4.4 Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

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Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Essential Biology 04.4: Genetics (HL & SL)



Stephen Tayl or


Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


4.4
Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology


Top resources to use for this section:


Learn.Genetics @ Utah

(great simulations and animations):
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/



Human Genome Project:

http://www.genome.gov/10001772


and
http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/home.shtml



BioEthics Education Project
:
http://www.beep.ac.uk/content/index.php




1.

The
polymerase chain reaction

(PCR)

is used where DNA samples are too small to be useful.


a.

What is the purpose of PCR in labs and investigations?



b.

Which cellular process does it mimic?



c.

What is the role of high temperatures in PCR?



d.

What is the role of complementary base pairing in PCR?



e.

Why is it called a
chain reaction
?





2.

What are two main uses of DNA profiling by electrophoresis?





3.

What are some other names for DNA profiling?




4.

What are the roles of the following components of gel electrophoresis?


a.

Restriction enzymes


b.

Gel


c.

Electric current


d.

Fluorescent DNA markers


Essential Biology 04.4: Genetics (HL & SL)



Stephen Tayl or


Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


5.

Annotate the image below to o
utline briefly how gel electrophoresis works.



















6.

Use the gel electrophoresis results below to answer these questions.

In this case, a DNA sample was taken from a cigarette found at a crime scene.




a.

Which criminal, Rob McCarr or Nick Allott, left their dribbly cigarette
-
end at the crime scene?

How do

you know?




b.

Colour in ba
nds to show where the
standard

fragments would be observed.
What is the
standard used for?


c.

What evidence is there to suggest that Nick and Rob are related?




Further research:


What are the ethical issues associated with a criminal suspect DNA database?

How might a DNA sample database impact the rights of the innocent? Is this a fair price to pay for
potentially more rapid resolution of criminal cases such as rape?


Essential Biology 04.4: Genetics (HL & SL)



Stephen Tayl or


Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com



7.

This fathe
r thinks that the second child is not his


he looks too different from him!

He has seen the mother and the mailman chatting and is suspicious. He stole some hair from all
family members and swabbed a cup the mailman used and ran a gel electrophoresis to
confirm
his suspicions.



8.

.



















Essential Biology 04.4: Genetics (HL & SL)



Stephen Tayl or


Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com



9.

Case Study: The Story of Baby 81.
http://www.beep.ac.uk/content/186.0.html


How was DNA profiling used to resolve the case of this baby found in the aftermath of the 2004
tsunami?







10.

What is the
Human Genome Project
?



11.

What were the
goals of the HGP (
http://www.beep.ac.uk/content/187.0.html

)?





12.

Look at some of the HGP resources at
http://www.genome.gov/25019885



a.

What was the role of
E
. coli

in the HGP?



b.

How were differently
-
coloured nucleotides used
in sequencing the genes?





c.

Why was the information collected stored in public databases?







13.

How did the HGP develop knowledge in the following fields?


Evolutionary research



Medicine



Bioinformatics



Ethical, Legal and Social Issues (ELSI)?


Essential Biology 04.4: Genetics (HL & SL)



Stephen Tayl or


Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


14.

What is
gene transfer
?




15.

How is the
universality of the genetic code

central to gene transfer applications
?





16.

What is a
transgenic organism
?




17.

What is the role of the following in gene transfer:

Restriction enzymes


E. coli plasmids


Ligase


Vector



18.

Annotate the diagram below to outline the process of gene transfer:




19.

How can the Human Genome Project allow gene transfer technology to develop more rapidly?

Essential Biology 04.4: Genetics (HL & SL)



Stephen Tayl or


Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


20.

How is gene transfer used in
industrial production of insulin
?







21.

Outline the use of gene transfer in gene therapy to treat SCID.


a.

SCID is…



b.

Gene therapy can treat SCID by…





22.

Further research: find out about one more successful use of gene therapy in human medicine.







23.

Give three examples of genetically modified plant crops and the effects of their new genes.


New properties

Advantages

‘Golden Rice’










24.

Outline how genetically modified sheep can help hemophiliacs.





25.

Discuss the benefits and potential dangers of one type of genetic modification used in
agriculture.
Why are some groups protesting GM (genetically modified) foods or crops?





Essential Biology 04.4: Genetics (HL & SL)



Stephen Tayl or


Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


26.

Define
clone
.



27.

Give three examples of naturally occurring clones.




28.

Dolly the Sheep
was produced by cloning
using a differentiated nucleus.


a.

What is a
differentiated nucleus
?




b.

Why was the differentiated nucleus taken from an udder cell?



c.

Suggest one reason why Dolly died younger than normal, but of age
-
related illnes
ses.





29.

Outline the method used to clone Dolly the Sheep.



























Essential Biology 04.4: Genetics (HL & SL)



Stephen Tayl or


Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


30.

Distinguish between
reproductive cloning

and
therapeutic cloning
.









31.

What
are some of the medical applications and benefits

of therapeutic cloning?








32.

Discuss the ethical considerations of therapeutic cloning in humans.








33.

How might stem
-
cell reprogramming
(IPS cells)
mitigate the negative opinions of human
therapeutic cloning?