pogonotomygobbleAI and Robotics

Nov 15, 2013 (2 years and 11 months ago)



Georg Gartner

Vienna University of Technology,

Department of Geoinformation and Cartography


This presentation deals wi
th current
efforts at the Technical University of Vienna to
analyze methods of wayfinding support for pedestrians in mixed indoor and outdoor
It is assumed, that methods of ubiquitious cartography in terms of a
combination of active a
nd passive systems with various presentation forms can support the
wayfinding process. In this context the term ubiquitious cartography follows the definition of
Ota (2004), who stated "ubiquitous mapping is that people can access any map at anywhere
and a
nytime through the information network", incorporating also Morita's perspective
(2004): "includes not only map making but also map use and map communication considering
the interaction between map, spatial image, and the real world".

In this paper a res
earch in progress is described. The FWF project “UbiNavi”, dealing with
the support of wayfinding of pedestrians in ubiquitous environments is planned as a 3
project. The current stage of the project progress is to deal with the relevance, state of th
e art
and research settings, which are described in this paper.
The main research question

the modelling of the behaviour of pedestrians and the possibility of meeting the
needs/behaviour by a combination of active and passive systems. The use cas
e includes
therefore the usage of mobile devices in combination with short
range sensors and public
displays. The main aim is to make the environment "smart", so that adaptively the "smart"
environment delivers customised and location
dependent information

for a particular user,
instead of trying to permanently track and send information from centralized systems.

Keywords: Maps and the Internet, Ubiquitous Cartography, Navigation Systems

1 Introduction

Within the last few years navigation systems have star
ted to conquer the market. Beside car
drivers even pedestrians are gaining interest in reliable guiding instructions. Nevertheless, this
kind of giving directions is not very popular until today. Various reasons are responsible for
this scarce usage: e.g.
localization accuracy is insufficient for pedestrian needs in many cases
and route suggestions usually rely on road networks and do not meet the demands of walking
people, as pedestrians have more degrees of freedom in movement compared to car drivers
ona & Winter 2001).
Moreover, most of these systems are limited to outdoor areas,
whereas wayfinding within buildings has mostly been neglected so far.
Merely some
museums offer digital guiding services to visitors (Oppermann 2003, Chan et al. 2005). Even
though the range of some positioning sensors may be sufficient for navigation tasks, they are
rarely ava
lable within buildings.
Moreover the communication of 3D indoor environments on
dimensional screens is a difficult task that influences, if the use
r successfully reaches the
Guidelines for an effective design of indoor environments have not been established so
far, yet they are necessary to raise user acceptance to a higher level.

Additionally to navigation support, it could be beneficial t
o supply the user with information
that is adapted to the current task. For instance, when visiting a shopping centre information
about bargains at favoured shops could be displayed, or when strolling around an airport
information about departing planes th
at concern the user could be provided. Instead of passive
systems that are installed on the user’s device and frequently position the user as he moves
along, new technologies originated in ubiquitous computing could enrich guiding systems by
including info
rmation captured from an active environment. This would mean that the user is
perceived by a ubiquitous environment and receives location based information that is
suitable for the respective device or is supplied with helpful notes via a public display or

similar presentation tools. Additionally to the function of information transmission poles,
these smart stations could substitute or complement traditional indoor positioning methods by
sending coordinates of the station instead of locating the user. Base
d on the concept of Active
marks, which actively search for the user and build up a spontaneous “ad
hoc network”
via an air
interface, a ubiquitous solution, where an information exchange between different
objects and devices is accomplished, could be
investigated for the use in navigation.

This evolutionary method of ubiquitous guiding in smart environments will bring a paradigm
shift to contemporary wayfinding. As opposed to conventional navigation systems, which are
based on preinstalled software,
ubiquitous cartography responds to an individual user at his
present location in real
time. Interactivity is facilitated and wayfinding aid is more flexible,
which provides new opportunities and challenges to the field of cartography and offers new
lities for research in positioning techniques with alternative sensors.

Problems and state of the art

In the late 1980s Mark Weiser, a technologist at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, created
the term ‘Ubiquitous Computing’ (Want 2000). In his disq
uisition on “The Computer for the

Century” Weiser (1991) assumed that in the near future a great number of computers will
be omnipresent in our everyday life and that they will soon be interconnected in a ubiqu
network. Especially within the last

decade this concept gained more and more impo
tance not
only to computer scientists but also to other disciplines, like medicine and care for the elderly
(Baard 2002). Recently geo
scientists started to discover the possibility to use the omnipresent
uter landscape for exploring our spatial environment. Fairbairn (2005) explains the term
‘Ubiquitous Cartography’ as a technological and social development, made possible by
mobile and wireless technologies, that receives, presents, analyses and acts upon
map data
which is distributed to a user in a remote location. Furthermore he predicts that this new
proach to maps will revolutionize the way many people interact with maps. To Ota (2004)
“the definition of ubiquitous mapping is that people can access an
y map at (sic) anywhere and
anytime through the information network” (pp. 167).

Within the last few years a lot of research and development has taken place concerning
Location Based Services, which could now be supplemented and expanded with the help of
tous methods, and maybe in the future they could even be replaced. Yet research is still
in the early development stage that still meets many new challenges.

Positioning and tracking of pedestrians in smart environments function differently from
ventional navigation systems, since not only passive systems, that execute positioning on
mand, need to be considered. In fact a combination of active and passive positioning
methods should be the basis of a ubiquitous navigation system. Such a multi
sor system
for position determination should therefore be able to include both types of location
determination and as a result lead to an improvement of positioning accuracy.

Beside the technical challenges of a ubiquitous system, user friendliness is a m
ajor ambition.
Due to the diversity of pedestrian navigation strategies and route choice behaviour, the user
shows specific preferences and requirements concerning spatial information. Yet lot of
information that might even be completely independent from e
ach other could ove
strain the
user and hinder effective information extraction.

To avoid this effect, the aim of such a system should concentrate on providing information
about the environment without overstraining the user. It should supply the navigati
ng person
with customized information basing on individual mobile behaviour and interests and
available facilities in the actual surroundings. At decision points the information should be
takably clarified but everywhere else, where guidance is not im
plicitly necessary,
additional information should be provided in an unobtrusive way.

The overall research approach being attempted at the FWF project “UbiNavi” at Vienna
University of Technology can be stated as “
Navigation in a ubiquitous environment wit
h a
combination of active and passive systems enables customized route guiding with various
presentation forms and therefore optimizes the wayfinding process.

In detail investigation are taking place in terms of

positioning methods in a smart environmen
t in combination with conve
positioning techniques

typologies will be investigated and based on these findings user profiles will be
verified and tested by observing the clients mobility behaviour at certain highly
frequented environments.

route presentation forms, which could be provided either by the ubiquitous
environment or by a passive system on the client of the user.

Problems and State of the Art in Positioning in Ubiquitous

In recent years new technologies and met
hods for positioning in ubiquitous environments and

buildings have been developed. Most commonly current navigation systems employ a
combination of satellite positioning (GNSS) for absolute position determination and dead
reckoning (DR) for relative posit
ioning where the direction of motion or heading and the
traveled di
tance of the user are measured from a given start position. Due to the main
limitations of the sensors (i.e. satellite availability in the case of GNSS and large drift rates in
the case of

DR), other positioning technologies should be employed to augment GNSS and
DR positioning. Useable alternative geolocation techniques include cellular phone
positioning, the use of WLAN (wireless local area networks), UWB (ultra
wide band), RFID
(radio fr
equency ide
tification), Bluetooth and other systems using infrared, ultrasonic and
electromagnetic signals (Retscher 2005b). Thereby the use of already established wireless
infrastructure (e.g. WLAN) for positioning has the advantage that usually no addit
ional and
costly hardware i
stallations are required. Some of the systems have been especially
developed for indoor appl
cations, but they can also be employed in indoor
outdoor and
urban environments.

RFID is a method of remotely storing and retrievi
ng data using devices called RFID tags. An
RFID tag is a small object, such as an adhesive sticker, that can be attached to or incorporated
into a product. RFID tags contain

to enable them to receive and respond to
frequency queries from an RFID

enzeller 2002). The reader is able to read
the stored information of the tag in close proximity. To employ RFID for positioning, one
approach would be to install RFID tags at specific landmarks and if the user passes by, he can
retrieve the tag information

with its location.

Locating of a user on the correct floor of a multi
storey building is another challenging task.
For more accurate determination of the user’s height an improvement is achieved employing a
barometric pressure sensor additionally (Retsc
her 2004a). Tests have been performed in a
diploma thesis at our University (Kistenich 2005) and could prove that we are able to
determine the correct floor of a user in a multi
storey building.

From the above description it can be seen that nowadays a wi
de range of location
technologies are available or in the development stage that can be employed for location
determination in ubiquitous environments in location
based services.

Problems and State of the Art in Monitoring the Navigation Behaviour



Ubiquitous access to information services in active environments supplies the user with
practical information concerning the optimal route and services the environment can provide.
pecially for pedestrians the “optimal” route to a desired de
stination is not clearly defined,
thus it is currently not possible to offer efficient, user
adapted information. Studies have
shown that people often prefer the “most beautiful”, “most convenient” or “safest” path to the
shortest path (Thomas 2003) and th
at pedestrians prefer certain routes owing to their
environmental qualities, such as relative quietness and greenery (Blivice 1974). The choice of
a sp
cific route depends on the given task, the actual environment and individual preferences
ciated with

personal attitudes and lifestyles. Moreover, an individual user does not always
act in the same way. It is therefore strongly commendable to include methods used in
attitudinal and lifestyle research when investigating and describing human spatial behavio

Due to the vast amount of critical factors influencing the walking patterns and route
behaviour of pedestrians, e.g. physical, psychological, or mental factors (Millonig &
Schechtner 2005), there have been few efforts to observe and describe gro
specific spatial
iour so far. Research designs concentrate only on few specific aspects: Either specific
user groups are investigated, e.g. certain age cohorts (Ahrend 2002), or the pedestrian motion
behaviour on a particular square is investigated

(Yan & Forsyth 2005). Other researchers
concentrate on mobile behaviour under specific circumstances, e.g. leisure time (Götz et al.
2003). As the consideration of all aspects influencing pedestrian behaviour simultaneously is
not possible, the developmen
t of lifestyle
related types of pedestrian mobility styles can serve
as a basis to generate customized spatial information.

In the project “UbiNavi” we propose the creation of a typology of
based pedestrian
mobility styles
, based on
ndividual w
alking patterns and route decision preferences

typology can serve as a basis to customize navigational and environmental information to
individual needs and to create pedestrian interest profiles in ubiquitous environments.

Concerning the methods to
investigate and describe pedestrian motion behaviour, there are
quantitative localisation methods which can be used to investigate pedestrian walking
patterns. Computer vision methods generally attempt to understand and describe object
behaviours (Hu et al
. 2004). Automatically obtaining the trajectories of multiple interacting
people with computer vision is still an open research topic (Gong & Buxton 2002).

Data concerning the walking behaviour of pedestrians are often collected only in laboratory

(e.g. Daamen & Hoogendorn 2003). Surveys taking place in natural environments
usually neglect the examination of intensions and motives of route decisions (e.g. Virkler
1998). Similarly, the investigation of pedestrian navigation behaviour by tracking
hnologies based on satellite navigation systems and terrestrial localization (e.g. GPS)
systems us
ally restrict to the quantitative observation and interpretation of pedestrian
behaviour (e.g. Shoval & Isaacson 2005).

The easiest way to learn about pede
strian walking behaviour is the qualitative method of
capturing motion behaviour by human observers following pedestrians and mapping their
paths. Some studies which use qualitative methods reveal interesting facts about spatial
preferences and route decis
ion motives of diverse groups of pedestrians or travellers;
nevertheless the reliability of the respondent’s answers remains uncontrolled (Ovstedal &
Olaussen Ryeng 2002, Götz & Birzle
Harder 2005, Götz et al. 2003). Such a control could be
realised by ver
fying the answers by quantitative data obtained with people tracking methods.
So far qualit
tive and quantitative empirical data have not yet been simultaneously combined
in a single research study. The model of pedestrian mobility types which will be der
ived in
this study offers the opportunity to verify the results of qualitative observation methods by
tative tracking data.

Problems and State of the Art of Ubiquitous Cartography

Smart environments demand a different approach to the cartograp
hic route communication
than conventional systems. Location based services usually require a mobile device on which
several types of multimedia presentation forms inform the user about his environment. In
ubiquitous environments, on the other hand, communi
cation does not necessarily need to be
conveyed via a personal device, but could also be provided on a public display or with the
help of virtual personalities, called avatars. It is presumed, that a combination of active and
passive systems with various p
resentation forms, that are harmonized with each other,
supports the wayfinding process best. Yet it is unclear, which presentation forms actually are
valuable and effective within smart environments and which combinations are reasonable
presenters of loca
tion based information without leading to an information overload.

When different hot spots are interconnected with each other, special interests could be
transferred between the stations and could be considered in route communication. Additional
to the r
oute presentation, landmarks and points of interest, which are tailored to the user’s
ences could be individually displayed. The personal mobile phone, a public display or
even an avatar could additionally inform the user about bargains in his favour
ite shops (in a
shopping street or shopping centre), new exhibits of an artist of interest (in a museum),
remaining time until the required flight takes off (in an airport), lunch break time of a
colleague (in an office), etc. In case the user knows someth
ing, that could be of interest to
other people, he should be able to leave geotagged bookmarks in his environment which could
afterwards be used and supplemented by everyone who passes the area. Methods on how to
interact with a smart e
vironment have to b
e explored yet to enforce practicability.

The paradigm shift from passive navigation systems to route guiding within smart
environments leads to new approaches and challenges to cartography and ontologies have to
be esta
lished to specify constraints.


Positioning in Ubiquitous Environments

For navigation and guidance in 3
D space, continuous location determination is required with
positioning accuracies on the few meter level or even higher, especially for navigation in
buildings in vertical dimension
(height) as the user must be located on the correct floor. The
specialized research hypothesis of this work package is that navigation and wayfinding
smart environments

is possible and a mathematical model for integrated positioning can be
developed tha
t provides the user with continuous navigation support. Therefore appropriate
location sensors have to be combined and integrated in a new multi
sensor fusion model
which makes use of knowledge
based systems (see Retscher 2005a).


Location determinatio
n in smart environments using different
techniques and sensors

For navigation and wayfinding
in smart environments the use of RFID (
Radio Frequency
) for ubiquitous positioning is a promising solution and should be investigated in
the project
For location determination RFID tags can be placed on active landmarks or on
known locations in the surrounding environment. If the user passes by with an RFID reader,
the tag ID and additional information (e.g. the 3
D coordinates of the tag) are retri
eved. The
range between the tag and reader in which a connection between the two devices can be
established depends on the type of tag. RFID tags can either be active or passive. Passive tags
do not have their own power supply and their read range is short
er than for active tags, i.e., in
the range of about 10 mm up to about 5 m. Active tags, on the other hand, must have a power
source, and may have longer ranges and larger memories than passive tags. Many a
tive tags
have practical ranges of dozens of metr
es and a battery life of up to several years. Their range
define a cell in which a data exchange between tag and reader is possible. Several tags can
overlap and define certain cells with a r
dius equal the read range. The method for location

in a cell is referred to as Cell of Origin (CoO) and the accuracy is defined by
the cell size. Using active RFID tags the positioning accuracy ranges between a few metres up
to tens of metres and with passive tags up to about 5 m (Re
scher & Kistenich 200

Navigation systems usually also employ so
called dead reckoning (DR) sensors where the
current location of the user is determined using observations of the direction of motion (or
heading) and the travelled distance from a known start position. Due to

the main limitations of
DR sensors, i.e. the large drift rates of the sensors, an absolute position determination is
required at certain time intervals to update the DR observations and correct for the sensor drift
(Retscher 2004a). The absolute position
determination is usually performed with satellite
positioning (GPS). RFID positioning can provide this position updates in smart environments
where satellite positioning is not available. It is proposed that at least the following DR
sensors should be incl
uded: an attitude sensor (i.e. a digital compass) giving the orientation
and heading in combination with an inertial tracking sensor (e.g. a low
cost Inertial
Measurement Unit IMU) including a three
axis accelerometer also employed for travel
distance meas
ments and a digital barometric pressure sensor for height determination.

Development of a Knowledge
based Multi
sensor Fusion Model

The integration of different sensors and location methods shall be based on an intelligent
sensor fusion mode
l. Thereby the current position of a user is estimated using a Kalman
filter approach which makes use of knowledge
based systems. The process flow of the
intelligent multi
sensor fusion model can be described as follows: Firstly the observations of
each se
nsor and location technique of the multi
sensor system are analyzed in a knowledge
based pre
processing filter. In this step the plausibility of the observations is tested as well as
gross errors and outliers are detected and eliminated. The analyzed and c
orrected observations
are then used in the following central Kalman filter for the optimal estimation of the current
user’s position and its velocity and direction of movement. In this processing step all suitable
sensor observations as identified before a
re employed and the stochastic filter model is
adapted using the knowledge of the pre
processing step. For example, the weightings of the
GPS observations can be reduced, if current GPS positioning accuracy is low due to a high
GDOP value (i.e. bad satelli
receiver geometry). Then the optimal estimate of the user’s
position should be more based on the observations of other sensors (e.g. DR, RFID, etc.).

based systems will be especially useful for the pre
processing of the sensor
observations. T
hereby the decision which sensors should be used to obtain an optimal
estimate of the current user’s position and the weightings of the observations shall be based
on know
based systems. The new algorithm would be of great benefit for the integration
of different sensors as the pe
formance of the service would be significantly improved. The
main development will be f
cused on the deduction of a multi
sensor fusion model based on
based sy


Monitoring the Navigation Behaviour of Pedestr

The analyses

start with a phase of qualitative research methods to hypothesize and identify
basic types of pedestrian route choice behaviour. Research results are based on pedestrian
observations in an indoor environment (shopping centre) and outdoor
environment (shopping
street) under varying circumstances (daytime, weekday, weather conditions). Participants are
followed by researchers mapping their paths and annotating main attributes (ge
der, age,
walking alone or not, etc.).

After having collected
the qualitative motion patterns, analytical categories/classes are
derived inductively by a coherent and systematic approach (constant comparison, cluster
sis). At the end of this process, provisional types are created, describing and explaining

homogenous types of walking and route choice behaviour. Subsequently, common
istic features of cases in each provisional type are defined. Type
related decision
rules and key attributes are derived to describe a basic hypothesis concerning a typo
logy of
pedestrian walking behaviour.

Quantitative survey and analysis of pedestrian behaviour in indoor
and outdoor


The quantitative phase of the study follows the qualitative phase and is conducted to verify
the provisional types define
d in the qualitative survey. The actual walking and route choice
behaviour of people in specific indoor and outdoor situations is observed using technologic
methods (outdoor: GPS, Kunczier 2005; indoor: Bluetooth, Pels et al. 2005) and compared
with the fo
rmerly identified hypothetic typology. The congruence of homogenous walking
behaviour with each of the preliminary defined pedestrian mobility types is verified and types
are modified if necessary.

Participants are monitored during a shopping task and act
ual positions, velocities and moving
directions are countinuously recorded. Research conditions are diversified according to
weekday, daytime, weather conditions, time pressure and whether the participants are
accompanied or not. The analysis of the tracki
ng results focuses on paths, velocities and
breaks. After the tracking process, guided interviews are conducted with the participants to
obtain information about their actual intentions, their attitudes and lifestyle and socio
structural attributes. The ob
tained data are related to defined specific mobility types, allowing
their validation with regard to internal homogeneity and external heterogeneity.

Development of a Model of Mobility
Styles for Pedestrians

Results of both the qualitative and quantit
ative survey are related to each other to identify a
specific spatial behavioural style for each provisional category. The catenation of both results
is executed to test the hypothetic types defined in the first qualitative phase of the study.

At the end
of this process a model of pedestrian mobility styles is developed, where each type
is described with regard to multiple aspects (basic parameters, behavioural characteristics,
preferences, requirements, and main socio
demographic characteristics within th
e sample).

Style based Pedestrian Profiling

Based on the model of mobility styles the identification of homogeneously behaving target
groups becomes possible with the intention to offer group
specific routes and information.
The allocation o
f a user to a specific ideal type by inquiring the previously defined key
attributes allows the consideration of specific preferences concerning the route choice and
tional information. Analogue to recommending systems used for internet users,
tional systems can learn from the user’s behaviour and can be responsive to individual
ences and requirements during the use of the service. Based on the research results, user
modelling approaches are discussed according to their suitability for ubi
quitous navig

Ubiquitous Cartography

The concept of ubiquity requires an intensive analysis of presentation forms for indoor and
outdoor environments. Beside the yet unspecified visualisation of the basic data material,
additional visua
lisation techniques need to be considered that evolve from the possibility of
terconnected data exchange.


Analysis and development of cartographic methodology for ubiquitous route communication

Compared to outdoor environments, where maps have shown
to be the most effective and
favoured presentation form for navigation (Reichl 2003, Kray et al. 2003, Ortag 2005), the
visualisation of indoor environments has mostly been neglected so far. Properties and
characteristics of indoor environments require dif
ferent cognitive abilities than navigation in
an ou
door environment (Raubal & Egenhofer 1998) and orientation is the main problem
within buildings. Without any established knowledge about information absorption in indoor
ronments, most systems instinc
tively use floor plans as a presentation form (Long et al.
1996, Heidmann & Hermann 2003, Habel 1998). Probably these depictions are picked
because of their similarity to traditional outdoor maps or because floor plans are mostly used
in sciences like arch
itecture or civil engineering. Nevertheless Radoczky (2003) tested three
different presentation forms (floor plan, 3D
animation, birds
eye view), which showed a clear
ence for the visualisation of a floor plan and in some situations for a simplified
model of the building. Unfortunately there are no regulations concerning the design of indoor
maps and 3D presentations concerning navigation.

A more innovative method to present routes to users is the usage of avatars, virtual pe
that appear in th
e sight of the user any time help is needed. The required functionality of
avatars, that guide the user along the desired way, is yet unclear and needs further


nnotating and interacting with the environment

One of the great advantages o
f ubiquitous systems is the potentiality to directly interact with
the environment. Information may not only be received by the user but can also be added to
the smart environment by individuals. The idea originally evolves from Wikipedia, a free
online en
cyclopaedia, which can be updated and complemented by everybody who considers
himself an expert on the subject. Recently this concept was adapted to a spatial context and
the term was changed to Geowiki. In Geowiki systems, individuals can add information
visited locations to a universally available map. The Camineo guide (Camineo 2005, Raper
2005), a multimedia location based service which is used in national parks, includes this type
of geo
bookmarking tool, where users can place timed and located b
ookmarks while using the
service. That way the system can constantly be updated by the users without any time
consuming and cost
intensive processes. The implementation of geotagging in smart
environments is based on similar considerations but yet opens di
fferent questions on how to
interact with ubiquitous environments.


pecification of Indoor Landmarks and Emotional Landmarks

A landmark is understood as something of importance with some outstanding characteristics,
for example visual characteristics,
its location, its contrast to the environment and its
distinctiveness (Raubal & Winter 2002, Elias 2002). The importance of landmarks for
wayfinding has extensively been discussed in several publications (e.g.: Michon & Denis
2001, Foltz 1998, Lynch 1960,
Golledge 1999). Yet the derivation of landmarks is a very
individual pro
ess that can change from one person to another (Gartner et al. 2005). Rooms or
shops where the user has been before, or even places that he immediately recognises because
he has read
or heard about it before, can act as so called Emotional Landmarks.

Since it is more likely to lose orientation within a building than outside (Hohenschuh 2004,
Radoczky 2003), it is possible that the user demands a higher density of landmarks indoors
n outdoors. Unfortunately it is expected that buildings dispose of a smaller choice of
landmark categories and that they might not be as remarkable as outdoor landmarks.
Nevertheless they could still be essential aids for way descriptions.

Beside the subs
tantiated selection of objects as indoor landmarks, another important topic
needs to be investigated: the presentation of landmarks. The user should also be able to define
his own landmarks by placing symbols or the system itself could remember start or
stination points of previous routes and place flags automatically.


Adapting the guiding model to behaviour classes

Based on the findings of
monitoring pedestrians behaviour
, the consequences of different
behaviour classes on the guiding model need to b
e investigated in more detail. Route
communication itself can only work effectively, if route calculation and presentation forms
are adapted to the modelled behaviour of the individual. Some users prefer to take the direct
path from A to B, whereas others
like to stroll around on more zigzag
like paths, therefore
route calculation needs to be adapted. Moreover the correlation of presentation forms with
behaviour classes is yet unspecified


ombination of outdoor and indoor navigation

Most concepts of pe
destrian navigation either deal exclusively with indoor or outdoor
navigation. Even though a complete division in real life is unlikely, an integration of both
versions into a single system has hardly been considered. A first step into this direction was
ealised by Baus et al. (2002), who worked on the construction of a pedestrian navigation
system that should work within buildings with the help of Bluetooth and IrDA as well as
outdoors with GPS and telecommunication techniques. The main objective of this
project was
the switch of the different positioning techniques, whereas the visualisation problem has
hardly been taken into account. Obviously both navigation areas must use different
presentation forms which is why a noteless switch is highly impossible.

The question remains
how this switch could be rea
ised without an abrupt visual switch that leaves the user



In this paper major aspects of concepting
a pedestrian navigation system in an ubiquitous

are discussed. Th
ese include integrative positioning, context
adapted data
modelling and multimedia route communication. The implications for positioning, data
modelling and information communication are analysed, along with the related innovations in
based techno
logies. Findings and results from research projects undertaken at the
University of Technology Vienna are presented. It is anticipated that further innovations
the field of ubiquitous computing
will offer additional possibilities to develop new forms of

cartographic systems, either for guiding purposes or for collabor
ative decision support


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