CHAPTER 910

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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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128

CHAPTER 10


MEASUREMENT AND SCALING:

NONCOMPARATIVE SCALING TECHNIQUES


OPENING QUESTIONS


1.

How are noncomparative scaling techniques different from comparative scaling, and what
is the distinction between continuous and itemized rating scales?

2.

What a
re the differences between Likert, semantic differential, and Stapel scales?

3.

What are the decisions involved in constructing itemized rating scales, and what options
should be considered?

4.

How are scales evaluated, and what is the relationship between

reliability and validity?

5.

In what way can noncomparative scaling contribute to total quality management?

6.

What considerations are important in implementing noncomparative scales in an
international setting?

7.

How does technology affect noncomparati
ve scaling?

8.

What ethical issues are involved in developing noncomparative scales?

9.

How can the Internet be used to construct noncomparative scales?


AUTHOR'S NOTES: CHAPTER FOCUS



This chapter provides a discussion of the noncomparative scales. Conti
nuous and
itemized rating scales are discussed. The important noncomparative itemized rating scale
decisions are examined and guidelines provided. The construction of multi
-
item scales is
described. The evaluation of scales in terms of measurement accur
acy, reliability, validity, and
generalizability is discussed at some length.

The discussion of scaling techniques is much more extensive as compared to competing
texts. Examples, including instructions for administering these scales, have been provided
to
illustrate the various scales.

This chapter could be taught by focusing on the opening questions sequentially. Greater
emphasis could be placed on continuous and itemized rating scales (Opening Question 1), Likert,
semantic differential, and Stapel sca
les (Opening Question 2), noncomparative itemized rating
scale decisions (Opening Question 3) and scale evaluation (Opening Question 4). Ethical issues
in developing noncomparative scales (Opening Question 8) also deserve special attention.


OUTLINE



1.

Overview


2.

Noncomparative Scaling Techniques


i.

Continuous Rating Scale


3.

Itemized Rating Scales


i.

Likert Scale


ii.

Semantic Differential Scale


iii.

Stapel Scale


4.

Noncomparative Itemized Rating Scale Decisions


i.

Number of Scale Categori
es



129


ii.

Balanced Versus Unbalanced Scales


iii.

Odd or Even Number of Categories


iv.

Forced or Nonforced Choice


v.

Nature and Degree of Verbal Description


vi.

Physical Form or Configuration


5.

Multi
-
item Scales


6.

Scale Evaluation


i.

Reliabili
ty

ii.

Test
-
Retest Reliability

iii.

Alternative
-
Forms Reliability

iv.

Internal Consistency Reliability

v.

Validity



a.

Content Validity



b.

Criterion Validity



c.

Construct Validity

vi.

Relationship Between Reliability and Validity


7.

Choosing a Scaling Technique


8.

Summary Illustration Using the Opening Vignette


9.

International Marketing Research

10.

Technology and Marketing Research

11.

Ethics in Marketing Research

12.

Summary

13.

Key Terms and Concepts

14.

Acronyms


TEACHING SUGGESTIONS


Opening Question 1


*
Describe the different noncomparative scaling techniques. If available, bring
examples of the different scales to class to show to the students.



Begin by defining noncomparative scaling as the type of scaling which does not compare
the object against an
other object or some standard. Rather, the rater uses whatever standard
seems most appropriate to him or her.


1.

Continuous rating scale
: the respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate
position on a line that runs from one extreme

of the criterion variable to the other. The form
of the continuous scale varies considerably depending on the imagination of the researcher.
Their use in marketing has been limited because they are not as reliable as itemized scales,
the scoring process

is cumbersome, and they provide little additional

information.

2.

Itemized rating scale
: the respondents are provided with scales having numbers and/or brief
descriptions associated with each category. The respondents are required to select one of th
e
specified categories that best describes the object being rated.






130

Opening Question 2



* Discuss the various types of itemized rating scales.


Likert scale
: the respondents are required to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with
each o
f a series of statements related to the stimulus objects. The Likert scale is often used in
marketing. It is easy to construct and administer, it is easy for respondents to complete, and it is
suitable for mail, telephone, and personal surveys.

Semanti
c differential scale
: is a seven
-
point rating scale with end points associated with bipolar
labels that have semantic meaning. Respondents are required to rate objects on a number of
itemized, seven
-
point rating scales bounded at each end by one of two b
ipolar adjectives. This
scale is popular in marketing and has been used in image studies, promotion strategy, and new
product development studies.

Staple scale
: is a unipolar rating scale with ten categories numbered from
-
5 to +5, without a
neutral po
int. Respondents are asked to indicate how accurately or inaccurately each term
describes the object by selecting an appropriate numerical response category. Though easier to
construct than the Semantic Differential, while giving the same results, the
Staple scale has not
been widely applied in marketing.


Opening Question 3


* Highlight the major decisions involved in constructing itemized rating scales. Use a
running example like the Department Store Patronage Project to aid in student understand
ing.

1.

Number of scale categories to use
: the number of categories should be between five and
nine; however, there is no single, optimal number of categories, which would be applicable
for all scaling situations.

2.

Balanced versus unbalanced scale
: a

balanced scale has an equal number of favorable and
unfavorable categories used; otherwise, the scale is unbalanced. The scale should be
balanced in order to obtain objective data; however, if the distribution of responses is likely
to be skewed, an unba
lanced scale with more categories in the direction of skewness may be
appropriate. Use Figure 10.4. Have the students discuss any potential skewness in the
responses.

3.

Odd or even number of categories
: with an odd number of categories, the middle sca
le
position is generally designated as neutral. If a neutral or indifferent scale response is a
possibility

for at least some of the respondents, an odd number of categories should be
used. Students can debate the effect of a neutral category on the data

obtained.

4.

Forced versus non
-
forced scales
: a forced rating scale does not have a "no opinion" or "no
knowledge" option. Thus, the respondents without an opinion may mark the middle scale
position. If a sufficient proportion of the respondents in fac
t do not have an opinion on the
topic, marking the middle position in this manner will distort measures of central tendency
and variance. In situations where the respondents are expected to have no opinion, the
accuracy of the data may be improved by havi
ng a nonforced rating scale, which includes a
"no opinion" or "no knowledge" category. Students should discuss the appropriateness of a
forced/nonforced rating scale.

5.

Nature and degree of verbal description
: the strength of the adjectives used to anch
or the
scale has a slight tendency to influence the distribution of the responses. With strong
anchors, respondents are less likely to use the extreme scale categories. Have the students


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reach consensus on the scale anchors. Try to encourage multiple an
chors, which can be used
in the survey.

6.

Physical form of the scale
: there is no agreement as to which form is the most appropriate,
but scales could be presented vertically or horizontally, categories could be expressed in
terms of boxes, discrete line
s, or units on a continuum and may or may not have numbers
assigned to them, and numerical values could be positive or negative or both. The students
should decide which format to use for the scales. Have them justify their reasons for the
scale they cho
ose. Summarize the discussion on rating scale decisions using Table 10.2.


Opening Question 4



* Explain the criteria used to evaluate a multi
-
item scale.


1.

Measurement accuracy
: refers to capturing the responses as the respondent intended them to
be

understood. Errors can result from either systematic error, which affects the observed
score in the same way on every measurement, or random error, which varies with every
measurement.

2.

Reliability
: refers to the extent to which a scale produces con
sistent results if repeated
measurements are made on the characteristic. Thus, the scale is free from random error.

3.

Validity
: refers to the accuracy of measurement. Validity of a scale may be defined as the
extent to which differences in observed sca
le scores reflect true differences among objects on
the characteristic being measured, rather than systematic or random errors.

4.

Generalizability
: refers to the extent to which one can generalize from the observations at
hand to the set of all condition
s of measurement over which the investigator wishes to
generalize, called the universe of generalization.


Figure 10.6 can be used to discuss the issues involved in scale evaluation.



* Explain how validity is measured.




To address this topic, you m
ust first distinguish the types of validity: content, criterion
and construct. This underscores the point that measurement and theory are inextricably
intertwined.

1.

Content Validity

-

A subjective evaluation by experts in the domain being studied to
det
ermine if all relevant items are covered in the study. Thus, in the auto industry for
example, auto experts (experienced professionals, professors, etc.) would evaluate the scale
on the items it covers vis
-
à
-
vis what they consider relevant real world fact
ors.

2.

Criterion Validity

-

A comparative study of the chosen measurement scale's performance in
relation to other variables selected as meaningful is conducted. This can be either concurrent
or predictive. Thus, two measurements are made of the same v
ariable and the results
compared for consistency.

3.

Construct Validity

-

This entails a theoretical investigation of the construct the scale is
measuring. It tries to assess why the scale works and the nature of the theory underlying the
scale. Converge
nt, discriminant, and nomological validity are assessed. The example on
self
-
concept in the text will prove helpful.






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Opening Question 5


*

Discuss the SERVQUAL scale for measuring quality.



SERVQUAL, a multi
-
item, noncomparative scale, was developed t
o measure service
quality. The original SERVQUAL proposed 10 dimensions on which service quality was rated:
reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security,
understanding/knowing the customer, and tangibles.

These 10 dimensions were later combined
into five: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. SERVQUAL can be
divided into two sections. The first section collects data about respondents’ feelings toward
quality firms possessing ce
rtain features or attributes. The second section ask respondents to rate
to what extent they believe a firm has certain attributes. The answers from the first section give a
measure of a consumer's expectations for certain attributes for a quality firm.

The second section
measures the consumers’ perceptions for a given firm on the same attributes. SERVQUAL uses
the difference between the perception and expectation measures as a measure of quality.


Opening Question 6


* Discuss pan
-
cultural scales vs.

scales that use a self
-
defined cultural norm.



The pan
-
cultural approach is used to develop scales, which are free of cultural biases. Of
the scaling techniques we have considered, the semantic differential scale may be said to be pan
-
cultural. It has
been tested in a number of countries and has consistently produced similar
results.

An alternative approach is to develop scales that use a self
-
defined cultural norm as a base
referent. This approach is useful for measuring attitudes that are defined re
lative to cultural
norms (e.g., attitude toward marital roles). In developing response formats, verbal rating scales
appear to be the most suitable.


* Identify other international concerns.




Special attention should be devoted to determining equival
ent verbal descriptors in
different languages and cultures.



It is important that the scale end points and the verbal descriptors be employed in a
manner that is consistent with the culture.



In designing the scale or response format, respondents'
educational or literacy levels
should be taken into account.



It is critical to establish the equivalence of scales and measures used to obtain data
from different countries.


Opening Question 7


*

Discuss the role of technology in facilitating noncompara
tive scaling.


Database managers, such as dBASE, allow researchers to develop scales and test their
appropriateness for a particular application. Specialized programs, such as ATTITUDE
SCALES by Persimmon Software, construct a variety of rating scales for

measuring attitudes in


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marketing and opinion research. EZWRITER by Computers for Marketing Corporation (CfMC)
of San Francisco can customize scales for printed questionnaires or for use by telephone
interviewers at computer screens in a fraction of the t
ime this would take without automation.


Another technological development is “smart” instruments that can constantly monitor
their own condition and the quality of the information they provide. They can also “talk” directly
to the other components of t
he measurement process, making the integration and processing of
information quick and reliable. Discuss the Option Finder.


Opening Question 8


* Discuss the ethical implications of misusing scale descriptors
-


Ethical issues can arise in the construc
tion of noncomparative scales. Consider, for example, the
use of scale descriptors. The descriptors used to frame a scale can be manipulated to bias results in any
direction. A researcher who wants to project the client's brand favorably can ask respond
ents to indicate
their opinion of the brand on several attributes using seven
-
point scales framed by the descriptors from
extremely poor to good. Using a strongly negative descriptor with only a mildly positive one has an
interesting effect. As long as t
he product is not the worst, respondents will be reluctant to rate the
product extremely poorly. In fact, respondents who believe the product to be only mediocre will end up
responding favorably. Try this yourself. How would you rate BMW automobiles on
the following
attributes?


Reliability

Horrible



1

2

3

4

5

6

7


Good

Performance

Very poor



1

2

3

4

5

6

7


Good

Quality:

One of the worst

1

2

3

4

5

6

7


Good

Prestige:

Very low



1

2

3

4

5

6

7


Good


Thus, we see how important it is to use balance
d scales with comparable positive and
negative descriptors. When this guide is not practiced, responses are biased and should be
interpreted accordingly.


* Identify other areas of ethical concern.


Ethical concerns also underscore the need to adequatel
y establish the reliability, validity,
and generalizability of scales before using them in a research project. Scales that are invalid,
unreliable, or not generalizable to the target market provide the client with flawed results and
misleading findings, t
hus raising serious ethical issues.


Opening Question 9


* Discuss the use of the Internet in scale development and testing.



Continuous rating scales may be easily implemented on the Internet. The cursor can be
moved on the screen in a continuous fas
hion to select the exact position on the scale which best
describes the respondent’s evaluation. Moreover, the scale values can be automatically scored by
the computer, thus increasing the speed and accuracy of processing the data.



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Similarly, it is als
o easy to implement all three itemized rating scales on the Internet.
Moreover, using the Internet, one can search for and locate similar scales used by other
researchers. The Office of Scales Research at Southern Illinois University
-
Carbondale, best
k
nown for the production of Marketing Scales Handbook, has posted its technical reports on the
Internet (http://www.siu.edu/departments/coba/mktg/osr).


* Discuss the use of EZWRITER in scale development and testing.



EZWRITER uses a series of menu
-
drive
n screens to guide the market researcher through
the scale development process. EZWRITER can customize scales for printed questionnaires or
for use by telephone interviewers at computer screens in a fraction of the time this would take
without automation.




BE AN MR! AND BE A DM!

It should be noted that a variety of answers are appropriate. The ones given here are merely illustrative.


Be an MR!: Disney

Information on movie preferences can be obtained from sources such as
http://www.calstatela.edu/faculty/sfischo/media3.html
.

There are a number of bodies offering secondary data on ratings of individual movies based on surveys
and opinion polls. Prominent among them is Motion Picture

Association of America (MPAA). Ratings
for any movie can be obtained from their database which can be accessed through the following link.

http://www.mpaa.org/movieratings/search/index.htm


Be a DM!: Disney


Ratings for similar movies which were released in the same season can be studied to get an idea of
possible reaction from audience. As the movie is being made, audience reaction can be measured using
continuous measurement or itemized
rating scales. The movie can be altered to the taste of the audience.



No simple formula



Study responses to various movie types



Analyze changing trends and tastes



Understand demographic, ethnic and gender centric preferences



Understand the popularity of ac
tors and actresses and perceptions about them in the minds of
the viewers


Be a DM!: Diet Coke



Identify which attitudes are most relevant to the product and purchase decision.



Customers can be segmented along attitudinal and demographic lines such as age,

sex,
region, social status etc for segmentation.



Design and position products to satisfy these segments.







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Be an MR!: Diet Coke


Likert scale:




Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly







Disagree

Agree


I like Diet Coke, overall


1


2


3


4


5

Diet Coke offers good value

1


2


3


4


5

Diet Coke tastes good

1


2


3


4


5

Diet Coke is healthy

1


2


3


4


5



Semantic differential scale: Diet Coke is:



Good overall


--

--

--

--

--

--

--


Not good overall


Good value


--

--

--

--

--

--

--


Not good value

Good tasting


--

--

--

--

--

--

--


Not good tasting

Healthy




--

--

--

--

--

--

--


Not healthy


Stapel scale:

Diet Coke is:



+5



+5



+5



+5



+4



+4



+4



+4



+3



+3



+3



+3



+2



+2



+2



+2



+1



+1



+1



+1



Good overall


Good value


Good Tasting

Healthy



-
1



-
1



-
1



-
1



-
2



-
2



-
2



-
2



-
3



-
3



-
3



-
3



-
4



-
4



-
4



-
4



-
5



-
5



-
5



-
5


I would recommend the Likert Scale as it widely used to measure attitudes and preferences.


Be an MR!: Rockport



A Likert Scale can be used to meas
ure consumer preferences.



Hypotheses can be formed as to what is important to the customers and what is their
preference?



The hypothesis can be tested against customer opinion using a Likert scale model survey.


Likert scale:






Strongly Disagree Ne
utral

Agree

Strongly






Disagree


Agree


I prefer dress shoes to casual shoes

1


2


3


4


5





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Be a DM!: Rockport



Consumer preferences can be used to improve design.



Make tradeoffs between more desira
ble versus less desirable features.



Find demographic changes in tastes.



Use this information for market segmentation.



Ensure product
-
segment fit.


EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING

Identifying Comparative and Non
-
comparative Scales Using Surveyz!


1.

How many types
of comparative scales are available in Surveyz!?


Answer: Rank order and constant sum are directly available. (The matrix table

formatted in spreadsheet form could also be used for paired comparison.)


2.

How many format options are available for the
se comparative scales?


Answer: One each.


3.

How many types of noncomparative scales are available in Surveyz!?


Answer: Semantic differentia, and Likert scales are directly available.


4.

How many format options are available?


Answer: One each.


McCann Erickson and Ad Promises

1.

Students should download and read (10a) McCann Erickson Experiential Learning file.

2.

The results are presented in (10c) Ad promises reversed (SPSS file).

3.

a. and b.

Note: The Cronbach alpha values are included in
bold itali
cs

after each construct’s label below.
Each Cronbach alpha was computed with a sample size of 413. For the composite variables,
each of the eight different composite variables should have values ranging from 1 to 8.


Ad Promise Scale Items


1.

Problem rem
oval


.728

a.

The brand would help remove a problem one may encounter

b.

One would go from feeling annoyance to feeling relief as a result of using the
brand.

c.

Using the brand would NOT appeal to one’s desire for resuming the pursuit of a
goal.

2.

Problem avoidance


.776

a.

Using the brand would enable one to avoid a potential problem.

b.

The brand would dissipate fear and bring one a feeling of relaxation.

c.

One’s desire for a threat
-
free pursuit of a goal would NOT be met by using the
brand.

3.

Incomplete satisfaction

.811



137

a.

Th
e brand would bridge the gap between one’s expectations and the existing
circumstances in a situation.

b.

The brand would bring an optimistic outlook to an otherwise disappointing
situation.

c.

One’s desire for more complete satisfaction would NOT be met by usin
g the
brand.

4.

Mixed approach
-
avoidance

.810

a.

The brand would take care of one of the remaining negative aspects of a situation.

b.

Using the brand would avoid impending conflict and bring peace of mind.

c.

One’s desire for more consistency in thoughts about an obj
ect or issue would
NOT be met by using the brand.

5.

Sensual gratification


.817

a.

A sample of the brand would make one want more.

b.

Using the brand would take one from a neutral state to a pleasurable state.

c.

The brand would NOT appeal to one’s bodily senses.

6.

Int
ellectual stimulation

.767

a.

The brand would stimulate one’s intellect.

b.

The brand would relieve boredom.

c.

The brand would NOT appeal to my sense of adventure or risk.

7.

Social approval


.904

a.

One would be considered more fashionable by using the brand.

b.

The brand

would help one feel less apprehensive in social situations.

c.

The brand would NOT appeal to one’s desire for social approval.

8.

Intrinsic satisfaction


.
605

a.

Using the brand is its own reward.

b.

The brand would be enjoyed for its own sake, not for what it will b
ring one.

c.

Pure enjoyment of the brand would NOT be the only thing in it for someone.


WHAT WOULD YOU DO?

It should be noted that a variety of answers are appropriate. The ones given here are merely illustrative.


The Marketing Research Decision

1.

C

2.

In match
ing jobs with applicant’s skills is critical to the success of Monster. Semantic
Differential is an effective scaling technique for capturing varied levels of expertise. The job
applicants can be required to fill in a profile which includes semantic differ
ential scales for
measuring different skill levels. On the other hand the skill levels required of various jobs could
be captured using the same scales. By using software functionality, the job descriptions can be
automatically matched with applicant’s p
rofiles based on skills.


The Marketing Management Decision


1.

C, D, E

2.

The biggest advantage of Monster from a recruiter’s perspective is efficiency at a reduced
cost. This is primarily because of a large applicant pool. Monster acts as a centralized datab
ase
with a very large and varied applicant pool and sophisticated search and matching options. As a
web
-
based medium, Monster already offers a substantial cost advantage over the conventional


138

means, so further reduction of prices would not be a selling poi
nt. The current search options are
very sophisticated; however, any improvement in this front can better the competitive position.
Tthe biggest attraction for employers is the size and quality of the applicants., so any promotional
activity to attract mor
e resumes will be to Monster’s advantage.



REVIEW QUESTIONS


1.

A semantic differential is a seven
-
point rating scale with end points associated with
bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. This scale is used in comparing brand,
product, and company i
mages, developing advertising and promotion strategies, new
product development studies, and in a variety of other applications.

2.

The Likert scale requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or
disagreement with each of a series of stateme
nts related to the stimulus objects.

3.

The differences between the Staple scale and the semantic differential is that in the Staple
scale there is no need to pretest the adjectives or phrases to ensure true bipolarity, and the
Staple scale can also be adm
inistered over the telephone. The semantic differential is
more popular than the Staple scale.

4.

The major decisions involved in constructing an itemized rating scale are:


i.

The number of scale categories to use.


ii.

Balanced versus unbalanced scale.


iii.

Odd or even number of categories.


iv.

Forced versus nonforced nature of the scale.


v.

The nature and degree of verbal description to employ.


vi.

The physical form of the scale.

5.

The amount of scale categories that should be used in an itemized r
ating scale should be
between five and nine; however, there is no single, optimal number of categories which
would be applicable for all scaling situations.

6.

The difference between balanced versus unbalanced is that a balanced scale has an equal
number o
f favorable and unfavorable categories that are used, whereas the unbalanced
scale does not have an equal number of favorable and unfavorable categories.

7.

The decision regarding an odd or even number of categories should depend on whether
some of the res
pondents may be neutral on the response being measured. If a neutral or
indifferent scale response is a possibility for at least some of the respondents, an odd
number of categories should be used. If the researcher wants to force a response to
indicate
some degree of favorableness or unfavorableness, or it is believed that no neutral
or indifferent response exists, a rating scale with an even number of categories should be
used.

8.

The difference between a forced and nonforced scale is that a forced scal
e does not have a
"no opinion" or "no knowledge" option, whereas a nonforced scale includes a "no
opinion" or "no knowledge" category.

9.

The nature and degree of verbal description can affect the response to itemized rating
scales due to the strength of t
he adjectives used to anchor the scale. With strong anchors,
respondents are less likely to use the extreme scale categories, thus strong anchors result
in less variable and more peaked response distributions. Weak anchors have a tendency
to produce unif
orm or flat distributions.



139

10.

Multi
-
item scales consist of a number of rating scale items where the responses are
usually summed over the items to determine an overall or total score. An example would
be the Likert attitude scale given in this chapter.

1
1.

Reliability refers to the extent to which a scale produces consistent results if repeated
measurements are made on the characteristics.

12.

The major differences between the two are that test
-
retest reliability administers the same
scale two different t
imes and measures the correlation between the results. Alternative
-
forms reliability uses two equivalent forms of a scale for the two tests.

13.

The internal consistency reliability approach can be applied to assess the reliability of a
summated scale whe
re several items are summed to form a total score. Each item can be
considered to measure the marketing construct in question and the items should be
consistent in what they indicate about the construct.

14.

Validity refers to the accuracy of measurement.

Validity of a scale may be defined as the
extent to which differences in observed scale scores reflect true differences among objects

on the characteristic being measured, rather than systematic or random errors.

15.

Criterion validity examines whether t
he measurement scale performs as expected in
relation to other variables selected as meaningful criteria. Criterion validity is assessed
when the data on the scale being evaluated and the criterion variables are collected at the
same time.

16.

The relation
ship between reliability and validity can be understood in terms of the true
score model. If a measure is perfectly valid, it is also perfectly reliable. If a measure is
perfectly reliable, it may or may not be perfectly valid, as systematic error may st
ill be
present. The lack of reliability constitutes negative evidence for validity. Reliability is a
necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for validity.

17.

When choosing a particular scaling technique, an attempt should be made to use the
scaling t
echnique, which will yield the highest level of information feasible in the given
situation. In many situations it may be desirable to use more than one scaling technique
or to obtain additional measures using procedures other than the conventional scalin
g
techniques.


APPLIED PROBLEMS


1.

The following are examples of each scale. Student answers may vary, but should have
similar form.



Likert Scale



Instructions:



Listed below are statements that describe different opinions about Store X. Please
ind
icate how strongly you agree or disagree with each statement by using the following
scale:




1 = Strongly Disagree


2 = Disagree


3 = Neither Agree nor Disagree



140


4 = Agree


5 = Strongly Agree





Strongly


Disagree


Neither

Agree

Strongly



Disagree

Agree nor



Agree




Disagree



1. I do most of my

1


2



3


4


5




shopping at store X.



Semantic Differential


Instructions
:


This study measures different concepts related to Store X. Place an X along the line
according to how wel
l the subject is related to the adjectives on the end of the scale.


1.

I do most of my shopping at store X.




Never
--
:
--
:
--
:
--
:
--
:
--
:
--

Always


Stapel Scale


Instructions
:


Please evaluate how accurately the word or phrase describes each of the subject
s (e.g.,
Store X) listed below by selecting a number for the word(s). The more accurately you
think the words describe the subject, the larger the plus number you should choose. You
should select a minus number for words you think do not describe the su
bject accurately.
The more accurately you think the word describes it, the larger the plus number you
should choose. Therefore, you can select any number from +5 for words that you think
are very accurate, all the way to
-
5, for words that you think are

very inaccurate.

------------------------------------------------

Store X

------------------------------------------------









+5









+4









+3










+2









+1








I do

most of my shopping at this store








-
1









-
2








-
3



141









-
4









-
5

2.

Many variations of the scale can be constructed. It should be a multi
-
item scale and
should have anchors tha
t are both understandable and relevant to attitudes on
internationalization of the management curriculum. The scale should contain 5 to 9
values and be uniform throughout the items. Reverse scoring should be used. For
assessing reliability see the answe
rs to questions 11, 12 and 13. For assessing validity see
the answer to questions 14 and 15.

3.

Listed below are statements, which describe different opinions about the Internet. Please
indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each statement:




Strongly

Disagree

Neither

Agree


Strongly



Disagree


Agree nor



Agree





Disagree


1. The Internet is a useful

1


2


3

4

5


source of general


information.

2. It is easy to find


information on the


Internet.





1


2



3


4


5

3. When I need


information, I would rather


read the newspaper than


surf the Internet.



1


2



3


4


5


4.

Likert scales can be developed to measure the usefulness of Ford Motor Company’s Web site
at www.ford.com. Scale items should inc
lude: availability of information, visual search,
price information availability, ease of navigation, dealer information and linkages to dealers
and other relevant sites, service to customers, user groups and links to user groups, and the
visual attractive
ness of site.

5.

Bi
-
polar adjectives such as reliable
-

unreliable, on
-
time delivery
-

late delivery, trustworthy
-

untrustworthy, global service
-

domestic service, customer friendly
-

customer unfriendly,
competitively priced
-

high priced, excellent ser
vice
-

poor service, etc. can be used.

6.

Several different applications can be identified. The scales should be related to specific
marketing research and corresponding managerial contexts.

7.

The URLs of several marketing research firms are given in C
hapter 1 (Table 1.1). The
criteria for evaluation should follow the guidelines for rating scale decisions (see Table
10.2)

8.

Many types of examples can be created. The Likert type scales are the most popular.


GROUP DISCUSSION


1.

The issues behind this

statement center on the appropriateness of a particular scale. There
is a great difference in the results obtained from comparative and noncomparative scales
and this distinction should be made. In addition, for noncomparative scales, the
researcher mus
t make decisions with respect to the number of scale categories, balanced


142

versus unbalanced scales, odd or even number of categories, forced versus non forced
scales, nature and degree of verbal description, and the physical form or configuration.
Each o
f these decisions will affect the information gathered from respondents and should
be discussed. Finally, the nature of reliability is important to consider. Even though a
scale is reliable, it does not mean that the information is pertinent to the issue

at hand.
Misapplied scales can be very reliable, yet be of little help or even misleading if they do
not relate to the problem at hand.

2.

The issues of reliability and validity are critical in applied marketing research, since
actual decisions will be m
ade and dollars spent based on the assumed reliability and
validity of a scale. On the other hand, if the scale has been shown to be reliable and valid
from past experience, testing reliability and validity is not critical. However, for newly
devised sca
les or scales used for the first time in a particular context, reliability and
validity should be examined to ensure accurate results.

3.

Any one of readings can be selected. The discussion should be related to one or more of
the concepts discussed in thi
s chapter.