THE NEW FRONTIER

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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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THE NEW FRONTIER
:

Libraries seek new Technology Platforms for and
End
-
user Discovery, Collection Management, and
Preservation

Marshall Breeding

Director for Innovative Technology and Research

Vanderbilt University Library

Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides

http://www.librarytechnology.org/

http://twitter.com/mbreeding


11 September 2011

IGeLU

Abstract

Marshall Breeding will provide his view of the changing landscape of library
technologies. Academic, research, and public libraries experience great changes
in the nature of their collections and in the expectation of their clientele. Increased
involvement in electronic content and decreased emphasis on print collections press
demand for tools that break away from traditional library management models
and address a broader view of library collections. Libraries likewise face new
imperatives to deliver end user interfaces consistent with that experienced
elsewhere on the Web and that provide access to the entire span of library
collections including print, local digital collections, and subscribed collections of
articles, databases and e
-
books. Many libraries find themselves involved with
content areas outside of traditional collections, including needs to manage or
archive scientific data sets, and to deliver new types of services in support of
research, teaching, or other strategic activities of their parent organizations.
Traditional automation tools increasingly fail to meet expectations in this context.
Breeding will discuss some of the issues and challenges involved for as new
technologies emerge to address the changed realities of libraries today.

Library Technology Guides


International

Perceptions Survey


http://www.librarytechnology.org/perceptions2010.pl

ARL

Member Libraries


http://www.librarytechnology.org/arl.pl

Mergers and Acquisitions


http://www.librarytechnology.org/automationhistory.pl

Library

Journal Automation
Marketplace


Published annually

in April 1 issue


Based on data

provided by each vendor


Focused primarily on North America


Context

of global library automation

market

System Name

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2010

AGent VERSO

14

19

6

23

15

54

47

24

18

Evergreen















6

18

Voyager

50

44

35

22

34

12

4

5

2

ALEPH 500

80

58

51

53

83

67

29

26

47

Vubis Smart

13

34

54

56

60

56

40

46

12

V
-
Smart















11

12

Millennium

157

136

144

119

107

95

95

64

45

Koha (
Classic/ZOOM
)











30

57

40

--

Library.Solution

79

70

73

58

41

34

35

32

30

Carl.X / Carl.Solution







1

3

10

0

0

0

Polaris
ILS

12

21

20

37

39

54

32

56

33

Unicorn

117

207

124

134

91

71

121

108

--

Horizon

126

114

168

193

147

94

15

0

--

Virtua

37

60

67

35

25

27

30

39

18

ILS Sales Statistics: total

Ex Libris


Personnel Data

Year

Develop

Support

Sales

Admin

Other

Total

2010

174

223

53

38

16

504

2009

165

206

52

32

12

467

2008

161

198

55

34

19

467

2007

129

187

53

49



418

2006

127

160

42

46

18

393

2005

57

93

39

23

49

261

Annual Industry report published in
Library Journal:


2011: New Frontier: battle intensifies to win hearts, minds
and tech dollars


2010: New Models, Core Systems


2009: Investing in the Future


2008
: Opportunity out of turmoil


2007: An industry redefined


2006: Reshuffling the deck


2005: Gradual evolution


2004: Migration down, innovation up


2003: The competition heats up


2002: Capturing the migrating customer

LJ Automation
Marketplace

The New Frontier…



new phase of competition following a period of
research and development that aimed to provide
alternatives to libraries, both in back
-
end
automation
and end user discovery. A variety of
new solutions have emerged, often representing
quite different conceptual models. In a continued
trend, librarians seek solutions that immediately
improve the experiences of their users, especially
via discovery
products.

Key Context: Academic Libraries in
Transition


Shift from Print

> Electronic


E
-
journal transition largely complete


E
-
books now in play (consultation > reading)


Increasing emphasis on subscribed content, especially
articles and databases


Academic libraries seeing long
-
term declines in print
circulation


Need

better tools for managing electronic resources


Need

better tools for access to complex multi
-
format
collections


Strong emphasis on digitizing local collections


Demands for enterprise integration and interoperability

Key Context: Technologies in transition


XML

/ Web services / Service
-
oriented Architecture


Beyond

Web 2.0


Integration

of social computing into core infrastructure


Local computing shifting to cloud platforms


Application Service Provider offerings

standard


New expectations for multi
-
tenant software
-
as
-
a
-
service


Full spectrum of devices


full
-
scale / net book / tablet / mobile


Mobile

the current focus, but is only one example of device
and interface cycles

Key Text:

Changed expectations in
metadata management


Moving

away from individual record
-
by
-
record creation


Life

cycle of metadata


Metadata follows the supply chain, improved and enhanced

along the
way as needed


Manage metadata in bulk when possible


E
-
book collections


Highly shared metadata


E
-
journal knowledge bases, e.g.


Great interest in moving toward semantic web and open linked data


Very little progress in linked data for operational systems


AACR2 > RDA


MARC > RDF?

Status Quo Sustainable?


ILS for management of (mostly) print


Duplicative financial systems between library and campus


Electronic Resource Management (non
-
integrated with ILS)


Open
URL Link Resolver w/ knowledge base for access to
full
-
text electronic articles


Digital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm,
DigiTool, etc.)


Institutional Repositories (
DSpace
, Fedora, etc.)


Discovery
-
layer services for broader access to library
collections


No effective integration services / interoperability among
disconnected systems, non
-
aligned metadata schemes


Phase

of realignment


Strong

need to realign library automation with
current library realities


Legacy library systems reinforce workflows no
longer in step with library priorities.


Need systems that allow libraries to allocate
personnel in proper proportion to collection


Separate automation platforms for print and
electronic have not proven successful

Academic Library

Issues


Greater concern with

electronic resources


Management: Need for consolidated approach that
balances print,

digital,
and electronic workflows


Access: discovery interfaces that maximize the value
of investments in electronic content

Public Library Issues


Enhance the experience

of library patrons


Management and access to physical resources


Self
-
service through the Web portal:


View current loans, perform holds, renewals, pay fines
and fees


Self
-
service

in the physical library


RFID
-
based self
-
issue and returns


Helps the library deploy service personnel for highest

impact

National Library Issues


Larger
-
scale collections


Cultural

Heritage responsibilities


National services: bibliographic, resource sharing,
automation, etc.


National infrastructure: technology platforms shared
at the widest level

Digital preservation


Libraries

involved in creating digital libraries need
processes and infrastructure for long
-
term preservation


Open Archival Information Systems (OAIS) defines practices
and protocols that need to be embodied in a digital
preservation environment


Trusted Digital Repositories: meet standards for preservation
appropriate for unique and valuable collections


Digital preservation currently implemented in national, large
research, and other well
-
resourced libraries and archives.


Some institutional projects, some cooperative


Common to have disaster recovery; rare to implement true
digital preservation

A

Cloudy Forecast for Libraries

Systems Librarian Column, Sept 2011



Service
-
oriented architectures and browser
-
based
interfaces deployed through cloud
-
based
infrastructure stand today as the key technologies
preferred for new software development
efforts”


http
://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/sep11/Breeding.shtml

Cloud Computing


Major trend in Information

Technology


Few organizations have core competence in large
-
scale
computer infrastructure management


Essentially outsourcing of server housing and
management


Usually based on a consumption
-
based business model


Most new automation

products delivered through some
flavor of cloud computing


Many flavors to suit business needs: public, private,
hybrid

Library Automation in the Cloud


Almost all library automation vendors offer some
form of cloud
-
based services


Server management moves from library to Vendor


Subscription
-
based business model


Comprehensive annual subscription payment


Offsets local server purchase and maintenance


Offsets some local technology support

Application Service Provider


Vendor hosting of traditional ILS


Technically

Application Service Provider though

marketed as

SaaS


Continued reliance on Graphical Clients deployed
on each staff workstation that need to be updated
and synched


Vendor maintains individual

instances for each
library / site

Software as a Service


Multi

Tennant SaaS is the modern approach


One copy of the code base serves multiple

sites


Software functionality delivered entirely through
Web interfaces


No workstation clients


Upgrades and fixes deployed universally


Usually in small increments

Data as a service


SaaS

provides opportunity for highly shared data
models


WorldCat: one globally shared copy that serves all
libraries


Primo Central: central index of articles maintained by
Ex Libris shared by all libraries implementing Primo /
Primo Central


Global Knowledgebase of e
-
journal holdings shared
among all customers of SFX


General opportunity to move away from library
-
by
-
library metadata management to globally shared
workflows

Infrastructure as a Service


Access to hardware provisioned from remote
providers


Examples:


Amazon Elastic Compute (EC2)


Cloud and Simple Storage Service (S3)


Many library automation vendors use IaaS to
deploy their offerings


Rethinking
library

automation


Fundamental assumption: Print +
Electronic + Digital


Traditional print
-
dominant ILS
model not adequate for
current
and future

library

realities


Libraries currently
involved with a core
ILS
surrounded by
additional
modules to handle electronic content


New discovery layer interfaces replacing or supplementing ILS
OPACS


Cloud technologies offer potential for new levels of efficiency

and cooperation

“It's Time to Break the Mold of the Original ILS” Computers in Libraries Nov/Dec 2007


Traditional Proprietary Commercial ILS


Aleph, Voyager,
Millennium, Symphony,

Polaris,


BOOK
-
IT,
DDELibra
, Libra.se


LIBERO, Amlib, Spydus, TOTALS II


Traditional Open

Source ILS


Evergreen, Koha


New generation unified resource management


Ex Libris Alma, Kuali OLE, OCLC Web
-
scale Management Services


Cloud
-
based automation systems


Ex Libris Alma


OCLC Web
-
scale: Management Service


Serials Solutions: Web
-
Scale Management Solution

Competing Models of Library
Automation

Comprehensive Resource Management


No longer sensible to use different software
platforms for managing different

types of library
materials


--

ILS

+ ERM + OpenURL Resolver + Digital Asset
management, etc. very inefficient model


++ Flexible platform capable of managing
multiple type of library materials, multiple
metadata formats, with appropriate workflows

Open

Systems


Achieving

openness has risen as the key driver behind
library technology strategies


Libraries need to do more with their data


Ability to improve customer experience and operational
efficiencies


Demand for Interoperability


Open source


full access to internal program of the
application


Open API’s


expose programmatic interfaces to data
and functionality

Legacy
LMS Model

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:

Interfaces

Business

Logic

Data

Stores

`

Legacy
ILS Model / API

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:

Interfaces

Business

Logic

Data

Stores


Application Programming Interfaces


Legacy
ILS Model + protocol

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:


Application Programming Interfaces


Protocols:
SIP2 NCIP

Z39.50

OAI
-
PMH

Self
-
Check

Interlibrary

Loan

System

Legacy
ILS Model / External API

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:


Application Programming Interfaces / Web Services


Protocols:
SIP2 NCIP

Z39.50

OAI
-
PMH

External

Systems &

Services

Flexible

Interoperability

Consolidated index

Search


Engine


Discovery Service


Search:

Digital
Coll

ProQuest

EBSCO



JSTOR

Other
Resources

New Library Management Model

`

API Layer

Library Management
System

Learning

Management

Enterprise
Resource

Planning

Stock

Management

Self
-
Check /

Automated
Return

Authentication

Service

Smart Cad /

Payment
systems

Library Services Platform


Possible

new term for the successor to the ILS


ILS now viewed as print
-
centric


Next Generation systems must serve as platforms to
connect external systems as well as to deliver
internal functionality


Delivered Functionality + library created extensions
+ interoperability

From local discovery to Web
-
scale

discovery

New

models of Library Collection
Discovery

Next
-
Gen

Library Catalogs

Marshall Breeding

Neal
-
Schuman Publishers

March 2010

Volume 1 of The Tech Set

Online Catalog

Search:

Search Results

ILS Data

Disjointed approach to information and
service delivery


Silos Prevail


Books: Library OPAC (ILS module)


Articles: Aggregated content products, e
-
journal collections


OpenURL linking services


E
-
journal finding aids (Often managed by link resolver)


Subject guides (e.g.
Springshare

LibGuides
)


Local digital collections


ETDs, photos, rich media collections


Metasearch engines


All searched separately

Federated Search

Search:

Digital
Collections

ProQuest

EBSCOhost



MLA
Bibliography

ABC
-
CLIO

Search Results

Real
-
time query and
responses

ILS Data

Next
-
gen Catalogs

or Discovery
Interface


Single search box


Query tools


Did you mean


Type
-
ahead


Relevance

ranked results


Faceted navigation


Enhanced visual displays


Cover art


Summaries, reviews,


Recommendation

services

Discovery

Interface search model

Search:

Digital
Collections

ProQuest

EBSCOhost



MLA
Bibliography

ABC
-
CLIO

Search Results

Real
-
time query and
responses

ILS Data

Local
Index

MetaSearch

Engine

Discovery Products

Differentiation in Discovery


Products

increasingly specialized between public
and academic libraries


Public libraries: emphasis on engagement with
physical collection


Academic libraries: concern for discovery of
heterogeneous material types, especially books +
articles + digital objects

Discovery

from Local to Web
-
scale


Initial products focused

on technology


AquaBrowser, Endeca,

Primo, Encore,

VuFind,


LIBERO Uno, Civica Sorcer, Axiell Arena


Mostly locally
-
installed software


Current

phase focused on pre
-
populated indexes that
aim to deliver Web
-
scale discovery


Primo
Central (Ex Libris)


Summon (Serials

Solutions)


WorldCat Local (OCLC)


EBSCO Discovery Service (EBSCO)


Encore with Article Integration

Citations

/ Metadata > Full Text


Citations or

structured metadata provide key data
to power search & retrieval and faceted navigation


Indexing Full
-
text of content amplifies access


Important to understand

depth indexing


Currency, dates covered, full
-
text

or citation


Many other factors

Web
-
scale Index
-
based Discovery

Search:

Digital
Collections

ProQuest

EBSCOhost



MLA
Bibliography

ABC
-
CLIO

Search Results

Pre
-
built harvesting and
indexing

Consolidated Index

ILS Data

Challenge

for Relevancy


Technically

feasible to index hundreds of millions or
billions of records through Lucene or SOLR


Difficult to order records in ways that make sense


Many fairly equivalent candidates returned for any
given query


Must rely on use
-
based and social factors to
improve relevancy rankings

Open Discovery Initiative


Project

underway to address issues related to
information providers, discovery service providers, and
libraries


Protocols for transfer of content


Transparency of what is transferred and indexed


Rights or restrictions on how discovery services use
content


Initial meeting at ALA Annual


Proposal under consideration by NISO



Proposed New Work Item: Standards and Best Practices
for Library Discovery Services Based on Indexed Search”

Decoupled

from ILS

Decoupled

Discovery?


Decoupled

interfaces emerged from broken online
catalogs


Poor interfaces,

inadequate scope


Inefficient

integration between automation and
discovery platforms


New wave of more tightly integrated suites:


Ex Libris Alma > Primo


OCLC Web
-
scale

Management Services > WorldCat Local


Serials Solutions Web
-
Scale Management Solution >
Summon


Still possible to decouple, but more effort, worse

results

Delivering library services to mobile

devices


Increased expectation

for access to services

through mobile


Library services:


Mobile web


Apps


Carefully select

functionality appropriate

for mobile


Tablet computing


Tablet computers have been around for a while, but
the introduction of Apple’s
iPad

increases popularity


High
-
quality

device for

content consumption


Access

to library

services and

content

http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2010/0524/A
-
rundown
-
of
-
the
-
best
-
iPad
-
astronomy
-
apps

Questions

and discussion

Thanks!