A10.3: PeerGuardian 2 second configuration window

179
Figure A 10.4: PeerGuardian 2 in the taskbar menu icon

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LIST OF GRAPHS
CHAPTER 6: OBSERVATION AND RESULTS
Graph 6.1.1: Monday - Ubuntu downloaded without VPN

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Graph 6.1.2: Tuesday - Ubuntu downloaded without VPN

101
Graph 6.1.3: Wednesday - Ubuntu downloaded without VPN

101
Graph 6.1.4: Thursday - Ubuntu downloaded without VPN

101
Graph 6.1.5:
Friday - Ubuntu downloaded without VPN

102
Graph 6.1.6: Saturday - Ubuntu downloaded without VPN

102
Graph 6.1.7: Sunday - IJbuntu downloaded without VPN

102
Graph 6.2.1: Monday - Ubuntu downloaded with VPN

105
Graph 6.2.2: Tuesday - Ubuntu downloaded with VPN

105
Graph 6.2.3: Wednesday - Ubuntu downloaded with VPN

105
Graph 6.2.4: Thursday - Ubuntu downloaded with VPN

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Graph 6.2.5: Friday - Ubuntu downloaded with VPN

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Graph 6.2.6: Saturday - Ubuntu downloaded with VPN

106
Graph 6.2.7: Sunday - Ubuntu downloaded with VPN

107
Graph 6.3.1: Monday— Random downloaded without VPN

111
Graph 6.3.2: Tuesday - Random downloaded without VPN

111
Graph 6.3.3: Wednesday - Random downloaded without VPN

111
Graph 6.3.4: Thursday - Random downloaded without VPN

112
Graph 6.3.5: Friday— Random downloaded without VPN

112
Graph 6.3.6: Saturday - Random downloaded without VPN

112
Graph 6.3.7: Sunday - Random downloaded without VPN

113
Graph 6.4.1: Monday - Random files downloaded with VPN

116
Graph 6.4.2: Tuesday - Random files downloaded with VPN

116
Graph 6.4.3: Wednesday - Random files downloaded with VPN

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Graph 6.4.4: Thursday - Random files downloaded with VPN

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Graph 6.4.5:
Friday - Random files downloaded with VPN

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Graph 6.4.6: Saturday - Random files downloaded with VPN

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Graph 6.4.7: Sunday - Random files downloaded with VPN

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Graph 6.4.8: The new modified random files download with VPN for 24/7

121
Graph 6.5.1:
Comparison of Ubuntu download with and without VPN for 1
123
week
Graph 6.5.2:
Comparison of random files download with and without VPN for 1 124
week
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ABBREVIATIONS
AAG Asia-America Gate Way
ACNS Application And Content Networking System
ADSL Asynchronous DSL
AP Associated Press
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
B2B Business To Business
BBS Bulletin Board System
bps Bit Per Second
BTB Bandwidth Threshold Blocking
BWC Bandwidth Controller
CBC Cisco Bandwidth Control
CDN Content Delivery Networks
CIR Committed Information Rate
DHT Distributed Hash Table
DMT Discrete Multitone
DPI Deep Packet Inspection
DQ Dynamic Querying
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
DSLam Digital Subscriber Line Multiplexer
FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing
GBWC Global Bandwidth Controller
HDSL High-Bitrate DSL
HD High Definition
HDTV High Definition Tv (Hdtv)
HFC Hybrid Fiber/Co-Axial
IBM International Business Machine
IP Internet Protocol
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IPsec Internet Protocol Security
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISP Internet Service Provider
Kbps Kilo Bit Per Second
KBps Kilo Byte Per Second
MIER Malaysian Institute Of Economic Research
MIMOS Malaysian Institute Of Microelectronic Systems
MMO Massively Multiplayer Online
MMORPG Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games
MP3 Mpeg3
MPAA Motion Picture Association Of America
MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group
MSO Multi System Operators
NAT Network Address Translations
OS Operating System
P2P Peer-To-Peer
PIR Peak Information Rate
POTS Plain Old Telephone System
PTS Policy Traffic Switch
QoS Quality Of Service
QPM Qos Policy Manager
QRP Query Routing Protocol
RADSL Rate Adaptive Dsl
RIAA Recording Industry Association Of America
ROT Return On Investment
RIP Routing Information Protocol
SBWCs User Bandwidth Controllers
SCE Service Control Engine
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
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SOHO Small Office/Home Office
SONET Synchronous Optical Network
SSL Secure Sockets Layer
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UK United Kingdom
UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair
UUCP UNIX To UNIX Copy Protocol
VDSL Very High Data Rate DSL
VOD Video On Demand
VOIP Voice Over IP
VPN Virtual Private Network
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TERMINOLOGIES
The terminology used in the BitTorrent technology is not standardized. Hence for the
sake of clarity the terms used throughout this report is defined.
torrent An extension file name for BitTorrent file
It contains metadata of the file to be shared:
- The URL of the tracker
- Pieces <hashl,hash2.....hash n>
- Piece length
- Name of file
- Length of the file
Choked A connection is choked if data is not pass through
Chunk A piece of file typically 64kb,
256kb or 4MByte block
Leaf See peer
Leech A peer who is downloading from the seeder but not contributing
leecher See leech
Leeching A peer who is still downloading from the seeder
Node See peer
Peer A client to the P2P network. Each peer periodically, typically
every 3 minute reports the amount of bytes it has uploaded and
downloaded since it joins the torrent.
Peer is also known as node or leaf.
Peer-to-peer A technology where users share files among them in a sharing
network such as Gnutella, KaZaa, eDonkey, BitTorrent etc.
P2P See Peer-to-peer
Piece Normally a large file is broken down into pieces of about
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64kByte and 4mByte block size
See also chunk
Seeder A peer who has the complete copy of the file
Seeding Is uploading a file to a peer
Snubbed A peer who is acting poorly - not uploading or sending bad
control messages
Superpeer The highest level of peer or also known as Ultrapeer
Torrent A torrent is a set of peers cooperating to share the same content
or file using the BitTorrent protocol
Tracker The computer that coordinates the file for distribution or act as a
middle man who informed the peer of other entire peers in the
network. It also stores the IP addresses of all peers in the torrent.
The tracker is used as a center point in order to allowed new
peers to discover existing one. The tracker also maintains
statistic on torrent
Tracker's tasks are:
- Caches peer (IP, port, peer ID)
- State information of peer (completed or downloading)
- Returns a random list of peers
Ultrapeer Sec superpeer
Sub-pieces Typically the pieces are broken down into a smaller size of
16kByte
See also pieces
Initial seeder The peer that provides the first copy of the requested file
BitTorrent It is a P2P technology which does not require a central server. It
is a fully distributed system. The technology deploys many
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