13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering

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Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Chapter 13

Genetic Engineering

Section 13
-
4

Applications of Genetic
Engineering

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Transgenic Organisms


The Genetic Principles Are Universal For
All Life Forms:


Based On DNA


All DNA Uses The Same Base Sequences


Adenine


Thymine


Guanine


Cyctosine


Genes Can Be Transferred Between Species


Transgenic Organisms

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

With The Newly Developed Technologies,
Genes Can Be Transferred Between
Species.


An Organism Which Has Received The
Gene of Another species is called a:

Transgenic Organism

Transgenic Organisms

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Transgenic Organisms

Key Concept
:

Genetic Engineering Has
Spurred The Growth Of
Biotechnology
, A New
Industry That Is
Changing The Way We
Interact With The Living
World

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Transgenic Microorganisms


Reproduce Rapidly


Easy To Grow


Used To Produce Human


Insulin


Growth Hormone


Clotting Factors

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Transgenic Animals


Mice with Human Immune Cells To
Study Effects Of Disease


Food Animals with Extra Genes For
Growth Hormone So The Grow Faster


Cows


Fish


Pigs for Organ Transplants

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Transgenic Animals


Chickens Resistant To Salmonella &
Shigella


Animals That Produce Human Proteins
In Their Milk

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Transgenic Plants


GM Plants Are Already In US Food
Supply


52% Soy Beans


25% Corn


Typical Modifications


Bt Genes To Lower Pesticides


Resistance To Weed Killers

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Transgenic Plants


Future Plant Projects:


Plants That Grow Human Antibodies


Plants That Grow Plastic


Plants With Added Vitamins


Golden Rice

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Cloning

Cloning

Is The Process Of Using
A Donor Cell
From

An Adult
Organism
To

Grow A New
Individual Genetically Identical
To The Organism From Which
The Donor Cell Was Taken

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Cloning

Ian Wilmut, Scotland, 1997

Cloned A Sheep


Dolly

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Cloning


The Process

Step 1:

Donor

Cell Taken From
Animal To Be Cloned

Donor
Nucleus

Can Be Any
Diploid Cell With
A Nucleus

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Cloning


The Process

Step 2:

Donor Egg

Taken From Another Animal Of
The
Same

Species



This Nucleus Will Be
Removed and Discarded

Donor EGG
Cell

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Cloning


The Process

Step 3:

Donor Egg Cell With The
Nucleus Removed
Is
Fused With The Donor Cell Containing The
Nucleus From The Animal To Be Cloned

Donor Egg with
Nucleus Removed

Slight Electric Current

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Cloning


The Process

Step 4:

In Vitro

Development

Create Blastocyst From Cloned Donor Nucleus

If Fused Cell Begins
Replicating It Will Be Placed In
Tissue Culture Until It
Becomes A
Blastocyst
.

Blastocyst

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Cloning


The Process

Step 5:

In Vivo

Development

Blastocyst Implanted In Uterus of Surrogate
Mother

Blastocyst

Surrogate

Mother

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Cloning


The Process

Step 6:

Birth
-

Hopefully

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Cloning


Animals Cloned Since 1997


Cows


Pigs


Mice


Ethical Issues?

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Human Cloning

FOOTHILL HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Human Cloning