Genetic Engineering Topic #0008D By: Tony Hoffman

polarbearfellowshipBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Genetic Engineering

0008D


Tony Hoffman

What is Genetics…?


What do things look like? and why?

Genetics

The study of genes and heredity, or how characteristics

are passed from parents to children.



All Definitions from: http://library.thinkquest.org/19037/glossary.html

Why do things look
the way they do?


DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

-

a large double
-
stranded, spiraling

molecule that contains genetic instructions for growth,

development and replication.


This DNA is a set of instructions that tells cells to form in a

particular way. DNA is the reason we have so many

different kinds of cells. It is very small and large amounts

can be found in each cell.

http://teachers.teach
-
nology.com/web_tools/web_quest/

What is DNA made up of?

http://nurseweb.ucsf.edu/www/cardio.htm

Bases

-

the molecular building blocks of DNA: adenine (A),
cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). In DNA, A attaches
only to T, and C attaches only to G. These pairs are called
base
pairs
.


Chromosome

-

a long coiled strand


in the nucleus, made up of


DNA and protein.



DNA is organized into segments so

that it is not one long strand. These
segments are called chromosomes.

Is DNA a long strand that travels
throughout an organism? No.

http://www.efa.org/research/gdp/genome.html


Gene

-

the unit of heredity in
chromosomes; a segment of double
-

stranded DNA.



Genes are small little individual segments
on each chromosome (the colors on the
picture). Each of these genes is a different
trait that is displayed by the organism that
carries it. A chromosome can carry
thousands of genes.

Chromosomes are broken down

further into……

http://www.efa.org/research/gdp/genome.html

Can we change DNA?

Yes we can…by a method called
Gene Splicing

-

the process of
cutting the DNA of a gene in order to add base pairs.

1.
Chemicals called
restriction enzymes

act as the scissors to
cut the DNA. Once it finds that sequence in a strand of
DNA, it attacks it and splits the base pairs apart, leaving
single strands at the end of two double strands.

2.
Scientists are then free to add any genetic sequences they
wish into the broken chain.

3.
Afterwards, the chain is repaired (as a longer chain with the
added DNA) with another enzyme called
ligase
.


http://library.thinkquest.org/19037/therapy2.html