BIOREMEDIATION [STAND ALONE UNIT] AGAINST GLOBAL HAZARDOUS WASTE OIL PROBLEM

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VSRD International Journal of Technical & Non
-
Technical Research, Vol. 4

No.
6

June
2013

/
1

e
-
ISSN : 0976
-
7967, p
-
ISSN : 2319
-
2216
©
VSRD

International Journals

:
www.vsrdjournals.com


REVIEW
ARTICLE

BIOREMEDIATION [STAND ALONE UNIT]

AGAINST GLOBAL HAZARDOUS WASTE OIL PROBLEM

1
Manjary Vyas
*
,

2
Mahavir Yadav and
3
Archana Tiwari

1
Research Scholar
,

2
Associate Professor,
3
Head of Department,
1,2,3
Department

of Biotechnology
,

Rajiv Gandhi Prodyogik Vishwavidyalaya
,
Bhopal
,
Madhya Pradesh
, INDIA.

2
Basketball Coach, Sports Department, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, INDIA.

*
Corresponding
Author
:
manjaryvyas@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

One of the major environmental problem today is waste oil contamination due to various industrial activity and accidental rel
eases of
petroleum product. It is an issue of sensible concern due to serious implication on health and environment. It po
lluted air, water as well as
soil. It is imperative to purify and recycle waste water, air as well as soil in view of reduced

availability and deteriorating its quality.
Traditionally waste oil constituent treatments include physical separation methods

and

chemical reaction methods
but this
led to secondary
effluent problem due to formation of toxic materials.

Physical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from
contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive.

So this
enhanced interest of utilization
of microbes
for waste oil
treatment and pollutant control.

Biological processes play a major role in the removal of contaminants and they take

advantage of the
astonishing me
tabolic versatility of microorganisms to degrade
or convert such compounds.

The objective of this review paper has been
two folds
-

to find sustainable way to clean up waste oil polluted sites by microbes and to enhance the utilization and commercial
distribution of microbes in industrial biotechnology.

K
eywords

:

External Loop Airlift Bioreactor (ELAB), Pseudomonas Putida,

Biofilters (BFs), Bio
-
T
rickling Filters (BTF), Fluidized
Bed Bioreactors (FBrs).


1.

INTRODUCTION

As the industrial
ization became more potent
,

interest shifted
to
industrial
waste stream

sectors.

Large quantity of
pollutant
generated due to huge industrial activity such as
various toxic metals
, harmful

dissolved gases,

and several
organic and inorganic compounds
. Amongst all pollutant,

one of

the

imp
ortant classes of organic pollu
tants in the
environment is waste oil con
stitu
ents and halogenated
products of petro
-
chemicals.

The waste oil contaminants
present in industrial waste should either be destroyed or
removed from vent

before it is emitted in to natural
resources

by a particular process industry.

These substances
and the
ir reaction products can pose major risks to human
health and environment.

Most of the industries generate hazardous

waste in the form
of volatile organic constituent

and solvents

which are
produced three dimensional pollution
.
This waste oil may
accumula
te in soil in excessive quantity in long term use,
ultimately physiologically adverse effects on soil
germination capacity. In the form of volatile organic
constituent, it released into air so its quality deteriorated
constantly. The waste water enriched w
ith varied waste oil
pollutants
,

harmful both for human being and the aquatic
flora and fauna
.

Traditionally waste oil constituent treatments include
physical separation methods and
chemical reaction methods
but now its
treatment

became subjects of

biological
treatment.

Traditional systems have proved to be
economical only when the waste stream contains high
concentrations of pollutant, which can either be recovered
or destroyed completely.

Rather than phy
sical and chemical
cleaning up
, bioremediati
on of oil hazardous waste is
simply stopped producing so much of it and it

s toxic by
product.

It is the most evident

me
thod to degrade it
below
the toxic limit.

It is simple to install,

self regulating and
have low capital and operating cost. It is easily

applied for a
contaminated site and also for a waste stream.
[1] It
involves

the chemical dissolution of materials by bacteria or

other
biological means. Waste oil

material can be degraded
aerobically or anaerobically.
[2]


So there have been many attempts
to clean up this
compound but biological treatment is attractive one.

The

ability

to

isolate

high

numbers

of

certain

oil
-
degrading
microbes
enhance
its
utilization and

commercial
distribution

for treatment

of waste oil pollutant stream

in
industrial biotec
hnology

as well as contaminated sites in
nature. Natural isolates will never be the whole solution to
hazardous waste, so there is a need of genetic engineering
of the microbial strain and subsequent introduction of it to a
specific site.

The elimination o
f a wide range of pollutants
and wastes from the environment is an absolute requirement
to promote a sustainable development of our society.

2.

ROLE OF PETROLIUM HY
DROCARBON
TO CONTAMINATE ENVIO
RNMENT

Sources of

pollutant can be classified as anthropogenic an
d
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natural sources.

Waste oil comes under anthropogenic
source. It

polluted air in the form of volatile organic
constituent.


VOC have a high vapour pressure at ordinary room
temperature conditions. Their high vapour pressure causes
evaporation and enters
the surrounding air.

It
form a major
part nearly two
-
thirds of all pollutants sent to the
environment[3]. The exhaust from burning fuels in
automobiles and industries is a major source of pollution in
the air. It is caused ozone layer depletion, green hous
e
effect and smog formation. Many VOCs are dangerous to
human health. It can cause harm to the environment.

Waste oil
polluted
water in the form of
particulate matter,
toxic chemicals and other materials.

It enter in lakes,
streams, rivers, oceans, and oth
er water bodies. This results
in the pollution of water. It is also affected ground water
system. The specific waste oil contaminants include a wide
variety of chemicals

Now o
il spill on water s
urface become
a global problem.Contaminants high concentration

has
negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna.

Soil pollution is the contamination of its natural
environment.

Human activities can release waste oil
substances in to soil, which can cause problems for humans,
plants and animals. It is correlated with t
he degree of
utilization of aromatic compounds like pesticides,
petroleum hydrocarbons, and solvents.
It is also
include
reduction of

germinative capacity of soil.

Due to petroleum hydrocarbon impact on environment, the
change of ecosystem resulted change
of metabolism of
living organism, which in turn could have major
consequences for food chains. The lower pyramid level of
the food chain may ingest this aromatic compound. Thus it
increased potential extinction of species. Each of these
problems has seriou
s implication for our health as well as
for whole environment.

3.

CONVENTIONAL METHOD
FOR WASTE
OIL POLLUTION TREATM
ENT: BY
SKIMMING


Industrial waste oil treatment covers the mechanism
skimming from open water surface. petrochemical plants,

natural gas proce
ssing plants, chemical plants, and oil
refineries industries commonly contain gross amounts of oil
and suspended solids. Those industries use API device
which is designed to separate the oil and suspended solids
from the waste water effluents. The API sepa
rator is a
gravity separation device. It is work on the principle of
Stokes Law to define the rise velocity of oil droplets based
on their density and size. The design is based on specific
gravity difference between the oil and waste water .The
suspended s
olids settles to the bottom of the separator as a
sediment layer, the oil rises to top of the separator and the
cleansed waste water is the middle layer between the oil
layer and solids. After skimming waste oil subjected to
physical, chemical or biologica
l treatment. [4]

4.

COMMERCIALLY AVAILAB
LE
BIOREMEDIATION AGENT

U.S. EPA define bioremediation agent as Microbiological
cultures, enzyme additives, or nutrient additives that
significantly increase the rate of biodegradation to mitigate
the effects of the dis
charge [
5
]. The U.S. EPA compiled a
list of 15 bioremediation agents [
6
] as a part of the National
Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan
(NCP) Product Schedule, But the list was modified, and the
number of bioremediation agents was reduce
d to nine.

Table 1

:

Bioremediation agents in NCP Product Sche
dule (Adapted from USEPA, 2002)

Name or Trademark

Product
Type

Manufacture

BET BIOPETRO

MC

BioEnviro Tech, Tomball, TX

BILGEPRO

NA

International Environmental
Products, LLC,
Conshohocken, PA.

INIPOL EAP 22

NA

Societe, CECA S.A., France

LAND AND SEA

NA

Land and Sea Restoration LLC, San Antonio, TX

RESTORATION MICRO
-
BLAZE

MC

Verde Environmental, Inc., Houston, TX

OIL SPILL EATER II

NA/EA

Oil Spill Eater
International, Corporation, Dallas, TX

OPPENHEIMER FORMULA

MC

Oppenheimer Biotechnology, Inc., Austin, TX

PRISTINE SEA II

MC

Marine Systems, Baton Rouge, LA

STEP ONE

MC

B & S Research, Inc., Embarrass, MN

SYSTEM E.T. 20.

MC

Quantum Environmental
Technologies, Inc(QET), La
Jolla, CA

VB591TMWATER, VB997TMSOIL, AND
BINUTRIX

NA

BioNutraTech, Inc., Houston,TX

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WMI
-
2000

MC

WMI International, Inc


5.

THE TASK AT HAND

Waste oil management is the collection, transport
ation
,
processing, managing, and monitoring of waste oil
materials.

Many of these chemicals altered by man are not
found in nature, and biochemical pathways to degrade them
are uncommon.
The management of wastes oil treats all
form as a single class, whether soli
d,

liquid or gas and tried
to reduce the harmful environmental impacts of each
through different methods.

6.

ONE SOLUTION :
BIODEGRADATION


Bioremediation

is the inoculation of microorganism to
remove pollutants
[7]
. It can be generally classified as
in situ

o
r
ex situ
.
In situ

bioremediation involves treating the
contaminated material at the site, while
ex situ

involves the
removal of the contaminated material to be treated
anywhere. Some examples of bioremediation technologies
are phytoremediation, bioleachin
g, landfarming, bioreactor
,
bioaugmentation, rhizofiltration, and biostimulation.
[8
-
18]

Bioremediation falls into two categories, biostimulation and
bioaugmentation. Biostimulation is the addition of specific
nutrients to a waste in an effort to stimulate
the target
microorganisms to grow and begin to digest the
contaminant. This approach assumes that the target
microorganism is present in the particular location. The
alternate approach, bioaugmentation, involves the
introductiom

of specific genetically tai
lored
microorganisms to an environment. The latter approach
permits precise control of the type and amount of
microorganisms that are added to the contaminated site.

Traditional waste oil treatment system, based on
physic
o
chemical process, exhibits high e
nergy costs,
produces more wastes. The use of well adapted
microorganism in suitable bioreactor can eliminate the
drawbacks of classical physic
o
chemical techniques.

It is
broken down complex oily waste compound into
biochemical intermediates and the pathwa
y for catabolism
of these intermediate is very common in bacteria. Natural
microbial isolates from contaminated sites show the
potential for remediation of

hazardous
waste below a toxic
limit.

Biodegradation is a biological treatment method and
attractive
due to the potential to almost degrade waste oil
products and overcomes the disadvantages of traditional
processes. It produces innocuous end products, below the
toxic limit.


7.

ADVANTAGES



It is the most evident method to degrade waste oil
below

the

toxic

limits
.




Simple

to handle.



Cheap in
cost
.



Automatically regulate.




For some contaminated sites it may be only reasonable
alternative.



Metabolic gene can be transferred between species.

8.

DISADVANTAGES



Degradation

mechanism

pathway is tough to
known
.



Hardly
control
.



Response time is slow.



Research is needed to engineer bioremediation
technologies.



For indigenous microorganisms able to break down the
contaminants, all nutrients needed are made available
through this method.



The dilute nature of contaminated en
vironment often
will not support an adequate microbial population
density.



Very high contamination may be toxic to
microorganisms.



Longer cleanup time.

9.

FEATURES



Removes

hydrocarbons

and

BOD/COD

present
in

contaminated

water
.



Uses

oxygen

transfer

with

a

lar
ge

protected

biofilm

attachment

area
.




In certain cases it may be difficult to confirm that
biodegradation was the mediator for the disappearance
of the pollutants.

10.
BENEFITS



Increases

the

efficiency

of

the

biological

treatmen
t
pro
cess by increasing the
surface

biological film.



Capable

of

trea
ting a variety of oil contaminants in any
form which may be volatile, liquid or semisolid in
nature.



In comparison
to

oth
er biological treatment systems, its
practical handling is easy.

11.
BIO
REMEDITION

STRATEGIES

BIOVE
NTING :
Bioventing system includes a well and a
blower. It pump the air through the well. It provide
enough
oxyg
en to microorganism in the soil to keep up the
activity[8].

BIOPILING :
In biopiling excavated soils are mix with
soil amendment.

Soil

is placed

on treatment area with a
treatment bed, aeration, nutrient and a leach system
[9]
.

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COMPOSTING :
Composting is to make humas by
breaking down organic matter by worms
, bacteria and fungi
in the windrow system[10,11
].

LANDFORMING :
Landforming is the
incorporation of
contaminated soil in to

uncontaminated soil, mixed with
amendment, and then they are tilled in to the earth[10].

BIOSPARGING :
It uses indigenous microorganisms to
biodegrade organic constituent

in the saturated zone.

A
ir
and nutrient are
injected in to the saturated zone.

BIOAGUMENTATION :
It include inoculation with
known strain to be capable of degrading the
contaminants
[14]
.

PHYTOREMEDIATION

:
Phytoremediation uses plants
to manage a wide variety of environmental pollution
problems,
including the cleanup of soils and groundwater
contaminated with hydrocarbons and other hazardous
substances.

APPLICABILITY OF BIOREACTOR

FOR AIR POLLUTION TREATMENT :
Biofilters (BFs)
and biotrickling filt
ers (BTFs)

and the

membrane bioreactor
(MBR
) are
the most

freq
uently used biological techniques
for treat
ment of waste

air. In these techniques, air flows
through a packed

bed of

carrie
r material on which
microorganisms grow as a biofilm. Biofilm is the multiple
growth of cell on solid support surface. T
his is passive
immobilization of cell. Polluta
nts diffuse through the

biofilm

and

are subsequently degraded by the
microorga
nisms in the
biofilm.
BFs, BTFs, and MBRs have
been investigated for
VOC’S
removal
[19].

FOR WATER POLLUTION TREATMENT :
Fluidized be
d
bioreactors (FBR), aerated lagoon, activated sludge system,
trickling filter, rotating biological contractors etc. have been
receiving considerable attention in waste water treatment.
Bioreators degrade contaminants through attached or
suspended biologic
al system. Suspended growth systems
include fluidized bed bioreactor, activated sludge system, in
which contaminated water is circulated in an suspended
microbial aeration basin and attached biological system
include trickling filter, rotating biological c
ontractors, in
which microorganisms are established on an inert support
metrics[20,21,22].

FOR SOIL POLLUTION TREATMENT :
Soil
bioremediation

involves d
igestion of aromatic compound
by bench scale bioreactor technology
. Digestion pathway

of
microorganism

i
nvolves oxidation of methyl group,
removal of amine group type of chemical reaction.
So the
treatment can be done either in situ or ex situ
bioremediation methods[23,24].

12.
CONCLUSIO
N

E
nvironmental biotechnology is a very sophisticated
science, and genetic e
ngineering can provide more solution
to environmental problems. As more stringent
environmental regulation are enacted around the world, the
popularity of bio remediation strategies increases. Using
microorganisms to digest waste and environmentally
harmfu
l compounds has several advantages over
conventional treatment systems.

T
he diversity of microorganisms available makes the
treatment of variety of waste and environments possible.
Microorganism degradation of compounds is usually
complete under appropriate conditions; toxic compounds
are often completely converted into innocuo
us compounds.
Once the microorganism have become established in the
particular niche, they tend to persist with little operator
involvement and maintenance.

F
inally genetically modified organisms for use in global
hazardous waste problem having versatile
metabolic
activity and plasticity for treatment and pollutant control of
oil waste materials, including crude oil, refined petroleum
products (such as gasoline or diesel fuel) or by
-
products,
oily refuse or oil mixed in waste, having promising
substantial
beneficial effects to reduce so much of it.

13.
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