CEE 270
Fluid Mechanics for Civil and Environmental Engineers
TIME AND PLACE
Mondays and Thursdays 10:3012:00, ΧΩΔ01 102
CONTACT
Dr Marina Neophytou
Office 310, Green Park (3
rd
floor)
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
Email: neophytou@ucy.ac.cy
Phone: 2289 2266
Fax: 2289 2295
OFFICE HOURS
Tuesdays 3:005:00 pm upon appointment
COURSE DESCRIPTION
Why are we studying fluid mechanics in a Civil and Environmental Engineering course?
Fluid mechanics is involved in nearly all areas of Civil and Environmental Engineering either
directly or indirectly. Some examples of direct involvement are those where we are concerned
with manipulating the fluid:
o
Sea and river (flood) defences;
o
Water distribution / sewerage (sanitation) networks;
o
Hydraulic design of water/sewage treatment works;
o
Dams;
o
Irrigation;
o
Pumps and Turbines;
o
Water retaining structures.
And some examples where the primary object is construction, yet analysis of the fluid mechanics
is essential are:
o
Flow of air in and around buildings; bioclimatic building design
o
Air Pollution dispersion and control
o
Bridge piers in rivers;
o
Groundwater flow.
Notice that nearly all of these applications involve either water or air. The following course will
be introducing generic fluid flow ideas and principles, and will demonstrate many of these
principles through relevant examples. Further to the laboratory coursework (CEE272) associated
with this class, there will be interactive multimedia demonstrations and illustrations of fluid
phenomena in the class.
AIMS
The aims of the course are to:
•
Introduce the basic language of fluid dynamics (pressure, streamlines, lift, drag etc.).
•
Familiarise students with the scope and applications of fluid mechanics.
•
Introduce the control volume concept
•
Teach the conservation of mass, momentum and energy equations, both for systems and
for control volumes.
•
Show how velocity and pressure are related.
•
Introduce the fundamentals of conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer.
•
Examine engineering applications, such as buoyancy, flow measurement, lift and drag
forces, etc.
•
Demonstrate the application of basic principles of Fluid Dynamics to civil and
environmental engineering problems.
OBJECTIVES
At the end of the course students should be able to:
•
Understand the concepts of mass, momentum, heat and energy in Thermofluid
Mechanics.
•
Understand the basic principles of hydrostatics.
•
Understand how to use manometers and other systems in the measurement of fluid flows.
•
Identify a thermofluid system or control volume and the flows of mass, momentum, heat
and work that are associated with a given problem.
•
Understand the origin of lift and drag.
•
Apply the conservation of mass (continuity) equation, the conservation of momentum
equation and the First Law of Thermodynamics (SFEE) to a control volume.
•
Decide when it is possible to apply Bernoulli's equation to fluid flows and to apply it.
•
Understand the concept of thermal conductivity/resistance.
•
Analyse 1dimensional heat conduction problems.
•
Understand the fundamental relationships of fluid dynamics and apply them to
engineering problems.
COURSE STRUCTURE
1. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
2. Fluid Statics (Hydrostatics)
3. Control volume approach
4. Steadyflow momentum equation
5. Bernoulli's equation
6. Curved Streamlines
7. Introduction to Two Dimensional, Inviscid Flow
8. Viscosity
9. External Flows
10. Similarity and Scaling of Viscous Flows
11. Model Testing, Examples, Summary
12. Heat Transfer
13. Thermodynamic Concepts and The First Law Applied to Steady Flow Control Volumes
LECTURE PLANNER
1. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics (1L)
•
The significance of Fluid Mechanics; a gallery of fluid motion and its applications
•
What is a fluid?
•
Terminology of Fluid Mechanics: continuum, fluid properties.
•
Forces in fluids
2. Fluid Statics (Hydrostatics) (2L)
•
Basic equations
•
Variation of pressure with depth
•
Manometers and barometers
•
Forces on submerged bodies
•
Buoyancy and Archimedes' principle
3. Control volume approach (2L)
•
Systems and control volumes
•
Conservation of mass in control volumes: Steady Flow Mass Equation
4. Steadyflow momentum equation (2L)
•
Newton's 2nd law applied to control volumes (steady flow momentum equation)
•
Steady flow momentum equation in two dimensions
5. Bernoulli's equation (2L)
•
Derivation
•
Applications (Venturi, discharge, flow measurement), Limitations
•
Open channel flows
6. Curved Streamlines (1L)
•
Coanda effect
•
Magnus effect
•
Circulation and lift
7. Introduction to Two Dimensional Inviscid Flow (2L)
•
Introduction to the equations of motion in differential form.
•
Potential flow, flow around a cylinder.
8. Viscosity (2L)
•
Shear stress, strain rate, Newton's law of viscosity.
•
Boundary conditions at solid walls, fluidfluid interfaces.
•
Laminar, sheared flow exact solutions for lubrication theory.
•
Entropy rise due to viscosity.
•
Laminar/Turbulent Flow in Pipes.
•
Reynolds number.
9. External Flows (2L)
•
Boundary layers. Laminar, Turbulent, Transitional.
•
Control volume considerations for flat plate boundary layer.
•
Flow around bluff and streamlined bodies, separation, reattachment.
•
Drag coefficient, C
D
 Re curves. Pressure Drag, Skin Friction.
10. Similarity and Scaling of Viscous Flows (2L)
•
Dimensional Analysis
•
Inviscid Flow with Similar Streamlines
•
Similarity of Viscous Flows with same Reynolds number.
11. Model Testing, Examples (2L)
•
Review of applications already covered involving Re, Fr, Ma
•
Other nondimensional groups
12. Heat Transfer (2L)
•
Temperature.
•
The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
•
Definition of Heat.
•
Energy considerations for flows with heat transfer.
13. Thermodynamic Concepts and The First Law Applied to Steady Flow Control Volumes
(2L)
•
What is Thermodynamics? Why is it important?
•
Where does our energy come from? Where does our energy go?
•
The Thermofluid System and its Surroundings
•
Conservation of Mass for a
Steady
Flow Control Volume (review).
•
The Steady Flow Energy Equation for a Control Volume (SFEE).
•
Application of the SFEE; examples
REFERENCES
Note that the treatment given in lectures does not follow any particular textbook. The following
references are given for guidance only. All of the books are available in the University Library.
1. MUNSON B, YOUNG D, OKIISHI T
.
FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2006, Fifth Edition
2. SONNTAG R., BORGNAKKE C., VAN WYLEN G.
FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMODYNAMICS
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2003, Sixth Edition
3. ΠΑΠΑΪΩΑΝΝΟΥ Α. Θ.
ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΗ ΤΩΝ ΡΕΥΣΤΩΝ
Εκδόσεις ΚΟΡΑΛΙ,
2002, Β’ Έκδοση.
Many of the demonstrations and illustrations of fluid phenomena in lectures can be found in:
4. HOMSY, G.M., AREF, H. & others
MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS
Cambridge University Press
2nd edition 2004 , CD ROM
5. VAN DYKE, M.
AN ALBUM OF FLUID MOTION
Parabolic Press
1982
6. SAMIMY, M., BREUER, K.S., LEAL, L.G., & STEEN, P.H.
A GALLERY OF FLUID MOTION
Cambridge University Press
2003
ASSESSMENT
Final written exam: 50%
8 Examplepapers: 40% each
Participation in class: 10%
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