GENETIC ENGINEERING - McEachern High School

polarbearfellowshipBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 7 months ago)

165 views

DNA TECHNOLOGY

SB2f. Explain the use of DNA
technology in forensics, medicine,
and agriculture

What is the Human Genome Project?


Completed in 2003
-

took 13 years


Goals


identify all the approximately 20,000
-
25,000 genes in human DNA,


determine the sequences of the 3
billion chemical base pairs that make up
human DNA,


store this information in databases,


address the ethical, legal, and social
issues (ELSI) that may arise from the
project.


Benefits


Improved diagnosis of disease


Earlier detection of genetic
predispositions to disease


Gene therapy and control systems for
drugs


Pharmacogenomics

"custom drugs
"


What is cloning?


Reproductive cloning


Making an exact copy of a
pre
-
existing or currently
existing organism.


Therapeutic cloning


Embryos are grown and stem
cells from the embryo are
harvested to be used in
research to develop
treatment for cancer,
Alzheimer’s, etc.


Very controversial b/c it kills
the embryo in the process.


What is Genetic Engineering?


Changing the DNA of one
organism using another
organisms DNA


Can happen naturally when
a bacteria or virus invades a
host cell and takes over its
DNA and manipulates it to
do what it wants.


Also called:


Recombinant DNA Technology


Genetic manipulation


Gene splicing

Natural Genetic Manipulation


Some genetic engineering
occurs naturally.


Some bacteria can “hijack”
other cells and control their
genes.


Talk about Invasion of the
body snatchers!


EX: A species of bacteria here
can infect the tree, insert its
DNA, and make the tree
produce food for the bacteria.
The plant cells have been
“manipulated” into doing what
the bacteria cell needs.

How does Genetic Engineering Work?

1.
Human DNA is removed from cell.

2.
The segment of human DNA that codes for
insulin is cut using restriction enzymes (
EcoRi
).
This
EcoRi

cuts in a very specific location
(CTTAAG) between the last A and G.

3.
The insulin gene is now freed.

4.
A bacteria cell contains a circular DNA called a
plasmid
. This is the vector we will use to copy
the human insulin gene.

5.
The plasmid DNA is cut with the same
EcoRi

enzyme.

6.
The human insulin gene is inserted into the
plasmid. This is now a “recombined” plasmid
b/c it has some human DNA and some bacteria
DNA.

7.
The plasmid is put back in the bacteria.

8.
The plasmid copies itself with the human
insulin gene
-

making more insulin that can then
be harvested and used to treat diabetics.

9.
Watch this
animation
of how insulin is
genetically engineered



What is gene
therapy?


Insertion of normal gene
into human cell to correct
genetic disorders


Being used now to treat
cystic fibrosis


Watch this
video

on the
new discovery of RNAi and
its use in gene therapy!

What are some applications of
recombinant DNA?


Bacteria:


reduce frost damage to crops
(creates longer growing season),


break down pollutants (eat oil),


produce hormones (insulin) and
antibiotics


Plants:


resistant to herbicides,


increase protein content in grains
(will help fight hunger in 3
rd

world countries)


Animals:


cloning of endangered species,


replacement of genes which
cause disorders

What is DNA fingerprinting?


Samples of DNA is exposed to
restriction enzyme which cuts it
into pieces


DNA is loaded into a gel and run
through an electrophoresis
machine


Since DNA is cut at certain
sequences, each piece is a
different length and weight


Pieces that are heavier stay at the
top of the gel, lighter will “run” to
the bottom


Every person is genetically
different, so DNA fingerprints are
different

What are some applications of DNA
fingerprinting?


Can be used to


identify or eliminate
suspects when genetic
material has been
collected at a crime scene


determine paternity of a
child


establish other family
relationships


identify a deceased person