Fluid Mechanics -Hydrostatics

AP Physics B

States of Matter

Before we begin to understand the nature of a Fluid

we must understand the nature of all the states of

matter:

The 3 primary states of matter

-solid -Definite shape and volume.

-liquid -Takes the shape of its container, yet has a

definite volume.

-gas -Takes the shape and volume of its container.

Special "states

-Plasma, Bose-Einstein Condensate

Density

The 3 primary states have a distinct density,

which is defined as mass per unit of

volume.

Density is represented

by the Greek letter,

“RHO”, ρ

What is a Fluid?

By definition, a fluid is any material that is unable to

withstand a static shear stress. Unlike an elastic solid

which responds to a shear stress with a recoverable

deformation, a fluid responds with an irrecoverable flow.

Examples of fluids include gases and

liquids.

Why fluids are useful in physics?

Typically, liquids are considered to be incompressible.

That is once you place a liquid in a sealed container you

can DO WORK on the FLUID as if it were an object. The

PRESSUREyou apply is transmitted throughout the

liquid and over the entire length of the fluid itself.

Pressure

One of most important applications of a fluid is

it's pressure-defined as a Force per unit

Area

Example

A water bed is 2.0 m on a side an 30.0 cm deep.

(a) Find its weight if the density of water is 1000 kg/m3.

(b) Find the pressure the that the water bed exerts on the floor. Assume that the

entire lower surface of the bed makes contact with the floor.

==

==→=

=

∗

∗

=

mgW

V

m

V

m

V

a

1000

30

.

0

2

2

)

ρ

1.2 m

3

1200 kg

11760 N

====

2

4

11760

)

m

N

A

mg

A

F

Pb

2940 N/m

2

Hydrostatic Pressure

Suppose a Fluid (such as a liquid) is at REST, we call this

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

Two important points

•A fluid will exert a pressure in all directions

•A fluid will exert a pressure perpendicular to any surface it compacts

Notice that the arrows on TOP of the objects are smaller than atthe

BOTTOM. This is because pressure is greatly affected by the DEPTH of

the object. Since the bottom of each object is deeper than the top the

pressure is greater at the bottom.

Pressure vs. Depth

Suppose we had an object

submerged in water with the

top part touching the

atmosphere. If we were to

draw an FBD for this object

we would have three forces

1.

The weight of the

object

2.

The force of the

atmosphere

pressing down

3.

The force of the

water pressing up

mg

Fatm

Fwater

Fwater

= F

atm

+ mg

Pressure vs. Depth

But recall, pressure is force per unit area. So if we

solve for force we can insert our new equation in.

ghPP

AhgAPPA

AhV

VgAPPA

Vm

V

m

mgAPPA

mgFF

A

F

P

o

o

o

o

atmwater

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρρ

+=

+=

=

+=

=→=

+=

+==

Note:

The initial

pressure in this

case is atmospheric

pressure, which is a

CONSTANT.Po=1x10

5

N/m

2

A closer look at Pressure vs. Depth

ghPP

o

ρ

+

=

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE

Initial Pressure –May or MAY NOT be atmospheric pressure

Depth below surface

ghP

ρ

=

Δ

Gauge Pressure

= CHANGE in pressure or the

DIFFERENCE in the initial and absolute pressure

Example

a) Calculate the absolute pressure at an ocean depth of

1000 m. Assume that the density of water is 1000

kg/m

3

and that P

o= 1.01 x 10

5

Pa (N/m

2).

b) Calculate the total force exerted on the outside of a

30.0 cm diameter circular submarine window at this

depth.

=

+=

+

=

P

xP

ghPP

o

)1000)(8.9)(1000(101

5

ρ

====

22

)15.0(

ππ

F

r

F

A

F

P

9.9x10

6

N/m

2

7.0 x 10

5

N

A closed system

If you take a liquid and place it in a

system that is CLOSED like plumbing

for example or a car’s brake line, the

PRESSURE is the same everywhere.

Since this is true, if you apply a force at

one part of the system the pressure is

the same at the other end of the

system. The force, on the other hand

MAY or MAY NOT equal the initial

force applied. It depends on the AREA.

You can take advantage of the fact that

the pressure is the same in a closed

system as it has MANY applications.

The idea behind this is called PASCAL’S

PRINCIPLE

Pascal’s Principle

Another Example -Brakes

In the case of a car's brake pads, you

have a small initial force applied by you

on the brake pedal. This transfers via a

brake line, which had a small cylindrical

area. The brake fluid then enters a

chamber with more AREA allowing a

LARGE FORCE to be applied on the

brake shoes, which in turn slow the car

down.

shoepadbrake

shoepadbrake

pedalbrake

pedalbrake

A

F

A

F

PP

/

/

21

=

=

Buoyancy

When an object is immersed in a fluid, such as a liquid, it is buoyed

UPWARD by a force called the BUOYANT FORCE.

Archimedes's Principle

" An object is buoyed up by a force equal to

the weight of the fluid displaced."

In the figure, we see that the

difference between the weight

in AIR and the weight in

WATER is 3 lbs. This is the

buoyant force that acts upward

to cancel out part of the force. If

you were to weight the water

displaced it also would weigh 3

lbs.

Archimedes's Principle

Fluidobject

FluidB

FLUIDB

VV

VgF

VmmgF

=

=

=

=

)(

)(

ρ

ρ

Example

A bargain hunter purchases a "gold" crown at a flea market. After she gets home,

she hangs it from a scale and finds its weight in air to be 7.84N. She then

weighs the crown while it is immersed in water (density of wateris 1000

kg/m

3) and now the scale reads 6.86 N. Is the crown made of pure goldif the

density of gold is 19.3 x 10

3

kg/m

3?

==

=

=

=

==

==−

=

−

object

object

object

object

object

fluid

fluidfluidFluidB

B

buoyantwaterobjectairobject

V

m

mass

V

V

gVmgF

F

FFF

ρ

ρ

)(

86.684.7

)()(

0.98 N

0.0001 m

3

0.0001 m

3

0.80 kg

8000 kg/m

3

NO! This is NOT gold as 8000<19300

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