Towards a Smart Home

possehastyMechanics

Nov 5, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Towards a Smart Home
Framework

Moody
Alam

Agents, Interaction & Complexity (AIC) Group,

School of Electronics and Computer Science,

University of Southampton

What is a smart home?

The Future Home,

The
Jetsons
,
1962

Home automation

Sensors

Connected devices

Visions from the past

The Present


Future Vision!

Future Homes, 1969

[A robot serving beer!]

The Smart Home,

The
Jetsons
,
1962

Future Homes, 1969

[A robot
serving beer
!]

Green + Wired

What is a smart home?





No agreed
definition!


The IBM’s vision:

1.
Instrumented

2.
Interconnected

3.
Intelligent



Why is the Smart Home important?

5.38 Million Smart Homes by
2015
[
Berg Insight]


Renewable energy


electricity


gas


water, etc.

home comfort


lights


home automation


Zero Carbon Homes

Energy management

home care


chronicle diseases


presence


home hospitalization

Smart home is an active research area


Academia


All top
10
Engi
. & Tech Universities [
Times
higher
Education].


Caltech, MIT, Princeton, Cali
-
Berkeley, Southampton*


Industry


Governments


US, UK,
Aus
, Canada, China, EU,


Hundreds of companies
-

Microsoft, IBM, British Gas..


Numerous sub
-
domains: home automation, energy
conservation, elderly living.


We are interested in those sub
-
domains which
require developing a software model of smart
home.


Typical workflow in such domains

Form a
Hypothesis

Build a
Model

Simulate
/Optimise

Analyse
Results

Modify/
Conclude
Hypothesis

Typical workflow in such domains

Form a
Hypothesis

Build a
Model

Simulate
/Optimise

Analyse
Results

Modify/
Conclude
Hypothesis

Battery
reduces
cost

Matlab

/
Java code

Minimise
cost given
battery

Compare
costs

True /
False

Typical workflow in such domains

Form a
Hypothesis

Build a
Model

Simulate
/Optimise

Analyse
Results

Modify/
Conclude
Hypothesis

Battery
reduces
cost

Matlab

/
Java code

Minimise
cost given
battery

Compare
costs

True /
False

What is the problem?

Problem:

These three phases (modelling, simulation
and analysis)
take up the most time.


Solution:

We propose our Smart Home Framework to speed up these phases.



We are not the only
smart

people to have realised this problem!


Industry has the proprietary software toolkits.


Cost and Licenses!


P
latform
-
dependency!


Limited interoperability between platforms.


Focused on the company’s business.


Academia has very few open
-
source toolkits:


Focused on narrow research issues


Models are not general and thus not extendable in other related domain



Why is SH Framework a good idea?



Open
-
source
and free of cost
!



SHF has three core components each focused
on a single phase:


Model Classes


Model building phase


Optimiser


Optimisation / Simulation phase


Visualiser



Analyse Results


Smart Home Framework

Building a Model

Optimisation

Analysis

Smart Home Framework

Building a Model

Optimisation

Analysis

SHF: Model Classes: Overview



We take a bottom
-
up modelling approach:


Smart Home is made of different components (e.g. appliances and
storage).


We provide general models for these components.


These components can be integrated to create a smart home.



This general model of a smart home:


Has an understanding of its components and how are they related


Can be extended to specific models



These smart homes can be connected together to form a
smart community.



Modelling a smart home


A collection of:


Appliances


Generators


Storage


Electric Vehicle


Relationships:


Between all above


Grid (Tariff)


Other Smart homes


Appliances

EVs

Storage

Generation

Grid

Grid


SH Framework contains


Interfaces


Abstract classes


And Implementation of abstract classes



To model


Generation


Storage


Appliances


Appliances’ Use


Modelling a smart home

SHF: Modelling Generation & Storage


Modelling Generation Sources


Microgeneration

(e.g. Solar Panels / Wind Turbine)


Grid


Modelling Storage Facilities


Electric Batteries


EV Batteries



SHF: Appliances and their usage


Support to model appliances
(i.e.
Loads
):


SHF already have implementation of common home
devices (e.g. TV, Oven)


Abstract classes to include new appliances



Modelling appliances’ usage (i.e.
Load Events
):


Deferrable and Non
-
Deferrable


Interruptible and Non
-
Interruptable



Critical


Baseload


Combination of above (e.g. a deferrable interruptible
critical load event)



SHF: Modelling
implicit

understanding
of devices and their relationships



Consumption
+ Battery Charging =
Generation


Battery has a limited number of charging
cycles.


EV battery is available only certain times a day.




Modelling is easy: Code Snippets


Adding
renewable
generation and/or grid
is easy:


agent.addEnergySource
(new
SolarPanel
(1.5kW
));


agent.addEnergySource
(new
WindTurbine
(2kW));


agent.addEnergySource
(new Grid(tariff));


Creating appliances and Load Events:


TV
tv

= new TV(0.3kW)


agent.addEvent
(new
onDeferrableLoadEvent
(
tv,start,end
);


Adding storage


agent.addStorage
(new Battery( 2kWh, 0.5kW, 10%loss));

Smart Home Framework

Building a Model

Optimisation

Analysis

SHF: Optimisation in a smart home


Optimisation depends on the
structure

or
formation
of your smart home model:


Generally speaking, you may be solving a convex or
non
-
convex problem to answer your research
question.


Your choice of optimiser will depend on the structure
of your problem.



SHF
architecture allows you to plug
-
in any
optimiser of your
choice
!


SHF comes with a default optimiser


IBM’s CPLEX Optimiser is available as the default plug
-
in optimiser:


Free of cost to academia.


Supports LP, MIP and Convex optimisation


Catch: License needed for commercial use.



So if your optimisation problem falls under LP, IP, MIP or certain
convex subclasses, then you can use the default optimiser!



This optimiser is sufficient
for
the common
optimisation
problems.
For advanced and complex optimisation problems (e.g. non
-
convex)
you can just plug
-
in a general solver of your choice.

SHF and IBM CPLEX


An optimisation problem can be expressed as a:


Model (variables, and constraints.)


Objective
function


SHF already have a smart home CPLEX model (Java
code).


Commonly used objective functions are already
implemented, e.g.


Maximise Preference, Minimise Cost/Carbon


If your objective function is not already
implemented, you can just write a new objective
function and use the existing CPLEX home model!




Smart Home Framework

Building a Model

Optimisation

Analysis

SHF: Analysing results


SHF comes with a
visualiser
.


Code is there to visualise common devices /
events in a smart home.


Plots for generation, consumption, battery usage


Visualiser

is extendible, easy to include new
plots etc.


Results available in XML, CSV formats

Smart Home Demo: Modelling,
Optimisation and Analysis

Beyond a single smart home:

Smart communities


The framework has all the building blocks to
create a community of connected homes.


A small community be readily modelled to test
different
communal aspects:


Energy Exchange


Electric
vehicle
charging


Battery Usage minimisation


Coalition
formation
for group buying




Smart Community Demo:

Reducing the battery usage through
energy exchange

Questions??

Thank you!