Grade 7 Vocabulary List

pointdepressedMechanics

Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 3 months ago)

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THE LIVING ENVIRONMENT VOCABULARY

VOCABULARY WORD

DEFINITION

Asymmetry

Having no definite symmetry

Autotroph

An organism that makes its own food.

Bilateral Symmetry

Line symmetry; the quality of being divisible into two halves
that are mirror images.

Cardiovascular System

The body system that consists of the heart, blood vessels, and
blood, and that carries needed substances to cells and carries
waste products away from the cells.

Carnivore

An animal that eats only other animals.

Cartilage

A
connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that
gives support to some parts of the body.

Cell

The basic unit of structure and function in an organism.

Cell membrane

A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or
leave the cell.

Cell Theory

A widely accepted explanation of the relationship between
cells and living things.

Cell Wall

A rigid layer of non
-
living material that surrounds the cells of
plants and some other organisms.

Central Nervous System

The brain and the spinal cor
d; the control center of the body.

Chlorophyll

A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and
some bacteria.

Chloroplast

A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that
captures energy from light and uses it to produce
food.

Circulatory System

The body system that consists of the heart, blood vessels, and
blood, and that carries needed substances to cells and carries
waste products away from the cells.

Classification

The process of grouping things based on their simila
rities.

Compound microscope

A light microscope that has more than one lens.

Connective tissue

A body tissue that provides support for the body and connects
all of its parts.

Cytoplasm

The region of the cell inside the cell membrane (in
prokaryotes),betw
een the cell membrane and nucleus (in
eukaryotes); contains a gel
-
like material and cell organelles.

Diffusion

The process by which molecules move from an area of higher
concentration to an area of lower concentration.

Digestion

The process by which the
body breaks down food into small
nutrient molecules.

Epithelial tissue

A body tissue that covers the surfaces of the body, inside and
out.

Endoskeleton

An internal skeleton.

Eukaryote

An organism with cells that contain nuclei and other cell
structures.

Exoskeleton

A waxy, waterproof outer shell.


VOCABULARY WORD

DEFINITION

Heart

A hollow muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the
body.

Heterotroph

An organism that cannot make its own food.

Homeostasis

The maintenance of stable internal conditions despite the
changes in an
organism

s⁳畲 潵湤楮o献

f湶e牴r扲a瑥

䅮⁡湩na氠l桡琠摯敳潴⁨t癥⁡⁢ac止潮k.

iiga浥湴

S瑲潮t⁣潮oec瑩癥⁴ 獳略s瑨慴⁨潬摳⁴潧e瑨敲⁴ e⁢ 湥猠楮⁡s
浯癡扬m潩湴n

䱹s潳潭e

䄠獭A汬⁲潵 搠de汬⁳瑲畣t畲u⁴桡琠 潮瑡楮猠ohe浩ca汳⁴桡琠扲ta欠
摯睮drge⁦潯
pa牴楣汥l⁩湴漠獭a汬e爠潮r献

䵡g湩晩ca瑩潮

周T⁡扩b楴y⁴漠 a步⁴桩n杳潯欠污o来爠瑨r渠瑨ny are.

䵩M潣桯湤h楡

o潤
-
獨s灥搠de汬⁳瑲畣瑵牥猠瑨慴⁰牯摵se潳 映瑨e⁥湥rgy
needed to carry out the cell’s function.

䵩M潳楳

周T⁳瑡ge映瑨 ce汬⁣ycle⁤畲楮
which the cell’s nucleus
摩癩摥猠楮s漠瑷漠湥眠湵w汥椠l湤湥⁣潰y映䑎A⁩猠
摩獴物扵瑥搠楮d漠oac栠摡ug桴敲 ce汬.

䵵汴楣i汬畬慲

䄠Ay灥映潲ga湩獭⁴桡琠 猠浡摥⁵瀠潦慮y⁣e汬献

䵵獣汥⁴ 獳略

䄠扯Ay⁴ 獳略⁴桡琠捯湴tac瑳爠獨潲瑥湳Ⱐna歩kg⁢潤y⁰ 牴猠
浯m


乥牶r⁴ 獳略

䄠扯Ay⁴ 獳略⁴桡琠ta牲ie猠浥獳s来猠扡c欠k湤⁦n牴栠扥瑷te渠瑨攠
扲b楮⁡湤⁥very瑨敲⁰ar琠潦⁴桥⁢潤y.

乯湶k獣畬慲⁰ a湴

䄠汯A
-
g牯r楮g⁰污湴⁴桡 慣歳⁶k獣畬u爠瑩獳略.

乵k汥畳

䄠Ae汬⁳瑲畣瑵牥⁴ a琠捯湴a楮猠i桥⁣桥浩ca氠l湳瑲畣t楯湳i
瑨慴t
direct the cell’s activities.

佭湩癯牥

䅮⁡湩na氠l桡琠敡瑳⁢潴栠灬慮瑳⁡n
d

a湩na汳l

佲gan

䄠獴牵A瑵牥⁩渠 桥⁢潤y⁴桡琠t猠s潭灯oe搠潦⁤楦iere湴⁴y灥猠s映
瑩獳略⸠

佲ga渠ny獴敭

䄠杲潵瀠潦 条湳⁴桡琠t潲欠瑯oe瑨e爠瑯⁰rr景f洠m慪潲
晵湣瑩潮⁩渠o桥⁢
潤y.

佲ga湥汬e

䄠瑩Ay⁣e汬⁳瑲畣瑵牥⁴桡琠ca牲ie猠潵s⁡⁳灥c楦ic⁦畮c瑩潮⁷楴桩渠
瑨攠te汬.

佲ga湩獭

䄠汩癩湧⁴桩湧.

佳浯獩s

周T⁤楦 畳楯u映 a瑥t潬散畬敳⁴桲潵g栠h⁳ lec瑩癥ly
灥牭ra扬攠be浢牡湥.

m桬潥h

周T⁶ 獣畬u爠瑩獳略⁴桲潵g栠睨楣栠景潤f浯癥猠
楮i獯浥⁰污湴献

m桯瑯hy湴ne獩s

周T⁰牯 e獳⁢y 睨楣栠灬h湴猠慮搠獯浥瑨n爠潲gan楳is

ca灴畲p
汩g桴⁥湥rgy a湤⁵獥⁴桥楧桴⁥湥rgy

瑯a步⁦潯 ⁦ 潭⁣o牢潮r
摩潸楤攠i湤⁷n瑥t.

m牯歡ry潴o

䅮Aga湩獭⁷桯獥⁣e汬猠污s欠k畣le畳⁡湤⁳潭e 潴桥o⁣e汬
獴牵s瑵牥s
.

oa摩慬⁓y浭e瑲y

周Tⁱ畡汩ty映桡癩vg ny 湥猠潦⁳y浭e瑲y⁴桡 ⁡汬⁰ 獳s
瑨牯畧栠h⁣e湴na氠灯l湴n

oe獰楲s瑩潮

周T⁰牯 e獳映扲ea歩kg 摯睮⁦潯搠瑯⁲o汥a獥⁩ 猠s湥rgy⸠


VOCABULARY WORD

DEFINITION

Selectively Permeable

A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to

pass through, while others cannot.

Spontaneous generation

The mistaken idea that living things arise from non
-
living
sources.

Taxonomy

The scientific study of how living things are classified.

Tissue

A group of similar cells that perform a specific
function in an
organism.

Unicellular

A type of organism made of only one cell

Vacuole

A water
-
filled sac inside a cell that acts as a storage area.

Vascular plant

A plant that has vascular tissue.

Vascular Tissue

The internal transporting tissue in so
m
e plants that is made up
of tub
e
-
like structures.

Vertebrate

An animal that has a backbone.

Xylem

The vascular tissue through which water and nutrients move in
some plants.


CHANGES OVER TIME VOCABULARY



Adaptation

A characteristic, arising from
natural selection, that that
improves a population's chance of survival and reproduction.

Asexual reproduction

Mode of reproduction in which offspring arise from a single
parent and inherit the genes of that parent only.

Chromosome

A doubled rod of
condensed chromatin; contains DNA that
carries genetic information.

Extinction

The elimination of a species (also applicable to levels other than
species) due to natural processes or human activity.

Fossil

The remains or imprint of a prehistoric plant or

animal.

Fossil record

The millions of fossils that scientists have collected.

Gene

A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific
trait.

Genetics

The scientific study of heredity.

Heredity

The passing of traits from parent to offspring.

Homologous structures

Body parts that are structurally similar in related species;
provide evidence that the structures were inherited from a
common ancestor.

Nat
u
ral selection

The process by which individuals that are better adapted to the
environment ar
e more likely to survive and reproduce than other
members of the same species.

Paleontologist

A scientist that studies the fossilized remains of organisms.

Scientific theory

A well
-
tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.

Selective
Breeding

Selection for specific traits imposed by humans, either
deliberately or otherwise, upon wild or domesticated plants and
animals.


Sexual reproduction

Mode of reproduction involving two parents, usually involving
meiosis, gamete formation, and
fertilization.

Species

Organisms whose members are alike and successfully reproduce
among themselves.

Trait

A characteristic which is passed on to offspring through
heredity.

Variation

Any difference between individuals of the same species.



Note:

Vo
cabulary terms in regular font indicate terms from the Maryland State Voluntary
Curriculum Glossary. Those terms in
italics

indicate vocabulary within the Baltimore
County Curriculum. All appropriate vocabulary must be included in daily instruction.



WAVE INTERACTIONS VOCABULARY














































Amplitude


The distance from the midpoint to the maximum point
(crest) or to the minimum point (trough) of a wave. The
distance that a wave rises and falls from its normal rest
position.

Angle of Incidence


The angle between
the normal (perpendicular drawn to
surface) and the incident ray.

Angle of Reflection


The angle between the normal (perpendicular drawn to
the surface) and the reflected ray.

Earthquake


The moving and shaking of part of Earth's crust.

Electromagnetic

wave

A wave that is both electric and magnetic in nature; light
wave.

Energy


The ability to cause matter to move or change
.

Energy transformation

When energy changes from one type to another
.

Frequency


The number of repetitions in a given interval of

time.

Incident Ray

The wave of light moving towards a surface at an angle.

Light

A form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength
visible by the eye.

Longitudinal wave


A wave in which the vibration is moving in the same
direction as that in which

the wave is traveling.

Loudness

Perception of the intensity of sound.

Mechanical Wave

A wave that requires a medium through which to travel.

Medium

The material through which a wave travels.

Normal

A line drawn

perpendicular to the surface at the point
where the incoming wave strikes the surface.

Pitch


How high or low sound frequencies appear to be.

Refracted Ray

The bent light ray after the wave enters a medium.

Refraction


The change in velocity and
apparent bending of the beam
of light or other wave
-
form as it passes from one medium
into another.

Sound


Longitudinal wave produced by the vibration of a
material.

















****Vocabulary terms in regular font indicate terms from the Maryland State Voluntary
Curriculum Glossary. Those terms in italics indicate vocabulary within the Baltimore

County Curriculum. All appropriate vocabulary must be included in daily instruction.


DIGGING INTO EARTH’S PAST

Unit Vocabulary

Absolute Age

The age of a rock given as the number of years since the rock formed.

Cast
:

A fossil formed in a rock showing
the organism's outward shape. It
formed after the organism dissolved and the space in the rock was filled.

Cementation
:

Process by which sedimentary rock is formed from sediments being glued
together by mineral deposits.

Climate
:

The average temperature
and rainfall for a particular place over hundreds
of years.

Compaction
:

Process by which sedimentary rock is formed when layers of sediment
are compressed by the weight of layers above them.

Composition
:

The chemical make up of a given substance.

Erosion
:

The carrying away of weathered soil, rock, and other materials on the
Earth's surface by gravity, water, and wind.

Evolution
:

Changes in species as a consequence of processes such as mutation and
natural selection.

Extinction
:

The elimination of

a species (also applicable to levels other than species)
due to natural processes or human activity.

Extrusion:

An igneous rock layer formed when lave allows onto Earth’s surface and
hardens.

Extrusive Rock:

Igneous rock that forms from lave on Earth’s
surface.

Faulting
:

The process of movement along a break or crack in Earth's crust.

Folding
:

The process of bending rock layers in Earth's crust.

Fossil
:

The remains or imprint of a prehistoric plant or animal.

Geologic
:

Of or relating to Earth or
Earth processes.

Transverse wave


A wave in which the
vibration is
moving in a direction perpendicular as
that in which the wave is traveling.

Wave

A disturbance that transfers energy
from one place to another.

Wavelength


The distance between two identical
points on neighboring waves.

White light


All the

colors of the spectrum visible
to the human eye as a single color.


Geologic Time
Scale:

A record of the geologic events and life forms in Earth’s history.

Igneous rock
:

Rock formed through the process of magma or lava cooling and
hardening.

Imprint
:

A fossil that is an organism's impression which was
formed in mud that
later hardened into rock.

Index fossil
:

A fossil of an organism that lived a relatively short time on Earth, used to
determine the relative age of rock layers.

Intrusion:

An igneous rock layer formed when magma hardens beneath Earth’s
獵牦ace.

Intrusive Rock

Igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth’s surface.

Lava:

Liquid magma that reaches the surface.

Law of
Superposition
:

Law that states in undisturbed sedimentary rock layers, the younger layer
is closer to Earth's

surface and the older layer is below this.

Magma:

The molten mixture of rock
-
forming substances from the mantle.

Metamorphic
(rock)
:

Rock formed when igneous or sedimentary rock is changed by pressure,
heat, or chemical reactions.

Mold
:

A fossil that
is an empty space in a rock that shows the outward shape of
a dissolved organism.

Petrified
:

Fossilized remains that have been turned into stone.

Relative age
:

The age of a rock (older or younger) in comparison with the age of other
rocks.

Rock:

The mat
erial that forms Earth’s hard surface.

Rock Cycle:

A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly change
rocks form one kind to another.

Sediment
:

Small pieces of rock, shell, and plant and animal matter that is moved and
deposited by
water, wind, or ice.

Sedimentary rock
:

Rock formed from sedimentation.

Sedimentation
:

The settling out of fragments of weathered rock or remains of living
things that are carried and deposited by wind, water, or ice.

Species
:

Organisms whose members are

alike and successfully reproduce among
themselves.

Trace Fossil:

A type of fossil that provides evidence of the activities of ancient
organisms.

Weathering
:

A chemical or physical process in which rocks exposed to the weather are
worn down by water,
wind, or ice.