09CE242 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY
The purpose of this course is to learn the Fluid properties and fundamentals of Fluid
statics and fluid flow
To introduce the concepts of flow measurements and flow through pipes
To introduce the concepts of momentum principles
To impart the knowledge on pumps and turbines
Unit I Fluid Properties
Dimensions and Units – Density – Specific weight - Specific gravity – Viscosity – surface
tension – Capillarity – Compressibility – Vapour pressure.
Pressure relation – Pascal’s law –Measurement of pressure – Manometers and Gauges, Forces on
plane and curved surfaces – Total pressure and centre of pressure.
Unit II Equations Of Fluid Flow
Types of flow – Stream line – Stream tube – Control volume – Continuity equation – one
dimensional and three dimensional flow – velocity potential and stream function – Free and
forced vortex flow – Energy equation – Euler’s equation in one dimensional form – Bernoulli’s
Unit III Flow Measurements
Orifices - Venturi meter – Orifice meter – Pitot tube – Weirs and Notches.
Flow Through Pipes:
Loss of energy in pipes – Major energy loss - Minor energy losses – pipes in series and parallel
– power transmission through pipes – Syphon – Water hammer (Definition)
Impulse momentum equation- Impact of Jets-plane and curved- stationary and moving plates.
Pumps: Positive displacement pumps - reciprocating pumps - operating principles -slip -
indicator diagram - separation- air vessels. centrifugal pumps - operation - velocity triangles -
performance curves - Cavitation - Multi staging - Selection of pumps.
Unit V Turbines
Turbine classification-working principles -Pelton wheel, Francis, Kaplan turbines -
Velocity triangles - Similarity laws - Specific speed - Governing of turbines- Surge tanks-
Miscellaneous pumps - Jet pump, Gear oil pump,submersible pump – Principle.
1.Modi, P.N. & Seth, S.M., “A Text book of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines”,
Standard Book House, New Delhi, 2007.
2.Rajput, R.K.,” A Text book of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines” , S.Chand and
Co., New Delhi,1998
1.Bansal, R.K., Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines, Laxmi Publications, New
2.Som,S.R, & Biswas, “Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines”, Tata
McGraw Hill, 1998.
3.Agarwal, S.K., Fluid Mechanics and Machinery, Tata Mc Graw Hill Co., 1997.