Instructional Design for eLearning

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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Instructional Design for eLearning

Certificate Program

Instructional Design for eLearning

Instructor: Deborah George

About the Program


Develop the core
instructional design competencies
.


Apply instructional
design practices and principles

within the electronic
environment.


Develop and use
strategies

to lead and manage

instructional challenges
in a variety of online educational settings.


Provide knowledge of
tools needed to transition

from traditional
classroom training to eLearning.

ID for eLearning Certificate Program Goals

Class Title

Length

CEU

Instructional Design for eLearning

7 hr.

.7

Analysis and Planning

14 hr.

1.4

eLearning Technologies and Methodologies

14 hr.

1.4

Designing Instructional Content

14 hr.

1.4

Navigation, Storyboards and Prototypes

21 hr.

2.1

Practicum:

Learning Object Design and Development

21 hr.

2.1

Total

91 hr.

9.1

ID for eLearning Certificate Program Structure


Program Structure

Instructional Design for eLearning

Group Introductions

Who

are you and


What

do you want to know about e
-
learning?

Who You Are

Name,

Organization,

E
-
ID experience



seasoned practitioner




recent entrant
--
not quite

sure where to begin



manager of e
-
learning

resources




non
-
electronic trainer



other ??


What

In other words,


What is your one burning e
-
learning question?

and/or


What keeps you up at night?

and/or


What do you wish you know
about e
-
learning?

Hello

Instructional Design for eLearning


Class Agenda

Recognize common terms associated with elearning

Differentiate instructional design from training.

Explain differences and similarities in designing



instruction for online and classroom delivery.

Define learner and facilitator roles in eLearning.

Describe adult learner attributes.

List uses for synchronous and asynchronous learning.

Describe benefits and challenges of using eLearning.

T
ODAY

S

O
BJECTIVES

Instructional Design for eLearning

Interesting

Stops on the Journey

Use Your Words


elearning Terms & Meanings


The Web 1
-
2 and 3?


Technology Talk


Architecture


Tools of the "e" trade


Instructional Design in Context

Instructional Design Models & Process

What's Different in the Process for elearning?


Analysis


Needs, Goals, Learners


Design/Development


Instructional Strategies


Role of Instructor


Cohorts


Near & Far Knowledge Transfers


Virtual or Physical environments


(Class) Size Matters


Chunking
-

Learning Objects


Engaging Content
-

what is it?

Development


Functions of elearning development

Evaluating elearning


the good news


So What's Different about ID for eLearning?


What's Next


Our Map for Today’s Journey

Instructional Design for eLearning

What

is eLearning?

Instructional Design for eLearning


The Web(s)

Increasing Social Connectivity

Increasing Knowledge Connectivity and Reasoning

Natural Language

Automatic Intellectual Property

Semantic Wiki

Semantic Agent
Ecosystems

Semantic Blog

Semantic Social Networks

Semantic E
-
mail

Context
-
Aware Games

Blogjects

Semantic Enterprise

Smart Markets

Spime

Semantic Communities

The Ubiquitous Web

Connects Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence

Personal Assistants

Thesauri and Taxonomies

Intelligent Agents

Knowledge Bases

Semantic Search

Semantic Web site

Semantic Desktop

Ontologies

Bots

The Semantic Web

Connects Knowledge

PZP

Pims

Enterprise Portals

Community Portals

Content Portals

Desktop

File Servers

Databases

Web Sites

Search Engines

File Sharing

Push, Publish & Subscribe

The Web

Connects Information

Wiki

E
-
mail

Mash
-
Ups

Blogs

RSS

Marketplaces & Auctions

Multi
-
User Gaming

Community Portals

Social Bookmarking

Social Networks

Instant Messaging

Conferencing

The Social Web

Connects People

Harvey, P.(2010).Applying Social Systems Thinking and community Informatics Thinking in
Kjell

Rudestam

and Judith
Schoenholtz
-
Read (
eds
).
Handbook of Online Learning 2
nd

Ed
, p. 153.

Instructional Design for eLearning


Technology Terms

10

Talking Technological

Instructional Design for eLearning


Architecture

11

Students

User Portal

Pedagogy, Content

Quality
Assessment
Process

Courseware
Development Team

Instructional Design

Editing


Copyright

Visual Design

Look & Feel

Multimedia

Templates, Guidelines

L M S

Learning management
System

Secure Server

Student information
System

Services

Library

Other
Repositories

Learning Outcomes

Organization’s Mission/Vision,

Values & Goals

Davis, A. (2004). Developing an infrastructure for online learning. In Terry Anderson and
Fathi

Elloumi

(Eds.), Theory
and practice of online learning, (p. 102). cde.athabascau.ca/
online_book
: Athabasca University.

An Online Learning System Framework

Instructional Design for eLearning


Types of Tools

12

Talking Technological


Authoring Tools

Instructional Design for eLearning


Rapid and Complex Authoring Tools

13


Create less complex electronic information
and instruction in a short period of time


Relatively easy to use for less complex
projects



Many also have features that allow for more
complex authoring

Adobe Captivate

Adobe Connect

Articulate Studio

Camtasia

Studio



Create more complex electronic information
and instruction


Typically have a steeper learning curve.



Many also have features that allow their use
for rapid authoring

Adobe Captivate

Adobe Connect

Adobe Flash

Articulate Studio

Trivantis

Lectora

T
OOL

P
URPOSE

T
OOL

T
YPE

V
ENDORS

Instructional Design for eLearning


Screencast

T
OOL

T
YPE

T
YPICALLY

C
REATES

Produces a digital recording of what is
happening in a computer screen, window, or
application
.



A tool may also allow the addition and
editing of narration, links, graphics and
media, and interaction.

Screencast

14

Instructional Design for eLearning


PowerPoint
-
to
-
Flash

T
OOL

T
YPE

T
YPICALLY

C
REATES

PowerPoint
-
to
-
Flash

Produces Flash content out of PowerPoint
slides, typically with narration.


Tool may also allow the addition and editing
of links, graphics and media, and
interactions.

15

Instructional Design for eLearning


Forms
-
to
-
Flash

T
OOL

T
YPE

T
YPICALLY

C
REATES

Forms
-
to
-
Flash

Produces Flash content such as pages or
rollover graphics from
content placed into
forms
.


The
tool may also allow the addition and
editing of narration, links, graphics and
media, and interactions.

16

Instructional Design for eLearning


Other
-
to
-
Flash

T
OOL

T
YPE

T
YPICALLY

C
REATES

Other
-
to
-
Flash

Produces Flash content such as pages, games
or scenarios form content placed onto
screens or imported.


Tool may also allow the addition and editing
of narration, links, graphics and media and
interactions.

17

Instructional Design for eLearning


Webinar

T
OOL

T
YPE

T
YPICALLY

C
REATES

Enables a live presentation, with slides over
the internet using a virtual classroom
application.


Tool
may also allow presenter to share his or
her desktop, poll participants, and
incorporate other presentation and
participant interaction tools.


Many
record the presentation as it happens
so it can be made available later, non
-
live.

18

Instructional Design for eLearning

Instructional Design Defined

19

Theory & Practice

Instructional Design for eLearning


Theories

Instructional Design

Theory

To increase probably of achieving
learning goals

Learning Theory

Explanations about

how learning occurs

Curriculum Theory

Concerns decisions about
what to teach

Instructional Design Process

How to plan and prepare


for instruction

Instructional
Design Process

Instructional Design for eLearning

Popular

ID Process Models

A.D.D.I.E

Instructional Design for eLearning

Common Elements of Instructional

Design

Analysis

-
Determine need

-
Analyze audience

-
Establish goals

Design/Development

-
Create content outline

-
Review existing materials

-
Organize and develop content

-
Select/develop materials and


delivery methods

Evaluation

-
Review goals and objectives

-
Develop evaluation strategy

-
Collect and analyze data

Revision

-
Develop and implement


revision plan

Instructional Design for eLearning

An All Too Real Requirement

23

Put This Training
Online

Can we talk about
the requirements
for this training?

Analysis

-
Determine need

-
Analyze audience

-
Establish goals

Instructional Design for eLearning

Morning Summary

Instructional Design for eLearning

Goal: Rocket Ship or Compact Car?









What’s new

Demo


Job Aid


Tutorial


Simulation



Information





Instruction






Instructional Design for eLearning

Instructional Strategies

27

Instructional Design for eLearning


Role of Instructor

Broadcast Presentation

Lecture w/Q&A

Learner sets pace, facilitator
monitors progress

Learner in complete control

I
NSTRUCTOR
-
LED

OR

L
EARNER
-
LED
?

Instructional Design for eLearning


Cohort cohesiveness

C
OHORT

C
OHESIVENESS

Instructional Design for eLearning


Embedded eLearning

eLearning has no related
materials

Related materials exist, but not
linked together

Related materials tightly linked
electronically, but separate

eLearning indistinguishable
from surrounding materials

K
NOWLEDGE

T
RANSFER

For example, a tutorial on
how to make a jelly
sandwich.

For example, a Wizard or
mouse
-
over help

For example, text of
references for sources of
different types of jelly

For example, link to glossary
of sandwich
-
making terms

Instructional Design for eLearning


Blended

Learning

P
HYSICAL

OR

V
IRTUAL

L
OCATIONS

Traditional Classroom
Instruction

Sandwiching slabs of existing
classroom content and
elearning

Mixing classroom and elearning
event based on subject

All learning done virtually

All Classroom

Blended

All Online

Instructional Design for eLearning


Class Size

C
LASS

S
IZE

Classes > 50 to thousands

~ 20 < 30 people

~ 5 < 20 people

Class of 1

Large

Small

Individual

Instructional Design for eLearning

Summary
--
Instructor


The instructor can
answer

questions and
solve
problems as they arise

Instructors
provide authority
that some
learners need for motivation

An instructor can
adjust the course
to suit
the needs of specific learners

Instructors can
grade
activities and tests too
subtle for automated scoring

Instructors can sympathize, empathize, urge,
cajole and
inspire

learners

Studies show that not all learners prefer nor
profit from controlling their own learning
tasks

Learners are not required to
conform
to the
instructor’s schedule.

Learners are
empowered
by the ability to
learn when, where and as much as they wish

Learners develop
self
-
reliance

All learners get the same
quality

of learning
experience

Learners are
do not feel intimidated or
judged
by
an instructor.

Studies
show that transferring the locus of
control
to
the learner,
increases intrinsic
motivation to learn and
more
satisfaction
is
derived from the learning
experience
.


OR

I
NSTRUCTOR
-
LED
?

L
EARNER
-
LED
?

Instructional Design for eLearning

Summary

Synch&Async

Learners need to discuss issues with other
learners at length

Learners need the motivation of scheduled
events reinforced by peer pressure

Most learners share the same needs and
have the same questions

Learners are from a wide span of time zones
and countries

Learners have inflexible or unpredictable
work schedules

Learners cannot wait for a class to form

Learners have unique individual needs


Synchronous Activities


good when

Asynchronous Activities

good when

Instructional Design for eLearning

Summary
--
Embedded

easier to revise

easier to manage

may be less constrained as to size, design

appears when learners need it

can be integrated with job aids, user
interfaces, etc.

blends in with the application; less
distracting

helpful to guide complex decisions
.


Standalone

Embedded


Summary
--
Blended

4

Personal

Custom tailoring detailed learning experiences to the needs of


individual learners

3

Tactical

Mixing methodologies, design approaches, and media for each


individual topic

2

Strategic

Mixing classroom and e
-
learning event based on subject



matter and goals

1

Mechanical

Sandwiching slabs of existing e
-
learning and classroom



content

0

Paralytic

Endlessly debating the proper blend while doing nothing

L
EVELS

OF

B
LENDED

L
EARNING

Instructional Design for eLearning

Summary

Class Size

More economical as
fewer sessions are required

More people taught in
less time

More classmates with
which to interact

Enough learners for all
types of activities

More individual attention
from the instructor

Whole
-
class activities are
practical

Classes start more
frequently

Meets expectations of
learners accustomed to
small classes

Moderate instructor load


Large Class Size

Learner gets a private
tutor or mentor

No waiting for a class to
form

Learning is private

Small Class Size

Class of 1

Lesson Title

Objective:
1) Explain foundational ideas and key concepts of sustainability



2) Apply systems thinking to the challenges of the Earth's finite resources.


3) Relate your personal activities to the health of the planet using a standard

measure of greenhouse gas emissions.

Learning Activities

Absorb

Lecturettes: read/listen




Do

Use Quiz Hints to Review & Reinforce key concepts





Connect

Optional Carbon Footprint Calculation

Assessments/Evidence

Objective scoring of MC quiz

Metadata

Terminology {glossary}



Learning Object

Learning Object

Lesson 1: Fundamental Concepts Review

Objective: 1) Explain three key concepts of sustainability



Learning Activities

Absorb

Lecturettes: read/listen




Do

Use Quiz Hints to Review & Reinforce key concepts





Connect

Optional Carbon Footprint Calculation

Assessments/Evidence

Objective scoring of Multiple

Choice quiz

Metadata

Terminology {glossary}


Chunk of electronic content

Can be accessed individually

Completely accomplishes a single learning goal

Can prove it

Instructional Design for eLearning

Meeting

Resistance

A Forrester Research study found that managers were meeting
real resistance from employees who preferred traditional person
-
to
-
person training methods.


According to the report's author, John P. Dalton, “much of
the
problem is caused by firms who simply convert standard
instruction manuals into Web pages.”

Instructional Design for eLearning

Learning Pyramid

40

Learning Pyramid

75%

Practice

10%

Reading

5%
Lecture

90%


Teach Others

50%

Group Discussion

30%

Demonstration

20%

Audio
-
Visual

From NTL Institute for Applied Behavioral Science, Alexandria, VA

Development Functions

Instructional Design for eLearning

ID Bridges

the Gap

Learning

Technology

Instructional Design for eLearning

Advantages & Challenges

Provides consistency
between various courses
developed by various
instructors/designers. The
general look and process of
content exploration is
standardized.

Distance learning courses
are likely to fail if they are
delivered as if they were
traditional courses

Pedagogy must drive the
choice of instructional
technology, not the other
way around.

Subject contents have to
be well organized and
strategies for teaching via a
chosen medium have to be
well
-
thought
-
out.

Technology, no matter
how advanced, cannot
compensate for its
misapplication.


Advantages

Compared with a human
instructor, technology is
less adaptive.

In a classroom, an
instructor can adjust "on
the fly.” Online, this type of
adjustment is usually not
possible.

The design process must
anticipate and meet
potential
concerns/ambiguities. In
other words, ID tries to do
online what the instructor
does in a classroom.

Be Aware

Challenges


Alternatives

to eLearning









What’s new

Demo


Job Aid


Tutorial


Simulation



Information





Instruction






Alternatives to e
-
Learning

A single type of pure e
-
learning may not always be the solution

Instructional Design for eLearning

SPAM

45

S
OCIALIZED

P
ROCEDURE

FOR

A
PPLICATION

M
EASUREMENT

SPAM


Describe how you plan, or have begun, to apply your new skills and knowledge.

Add information about your experiences in the training sessions. Specify what
you enjoyed and what you disliked during the session.

Send the email note to your learning buddy and cc the facilitator


[
dgeorge@csus.edu

]

If you don't hear from your partner after three or four days, send her a gentle
reminder. . .

The person on your card is your learning buddy. Sometime during the next week,
write an email note to this person. In this message: