The Printer Working Group

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The Printer Working Group

31 August

2013

Working Draft


Copyright © 2011
-
2013 The Printer Working Group. All rights reserved.










CWMP Printer Data Model


Status
:
Interim


Abstract:
This document
defines

the requirements,
implementation recommendations,
proxy protocol mappings
, and
XML
structure

of

a Printer data model for use with
Broadband Forum CPE WAN Management Protocol (CWMP)
[TR
-
069]
. This Printer data
model is

based on machine
-
translation of the PWG Semantic Model XML Schema into
XML schema objects that conform to
Broadband Forum
Data Model

Template for TR
-
069
-
Enabled Devices
[TR
-
106].

This document
is

a PWG
Working Draft
. For a definition of a "PWG
Working Draft
", see:
ftp://ftp.pwg.org/pub/
pwg
/general/pwg
-
process30.pdf

This
document

is available electronically at:

ftp://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pw
g/mfd/wd/wd
-
smcwmpprint10
-
20130831.
docx

ftp://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pwg/
mfd
/wd/wd
-
smcwmpprint10
-
20130831
.pdf

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31 August 2013



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Copyright © 2011
-
2013 The Printer Working Group. All rights reserved.


Copyright
©
2011
-
2013

The Printer Working Group. All rights reserved.

1

This document may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment
2

on, or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied,
3

published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, pro
vided that
4

the above copyright notice, this paragraph and the title of the Document as referenced
5

below are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself
6

may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright n
otice or references to
7

the IEEE
-
ISTO and the Printer Working Group, a program of the IEEE
-
ISTO.

8

Title:
CWMP Printer Data Model

9

The IEEE
-
ISTO and the Printer Working Group DISCLAIM ANY AND ALL WARRANTIES,
10

WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED INCLUDING (WITHOUT LIMI
TATION) ANY IMPLIED
11

WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

12

The Printer Working Group, a program of the IEEE
-
ISTO, reserves the right to make
13

changes to the document without further notice. The document may be updated, replaced

14

or made obsolete
by other documents at any time.

15

The IEEE
-
ISTO takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any intellectual
16

property or other rights that might be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the
17

technology described in this

document or the extent to which any license under such rights
18

might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it has made any effo
rt to
19

identify any such rights.

20

The IEEE
-
ISTO invites any interested party to bring to its attention any copy
rights, patents,
21

or patent applications, or other proprietary rights which may cover technology that may be
22

required to implement the contents of this document. The IEEE
-
ISTO and its programs
23

shall not be responsible for identifying patents for which a lic
ense may be required by a
24

document and/or IEEE
-
ISTO Industry Group Standard or for conducting inquiries into the
25

legal validity or scope of those patents that are brought to its attention. Inquiries may be
26

submitted to the IEEE
-
ISTO by e
-
mail at: ieee
-
isto
@ieee.org.

27

The Printer Working Group acknowledges that the IEEE
-
ISTO (acting itself or through its
28

designees) is, and shall at all times, be the sole entity that may authorize the use of
29

certification marks, trademarks, or other special designations to
indicate c
ompliance with
30

these materials.

31

Use of this

document is wholly voluntary.
The existence of this document does not imply
32

that there are no other ways to produce, test, measure, purchase, market, or provide other
33

goods and

services related to its s
cope.

34



35

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About the IEEE
-
ISTO

36

The IEEE
-
ISTO is a not
-
for
-
profit corporation offering industry groups an innovative and
37

flexible operational forum and support services. The IEEE
-
ISTO provides a forum not only
38

to develop standards, but also to facilitate acti
vities that support the implementation and
39

acceptance of standards in the marketplace. The organization is affiliated with the IEEE
40

(
http://www.ieee.org/
) and the IEEE Standards Association (
http://standards.ieee.org/)
.

41

For additional information regarding the IEEE
-
ISTO and its industry programs visit
:

42

http://www.ieee
-
isto.org

43

About the IEEE
-
ISTO PWG

44

The Printer Working Group (or PWG) i
s a Program of the IEEE Industry Standards and
45

Technology Organization (ISTO) with member organizations including printer
46

manufacturers, print server developers, operating system providers, network operating
47

systems providers, network connectivity vendors,

and print management application
48

developers. The group is chartered to make printers and the applications and operating
49

systems supporting them work together better. All references to the PWG in this
50

document implicitly mean “The Printer Working Group,
a Program of the IEEE ISTO.” In
51

order to meet this objective, the PWG will document the results of their work as open
52

standards that define print related protocols, interfaces, procedures and conventions.
53

Printer manufacturers and vendors of printer relate
d software will benefit from the
54

interoperability provided by voluntary
conformance to these standards.

55

In general, a PWG standard is a specification that is stable, well understood, and is
56

technically competent, has multiple, independent and interoperable

implementations with
57

substantial operational experience, and enj
oys significant public support.

58

For additional information regarding the Printer Working Group visit:

59

http://www.pwg.org

60

Contact information:

61

The Printer Working Group

62

c/o

The IEEE Industry Standards and Technology Organization

63

445 Hoes Lane

64

Piscataway, NJ 08854

65

USA

66



67

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About the
Semantic Model

Work
ing G
roup

68

The Semantic Model Working Group is responsible for the modeling of the services
-

Print,
69

Copy, Scan, Fax, Email, Resou
rce, System Control, and Transform
hosted on
70

Multifunction Devices (MFDs) and other Imaging Systems
. Standardization o
f the Imaging
71

System

model and semantics will support interoperability of devices and services in local
72

and enterprise networks enabling i
mproved job submission, job management, remote
73

administration, and support. The goal of the project is to define a unified semantic model
74

and set of abstract operations for the most common and essential service and device
75

feat
ures of Imaging Systems
.

76

For a
dditional information r
egarding SM

visit:

77

http://www.pwg.org/
sm
/

78

Implementers of this specification are encouraged to join the
SM

m
ailing
l
ist in order to
79

participate in any di
scussions of the specification.

Suggested additions, changes, or
80

clarification t
o this specification, should be sent to the
SM

m
ailing list for consideration.

81

82

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Table of Contents

83

1.

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
......................

7

84

2.

Terminology

................................
................................
................................
.....................

9

85

2.1

Conformanc
e

Terminology

................................
................................
.........................

9

86

2.2

Printing
Terminology
................................
................................
................................
...

9

87

2.3

Telecommunications Terminology

................................
................................
..............

9

88

2.4

Other
Terminology

................................
................................
................................
....

11

89

2.5

Ac
ronyms and Organizations

................................
................................
...................

11

90

3.

Requirements

................................
................................
................................
.................

12

91

3.1

Rationale for CWMP Printer Data Model

................................
................................
..

12

92

3.1.1

Rationale from PWG Perspective

................................
................................
......

12

93

3.1.2

Rationale from Broadband Forum Perspective

................................
..................

13

94

3.2

Use Cases

................................
................................
................................
................

14

95

3.2.1

Printers managed by Telecom Providers

................................
...........................

14

96

3.2.2

Printers managed by MPS Providers

................................
................................
.

14

97

3.2.3

Printers managed by Enterprise IT Staff

................................
............................

15

98

3.2.4

Print Kiosks managed by Telecom Providers

................................
....................

15

99

3.3

Deployment Scenarios

................................
................................
.............................

16

100

3.4

Out of Scope

................................
................................
................................
............

17

101

3.5

Design Requirements

................................
................................
...............................

17

102

4.

CWMP Printer Data Model

................................
................................
.............................

18

103

4.1

Technical Approach

................................
................................
................................
..

18

104

4.1.1

XML Format of BBF CWMP and PWG SM Data Models

................................
...

18

105

4.1.2

Translation of PWG SM into CWMP Printer Data Model

................................
...

18

106

4.1.3

Simple CWMP Parameter Datatypes

................................
................................
.

19

107

4.1.4

Short CWMP Parameter Qualified Names

................................
.........................

19

108

4.2

PWG Semantic Model

................................
................................
..............................

21

109

4.3

CWMP Printer Data Model Sketch

................................
................................
...........

32

110

5.

CWMP Proxy Implementation Guidance

................................
................................
........

38

111

5.1

PWG PrintService to IPP Proxy Guidance

................................
...............................

38

112

5.2

PWG SM PrintService to SNMP Proxy Guidance

................................
....................

50

113

6.

Conformance Requirements

................................
................................
..........................

51

114

7.

Internationalization Considerations

................................
................................
................

51

115

8.

Security Considerations

................................
................................
................................
.

51

116

9.

IANA and PWG Considerations

................................
................................
.....................

52

117

10.

References

................................
................................
................................
...................

52

118

10.1

Normative References

................................
................................
............................

52

119

10.2

Informative References

................................
................................
..........................

54

120

11.

Editors’ Addresses

................................
................................
................................
.......

55

121

12.

Change History

................................
................................
................................
............

56

122

12.1

31 August 2013


Interim

................................
................................
.......................

56

123

12.2

14 September 2011 to 4 June 2012


Whitepaper

................................
.................

56

124


125



126

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List
of Figures

127

Figure 1


Broadband Forum CWMP End
-
to
-
End Architecture

................................
..........

13

128

Figure 2


Print Kiosks and Secure Cloud Print Providers

................................
.................

15

129

Figure 3


PWG SM System Object

................................
................................
...................

21

130

Figure 4


PWG SM PrintService Object

................................
................................
...........

22

131

Figure 5


PWG SM PrintServiceCapabilities Group

................................
.........................

22

132

Figure 6


PWG SM PrintServiceConfigura
tion Group (subunits)

................................
......

23

133

Figure 7


PWG SM PrintServiceDefaults Group

................................
...............................

23

134

Figure 8


PWG SM PrintServiceDescription Group (excerpt)

................................
...........

24

135

Figure 9


PWG SM PrintServiceStatus group

................................
................................
..

26

136

Figure 10


PWG SM Print JobTable Group (w/ history)

................................
...................

27

137

Figure 11


PWG SM InputTray Object (subunit)

................................
...............................

28

138

Figure 12


PWG SM Console Object (subunit)

................................
................................
.

29

139

Figure 13


PWG SM Marker Object (subunit)

................................
................................
...

30

140

Figure 14


PWG SM Marker
Supply Object (subunit)

................................
........................

31

141


142


143

List of Tables

144

Table 1


PWG SM PrintService to IPP Proxy Mapping

................................
....................

38

145

Table 2


PWG SM Subunits to SNMP Proxy Mapping

................................
.....................

50

146


147

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1.

Introduction

149

This document
defines the requirements, implementation recommendations, proxy
150

protocol mappings, and XML structure of a Printer data model for use with Broadband
151

Forum CPE W
AN Management Protocol (CWMP) [TR
-
069]. This Printer data model is
152

based on machine
-
translation of the PWG Semantic Model XML Schema into XML
153

schema objects that conform to Broadband Forum
Data Model Template for TR
-
069
-
154

Enabled Devices
[TR
-
106].

155


156

In this
document, the term “Print Service” means a

network
service
supports one or more
157

standard or vendor
-
specific protocols which allow users to submit print jobs that include
158

one or more documents by value (inline) or by reference (URI)


see section 2.2 below.

159


160

This document is strong
ly

influenced by

the
ongoing
evolution in

the Managed Print
161

Services (M
PS)
and
broadband t
elecommunications (Telecom) industr
ies
. The primary
162

goals of this document are to support

automatic, remote, secure configuration of newly
163

installed printers and
to
the
n securely manage

them throughout their lifecycle.

164


165

Since the mid
-
1990s, high
-
quality digital printing technologies have become widespread.
166

This has led to the convergence of t
raditional copiers and printers and the subsequent
167

development of a new class of multifunction devices (MFDs). Older stand
-
alone office
168

equipment typically performed a single copy, print, scan, or fax function. Newer MFDs
169

have evolved to support all of t
hese basic functions and also often include email, resource
170

management, document transform, document storage, and other imaging services.

171

In recent years, managed print service (MPS) providers have offered proactive supplies
172

and maintenance service contr
acts to business, government, and university customers.
173

The key limitation for MPS market growth has been the lack of a single, comprehensive
174

monitoring and management interface across the current generation of MFDs.

175


176

Currently, print device status and di
agnostic information is typically collected

via SNMP
177

using IETF MIB
-
II [RFC1213], IETF Host Resources MIB v2 [RFC2790], PWG Job
178

Monitoring MIB [RFC2707], IETF Printer MIB v2 [RFC3805], IETF Finisher MIB
179

[RFC3806],
PWG Imaging System State and Counter MIB v
2 [PWG5106.3], PWG Ima
ging
180

System Power MIB [PWG5106.5
]
,
PWG Printer Port Monitor MIB [PWG5107.1],
and PWG
181

Printer MIB and IPP MFD Alerts [PWG5107.3].

182


183

Currently
,
print
service
status
and
print job information is typically collected

via IPP/
1.1
184

[RFC2911] a
nd
newer IPP versions 2.0, 2.1, and 2.2 [PWG5100.12].

185


186

Currently
,

information about other imaging services a
nd MFDs overall is typically not
187

available

via open standard interfaces (i.e., the suite of PWG Semantic Model abstract
188

services and WSDL/SOAP bindi
ngs).

189


190

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Meanwhile, Telecom

serv
ice providers have also evolved

dramatically. High
-
speed
191

Internet and other data communications customer endpoints have become widespread,
192

affordable, and reliable. Older single
-
function telecom customer premise equipment [CPE]
193

such as land line telephones, set
-
top boxes (STBs), and m
obile phones have converged
194

and given rise to multifunction high
-
speed media offerings.

195


196

In the past, telecom infrastructure devices such as routers, bridges, cable modems, and
197

DSL modems were monitored and managed via SNMP and TELNET/SSH. More recently,
198

the telecom industry has migrated to the use of Broadband Forum CPE WAN Management
199

Protocol (CWMP) [TR
-
069]. And the current generation of CPE devices are typically also
200

managed using CWMP.

201


202

Telecom providers have now joined MPS providers as suppliers of
printers and MFDs
203

under service contracts in homes and businesses. Note that current telecom CPE device
204

have more complex life
-
cycles than current printers and MFDs. A telecom CPE device is
205

typically installed with entirely automatic initial configuratio
n and is subsequently frequently
206

updated with new firmware and new services, again via automatic configuration.


207

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2.

Terminology

208

2.1

Conformance

Terminology

209

Capitalized terms, such as MUST, MUST NOT,
RECOMMENDED,
REQUIRED, SHOULD,
210

SHOULD NOT, MAY, and OPTIONAL, h
ave special meaning relating to conformance as
211

defined in
K
ey words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels

[RFC2119].

The
212

term CONDITIONALLY REQUIRED is additionally defined for a conformance requirement
213

that
applies to

a particular capability or feature.

214

2.2

Printing
Terminology

215

Normative definitions and semantics of printing terms are imported from
the Printer MIB v2
216

[RFC3805], Printer Finishings MIB [RFC380
6
], and Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: Model
217

and Semantics

[RFC29
11].

This document also defines the following protocol roles in
218

order to specify unambiguous conformance requirements:

219

IPP
Client



Initiator of outgoing IPP session requests and sender of outgoing IPP
220

operation requests (Hypertext Transfer Protocol
--

HT
TP/1.1 [RFC2616] User Agent).

221

IPP
Printer



Listener for incoming IPP session requests and receiver of incoming IPP
222

operation requests (
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
--

HTTP/1.1 [RFC2616]

Server)

that
223

represents one or more Physical Devices or a Logical Devi
ce
.

224

Managed Print Service (MPS)


A service model that adds value to MFDs and printers by
225

combining provisioning, maintenance, and supplies into Service Level Agreements (SLAs).

226

Print Service



A
network
service
supports one or more standard or vendor
-
spec
ific
227

protocols which allow users to submit print jobs that include one or more documents by
228

value (inline) or by reference (URI).

229

SNMP MIB Agent



Listener for incoming SNMP Get and Set management requests and
230

sender of optional outgoing SNMP notifications

for a Printer or MFD (i.e., an SNMP Agent).

231

SNMP MIB Client



Initiator of outgoing SNMP Get and Set management requests and
232

receiver of optional incoming SNMP notifications for a Printer or MFD (i.e., an SNMP
233

Manager).

234

2.3

Telecommunications Terminology

235

Norm
ative definitions and semantics of telecommunications management terms are
236

imported from Broadband Forum CPE WAN Management Protocol [TR
-
069], including the
237

following:

238

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Applied


A change to the Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) configuration has been
239

applie
d when the CPE has stopped using the previous configuration and begun using the
240

new Subunits.

241

Auto
-
Configuration Server (ACS)


This is a component in the broadband network
242

responsible for auto
-
configuration of the Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) for
243

adva
nced services.

244

Committed


A change to the Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) configuration has been
245

committed when the change has been fully validated, the new configuration appears in the
246

configuration data model for subsequent Auto
-
Configuration Server (
ACS) operations to
247

act on, and the change will definitely be applied in the future, as required by the protocol
248

specification.

249

Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)


Refers to any TR
-
069
-
compliant device and
250

therefore covers both Internet Gateway Devices (IGD
s) and LAN
-
side end devices.

251

Data Model


A hierarchical set of
CWMP
parameters
(i.e., elements)
that define the
252

managed objects accessible via [TR
-
069] for a particular device or service.

253

Deployment Unit (DU)


An entity that can be individually deployed
on the Execution
254

Environment. A Deployment Unit can consist of functional Execution Units and/or
255

configuration files and/or other resources.

256

Device


Used interchangeably with CPE in [TR
-
069].

257

Execution Environment (EE)


A software platform that enables
the dynamic loading and
258

unloading of Software Modules. Typical examples include Linux, OSGi, .NET, and Java
259

ME. Some Execution Environments enable the sharing of resources amongst modules.

260

Execution Unit (EU)


A functional entity that,

once started, initiates processes to perform
261

tasks or provide services, until it is stopped. Execution Units are deployed by Deployment
262

Units. The following list of concepts could be considered Execution Units: services,
263

scripts, software components, li
braries, etc.

264

Internet Gateway Device (IGD)


A Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) device, typically a
265

broadband router, that acts as a gateway between the WAN and the LAN.

266

Parameter


A name
-
value pair representing a manageable CPE parameter made
267

accessible

to an ACS for reading and/or writing.

268

Residential Gateway (RGW)


A gateway between the end user premise and the
269

broadband service network (i.e., the Telecom network, not the Internet) that is introduced
270

for architectural clarity in [TR
-
196].

271

Set Top Box
(STB)


A television set top box that supports multimedia and Internet access
272

by the end user.

273

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Session


A contiguous sequence of CWMP transactions between a Customer Premise
274

Equipment (CPE) and an Auto
-
Configuration Server (ACS). Note that a Session may

275

span multiple TCP connections.

276

Software Module


The common term for all software (except firmware) that will be
277

installed on an Execution Environment, including the concepts of Deployment Units and
278

Execution Units.

279

Transaction


A message exchange betwee
n a Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) and
280

an Auto
-
Configuration Server (ACS) consisting of a single request followed by a single
281

response, initiated either by the CPE or ACS.

282

2.4

Other
Terminology

283

Capitalized Term In Italics
:

defininition of the term with any r
eferences as appropriate.

284

2.5

Acronyms and Organizations

285

BBF



Broadband Forum,
http://w
ww.broadband
-
forum.org/

286

IANA



Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, http://www.iana.org/

287

IETF



Internet Engineering Task Force, http://www.ietf.org/

288

ISO



International Organization for Standardization, http://www.iso.org/

289

PWG



Printer Working Group, http://www.pwg.org/

290



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3.

Requirements

292

3.1

Rationale for
CWMP Printer Data Model

293

3.1.1

Rationale from PWG Perspective

294

IETF and PWG standards for the printing industry defin
e:

295

a)

A rationale for an abstract model of printing (to support alternate encodings and
296

protocols) in section 3 of the IETF IPP Rationale [RFC2568];

297

b)

A set of design goals for status monitoring in a printing protocol in section 3.1.3
298

'Viewing the status and ca
pabilities of a printer' (for End User), section 3.2.1
299

'Alerting' (for Operator), and section 3.3 'Administrator' (the bullet requirement to
300

'administrate billing or other charge
-
back mechanisms') of the IETF IPP Design
301

Goals [RFC2567];

302

c)

An abstract model o
f a Print Service (i.e., ISO DPA Logical Printer) and a Print
303

Device (i.e., ISO DPA Physical Printer) in section 2.1 of IETF IPP/1.1 [RFC2911];

304

d)

An abstract model of a Print Device and contained Subunits in section 2.2 of the
305

IETF Printer MIB v2 [RFC3805];

306

e)

An abstract model of Finishing Subunits integrated into the Printer Model (from
307

[RFC3805]) in section 3 of the IETF Finisher MIB [RFC3806];

308

f)

A set of Finishing Subunit types in the 'FinDeviceTypeTC' textual convention in
309

IANA Finisher MIB [IANAFIN],
originally published in section 7 of the IETF Finisher
310

MIB [RFC3806]; and

311

g)

An abstract model of a Multifunction Device in section 2 of the PWG MFD Model
312

and Common Semantics [PWG5108.01].

313

When deploying printers and MFDs in home and office CPE environments
based on
314

telecom service agreements, initial configuration via SNMP and Embedded Web Server is
315

neither feasible nor scalable.

316

Therefore a CWMP Printer Data Model

should
:

317

a)

Standardize native CWMP support for secure operations on
network
printers;

318

b)

Standardize

CWMP
capabilities to manage, provision, and service these
network

319

printers;

320

c)

Encourage adoption of
IPP
-
based printing infrastructures;

321

d)

Encourage adoption
of
PWG Semantic Model
-
based
objects and elements
.

322

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3.1.2

Rationale from Broadband Forum Perspective

323

The Broad
band Forum CPE WAN Management Protocol (CWMP) standard [TR
-
069]
324

defines a set of standard interfaces between the Auto
-
Configuration Server (ACS) of a
325

service provider and all customer premise equipment (CPE) devices in a customer's
326

network that supports th
e CWMP device data model.

327

Figure 1 below is excerpted from section 1.2 of Broadband Forum CWMP [TR
-
069] and
328

depicts the scope of CWMP in an end
-
to
-
end WAN network architecture.

329


330

Figure
1



Broadband Forum CWMP End
-
to
-
End Archite
cture

331

Implementation of CWMP
-
based printers would enable a service provider to offer the
332

following advantages throughout the lifecycle of the printer:

333

a)

Ease of Deployment: Web
-
based remote selection, activation, and control of pay
-
334

per
-
use services;

335

b)

Touchle
ss Installation: Automatic d
iscovery, secure configuration,

and policy
-
based
336

setup of network printers
that is scalable to support thousands or millions of

users
337

according to each user’s/group's profile and service contract and the customer's
338

business pol
icies (e.g., access control and monetization of print services based on
339

time, volume, user ID, features, payment models, etc.).

This is similar to the way
340

mobile phones can be remotely identified, configured, and setup on a broadband
341

network today;

342

c)

Remot
e

Device Management: Automatic and secure
firmware
/software

downloads,
343

upgrades, patches,
performance/status monitoring,
and

new value
-
add services for

344

network

printers; and

345

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d)

Remote Diagnost
ics/Troubleshooting: I
mproved problem resolution capability


346

eliminates unnecessary and costly device replacement


enhances customer
347

support process.

348


349

Broadband Forum CWMP current standards for the Telecom industry include:

350

a)

A broadband management architecture for CPE devices in CWMP [TR
-
069];

351

b)

A data model template
for all devices that support CWMP in [TR106];

352

c)

A common device data model in [TR
-
181];

353

d)

An Internet Gateway Device (IGD) data model in [TR
-
098]; and

354

e)

A series of device
-
specific CWMP data models based on [TR
-
106] for DSLHomeTM
355

for VoIP [TR
-
104], Set Top Boxes

[TR
-
135], Storage Service enabled devices [TR
-
356

140], and Femto access points [TR
-
196].

357


358

This document defines the first standard TR
-
069 data model defined for network printers.

359

3.2

Use
Cases

360

The use cases below are written from the perspective of the End U
ser

or local Admin of
361

the network

printer being managed as a CPE device.

362

3.2.1

Printers managed by Telecom Providers

363

Customers in home and enter
prise environments can use
CWMP
Printers that are
364

deployed and maintained by Telecom providers.
Because

the PWG Sem
antic

Model is
365

supported in this CWMP Printer data model
, Telecom providers will be able to add these
366

imaging device products into their value added services as part of their managed services
367

portfolios. A user could purchas
e or lease a CWMP
Printer, plug it i
nto their network, and
368

have the device automatically securely configured by the Telecom provider’s ACS
369

(management server). Based on which services the user has already subscribed to, the
370

device will be appropriately provisioned. Telecom providers could
negotiate marketing and
371

support contracts with printer manufacturers for technical support, field service, and
372

toner/supplies replenishment


this would create a whole new revenue stream through a
373

different channel for the printer manufacturers.

374

3.2.2

Printers m
anaged by MPS Providers

375

Customers in enter
prise environments can use
Printers that have been pre
-
configured and
376

shipped with the domain address of the ACS (management server) used by the MPS
377

provider. When the CWMP
Printer is plugged into the enterprise n
etwork, the device will
378

automatically contact the ACS, using its pre
-
configured credentials. Based on the services
379

that have been purchased by the customer, the ACS will automatically securely configure
380

the device (including any firmware updates if necess
ary). The device will then be under
381

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the control of the MPS provider, who can maintain the SLAs, perform toner/supplies
382

replenishment, schedule service calls, and perform metering for control of service levels as
383

well as billing. Through the lifecycle of
the product or the service contract, the device will
384

be managed remotely by the MPS provider. If the customer fails to pay or does not renew
385

the service contract, then the device a
nd its services can be
remotely
disabled
by the MPS
386

provider
.

387

3.2.3

Printers
mana
ged by Enterprise IT Staff

388

Enterprise communications infrastructure devices


routers, bridges, VoIP switches, video
389

telephony servers, etc.


are already typically managed using Broadband Forum CWMP
390

[TR
-
069]. By adding CWMP c
lients to network
Printers, m
anufacturers can ship devices
391

that can all be managed from a single ACS. When
these CWMP Printers

are physically
392

moved between departments or policies are deployed for usage of these devices


e.g.,
393

able to print only black/white but not color or restrict
ions of usage by page count


or
394

certain departments require stronger security than others, this will necessitate remote
395

configuration and provisioning of these devi
ces. Once a set of policies has been

crea
ted,
396

configuration of these CWMP Printer
s will be
come automatic instead of based on
397

extensive manual work for
enterprise
IT network operators. This would save time, improve
398

enterprise security and ensure adherence to policy.

399

3.2.4

Print Kiosks managed by Telecom Providers

400

Figure 2 below shows the deployment
environment for these use cases.
401


402

Figure
2



Print Kiosks and Secure Cloud Print

Providers

403

In the Cloud Print use cases below, the mobile phones and print kiosks are managed by
404

Telecom providers using CWMP. The mobile phones are m
anaged via Telecom cellular
405

networks, while the print kiosks are managed via Telecom broadband networks. The print
406

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kiosks are monitored for status, provisioned with new services, and
verified with remote
407

diagnostics

using CWMP.

408

3.2.4.1

Cloud Print via IPP Everywh
ere

409

Mobile phone users can access any bundled or 3rd party application (Email, Dropbox,
410

Photoapp, etc.) that shares their desired document (MS Word, PDF, JPEG, etc.) and press
411

the Print button. Using geolocation or other means (default device, last used d
evice, etc.)
412

a list of available Print Kiosks from their Telecom’s secure Cloud Print Service is displayed
413

to the user, who then chooses a “nearby” location (same city, neighborhood, building, etc.).
414

The user’s print client submits the selected document v
ia PWG IPP Everywhere
415

[PWG5100.14]
to their Telecom’s secure Cloud Print Service specifying the target Print
416

Kiosk device.

417

3.2.4.2

Cloud Print via Pull Print

418

Mobile phone users can access any bundled or 3rd party application (Email, Dropbox,
419

Photoapp, etc.) that s
hares their desired document (MS Word, PDF, JPEG, etc.) and press
420

the Print button. The user chooses delayed printing and the user’s client submits the
421

selected document via PWG IPP Everywhere

[PWG5100.14]

to their Telecom’s secure
422

Cloud Print Service spe
cifying delayed printing. The user receives a secure job identifier
423

and associated PIN via email, instant messaging, or in
-
band from their application. At a
424

later time, the user queries for a list of available Print Kiosks from their Telecom’s secure
425

Clo
ud Print Service and then chooses a “nearby” location (same city, neighborhood,
426

building, etc.). The user walks up to their chosen Print Kiosk and enters their job identifier
427

and secure PIN information. The Print Kiosk displays the price for the print jo
b which the
428

user accepts (adding to their monthly bill). The user’s job is securely pulled from their
429

Telecom’s secure Cloud Print Service via PWG IPP Everywhere
[PWG5100.14]
and is
430

printed with the requested processing options
.

431

3.3

Deployment Scenarios

432

Because the architecture of the Broadband Forum CWMP [TR
-
069] is highly scalable and
433

is designed to provide secure remote services in a firewall
-
friendly manner, several
434

deployment scenarios can be envisioned. No special ports need to be opened up in
435

corp
orate firewalls, nor is reverse VPN tunneling required for service management


both
436

of which are nightmares for IT security staff.

437

An ACS could be deployed as a service in a public cloud, or in a private cloud for an
438

enterprise network, or as a private se
lf
-

deployment by IT staff. Telecom providers could
439

manage printers in homes, enterprises, and government agencies. MPS providers could
440

manage multiple enterprises (each of which might have multiple physical sites). Printer
441

manufacturers could manage prin
ters in SOHO networks, production printing facilities, or
442

graphic arts companies. Corporate IT staff could deploy CWMP on an in
-
house server and
443

then manage devices within their Intranets.

444

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3.4

Out of Scope

445

The CWMP Printer data model should not:

446

a)

Define any ne
w content outside the PWG Semantic Model XML schema;

447

b)

Define any semantics for workflow applications;

448

c)

Define any semantics for document repositories; and

449

d)

Define any application
-
specific semantics for printer monitoring using CWMP.

450

3.5

Design Requirements

451

The CW
MP Printer data model should
:

452

a)

Be based on the PWG Semantic Model XML schema definitions;

453

b)

Include all content from the PWG Semantic Model XML schema when possible,
454

e.g., within the limitations of the BBF data model language

[TR
-
106] and XML
455

schema definitio
ns
;

456

c)

Follow the naming conventions of the PWG Semantic Model XML schema when
457

possible, e.g., within the limitations of BBF data model parameter object and
458

parameter names and name lengths; and

459

d)

Preserve the access control semantics of the PWG Semantic Model

XML schema,
460

e.g., PrintServiceStatus abstract elements are read
-
only.

461



462

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4.

CWMP Printer Data Model

463

This section proposes an outline approach for
a
Broadband Forum [TR
-
106]

data model
464

for a CWMP Printer

that is

technically equivalent to the PWG Semantic Model
465

[PWG5108.01]. The top
-
level PrintService object, named according to the [TR
-
106] data
466

model conventions, contains the PWG PrintService object.

467

4.1

Technical Approach

468

4.1.1

XML Format of BBF CWMP and PWG SM Data Mode
ls

469

Each
specific
Broadband
Forum CWMP data model is defined

as a single XML document
470

instance (.xml)
file that uses

CWMP
data model structural elements (model, object,
471

para
meter, etc.) and a fixed
set
of datatypes
pr
e
-
defined in a separate

CWMP XML
472

documen
t schema (.xsd). C
omplex datatypes (choices, unions, sequences, etc.)
cannot

473

be used in

CWMP

parameter definitions (i.e., elements). Instead such
PWG SM
complex
474

datatypes can be translated as

CWMP data model
:

(a) string
s
; (b) list
s

(c
omma
-
separated
475

list

of strings);

or (c) sub
-
objects (sequence
s

of parameters).

476

The PWG S
emantic Model is defined in

a set of

WSDL and
XML document schema (.xsd)
477

files that

define elements using native XML
schema [W3C
-
XSD] datatypes
and PWG
SM
478

defined
complex datatypes (e.g.,

element groups, cho
ices, unions, etc.).
Therefore,

the
479

element dictionary defined in

PwgCommon.xsd


can’t
be

converted to a

directly equivalent
480

CWMP
data model (e
.g., in sequence clauses) because

a
CWMP object can only contain
481

simple parameters
.

482

Note:

BBF

CWMP

data models

do allow both object
and param
eter
(element)
imports
by
483

reference


this
will

be

considered

for
CWMP Printer data model
compactness
.

484

4.1.2

Translation of PWG SM into CWMP
Printer
Data Model

485

The PWG Semantic Model System and PrintService

objects
(at least) should be translated
486

into a corresponding
CWMP Printer data model
as follows:

487

Define translation rules for the PWG complex datatypes and element groups;

488

Machine
-
translate keyword PWG datatypes in “PwgWellKnownValues.xsd” and
489

“MediaWellKnownValues.xsd” into

simple CWMP ‘string’ and save

in control files.

490

Note: The complete and
authoritative list of standard values
is contained in the IANA
IPP
491

Registry[IANA
IPP] and

the
corresponding
PWG
SM
X
ML Schema
files.

492

Machine
-
translate
other PWG datatypes in “ServiceTypes.xsd”, “JobTypes.xsd”,
493

“DocumentTypes.xsd”, an
d “WimsType.xsd” into simple CWMP types when possible and
494

save in

control file
s



convert ‘choice’ a
nd ‘union’ types into simple CWMP ‘string’ or ‘list’
495

or CWMP sub
-
objects



c
onvert ‘sequence’ types into CWMP

sub
-
objects.

496

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Machine
-
translate the PWG elements dictionary in PwgCommon.xsd into a BBF
parameter
497

dictionary and save in

control file
s



preserve integer ranges, string lengths, etc.

498

Machin
e
-
translate PWG SM
System and Pr
intService objects

(and their contained
499

objects)
, using the above co
ntrol files into an equivalent

CWMP P
rinter data model


500

convert
PWG SM si
mple elements one
-
to
-
one into CWMP

parameters


convert
PWG SM
501

e
lement groups into CWMP

sub
-
objects


flatten
names

to shorten fully qualified
CWMP
502

parameter names


do not translate
JobTable.ActiveJobs (for security)

and
503

PrintServiceCapab
ilitiesReady (too volatile).

504

Hand
-
edit this machine
-
translated CWMP
Printer data m
odel in order to fix artifacts and
505

add XML do
cumentation (annotations, comments, etc.).

506

4.1.3

Simple CWMP Parameter Datatypes

507

Parameters (elements) in CWMP

data models cannot be defined with syntaxes of
508

seq
uences or complex types, so these

PWG Semantic Model datatypes should be
509

flattened whenever possible,

to improve efficiency over limited bandwid
th WAN
510

connections to the ACS. F
or example:

511

PrintServiceCapabilities.PrintDocumentTicketCapabilites.PrintDocumentProcessing

512

Capabilities.NumberUp (list of integers)

513

PrintService.Capabilities.DocumentProcessing.Nu
mberUp (string)

514



comma
-
separated list of integer values in a string

datatype

515

PrintServiceStatus.AccessModes (list of keywords)

516

PrintService.Status.AccessModes (string)

517




comma
-
separated list of keyword values in a string datatype

518

4.1.4

Short CWMP Parameter Q
ualified Names

519

CWMP requests always reference (or pass) parameters (elements) in CWMP data models
520

as fully qualified names (similar to

XPath)
, so redundancy in PWG Semantic Model path
521

names should be eliminated whenever possible, to improve efficiency over

limited
522

bandw
idth WAN connections to the ACS. F
or example:

523

PrintService.Configuration.Subunits.InputTrays.InputTray

524

PrintService.Subunits.InputTray

525

PrintService.Capabilities.PrintJobTicketCapabilities.PrintJobProcessingCapabilities

526

PrintService.Capabilit
ies.JobProcessing

527

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Note: E
ach CWMP parameter has
an
explicit access mode (readOnly vs. readWrite),
so
528

the
PWG SM MarkerSupplyDescription and MarkerSupplyStatus element groups can be
529

safely folded together into the base CWMP PrintService.Subunits.Marker.Mar
kerSupply
530

object, while preserving the access control distinctions of the PWG Semantic Model
.

531



532

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4.2

PWG Semantic Model

533

The PWG Semantic Model root is the System Object shown in Figure 3 below, which
534

contains the Services group, which in turn contains the Print
Servic
es group. The CWMP
535

Printer data m
odel is de
rived from a translation

of the PWG SM
System Object in Figure 3
536

and the PWG SM PrintService
in Figure 4 below.

537


538

Figure
3



PWG SM System Object

539



540

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541

Figure
4



PWG SM PrintService Object

542


543


544

Figure
5



PWG SM PrintServiceCapabilities Group

545



546

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547

Figure
6



PWG SM PrintServiceConfiguration Group (subunits)

548


549


550

Figure
7



PWG SM PrintServic
eDefaults Group

551



552

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553

Figure
8



PWG SM PrintServiceDescription Group (excerpt)

554

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555

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556

Figure
9



PWG SM PrintServiceStatus group

557



558

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559

Figure
10



PWG SM Print JobTable Group (w/ history)

560



561

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562

Figure
11



PWG SM InputTray Object (subunit)

563



564

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565

Figure
12



PWG SM Console Object (subunit)

566



567

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568

Figure
13



PWG SM Marker Object (subunit)

569



570

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571

Figure
14



PWG SM MarkerSupply Object (subunit)

572



573

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4.3

CWMP Printer
Data Model Sketch

574

Th
e following XML sketch

of a CWMP Printer data m
odel illustrates the proposed
575

appro
ach and some of the challenges

in transforming the existing PWG Semantic Mode
l
576

XML document
schema into a CWMP

Printer
data model
conformant to
[TR
-
106].

577

ISSUE: Need to add PWG SM System object, System Control Service, and

Resource
578

Service to CWMP Printer data

model. Need support for SystemTotals, Power
579

Management, Configured Resources, and C
onfigured Services per feedback from
580

Thinxtream.

581


582

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF
-
8"?>

583

<!
--

TR
-
999 Print
Service:1.0 Service Object definition

--
>

584

<dm:document xmlns:dm="urn:broadband
-
forum
-
org:cwmp:datamodel
-
1
-
1"

585

xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSche
ma
-
instance"

586

xsi:schemaLocation="urn:broadband
-
forum
-
org:cwmp:datamodel
-
1
-
1

cwmp
-
datamodel
-
1
-
1.xsd"

587

spec="urn:broadband
-
forum
-
org:tr
-
999
-
1
-
0
-
0">

588


<import file="tr
-
069
-
biblio.xml" spec="urn:broadband
-
forum
-
org:tr
-
069
-
biblio"/>

589


<import file="tr
-
106
-
1
-
0
-
ty
pes.xml" spec="urn:broadband
-
forum
-
org:tr
-
106
-
1
-
0">

590



<dataType name="IPAddress"/>

591


</import>

592


<bibliography>

593


<!

-

Set of references here
--
>

594


<reference id="TR
-
135">

595


<name>TR
-
135</name>

596


<title>Dat
a Model for a TR
-
069 Enabled STB
<
/title>

597


<organization>BBF</organization>

598


<category>TR</category>

599


</reference>

600


</bibliography>

601


602


<!
--

CWMP PrintService model with counter of PrintService instances
--
>

603


<model name="Print
Service:1.0" isService="true">

604


<parameter nam
e="Print
ServiceNumberOfEntries" access="
readOnly
">

605


<description>Numbe
r of entries in the {{Print
Service}} table.

606


</description>

607


<syntax>

608


<unsignedInt/>

609


</syntax>

610


</parameter>

611


612


<!
--

CWMP PrintService object with enabl
e/disable
--
>

613


<object name="
PrintService
.{i}."

614


a
ccess="readOnly" minEntries="0" maxEntries="unbounded"

615


numEntr
iesParameter="Print
ServiceNumberOfEntries">

616


<description
>
PWG PrintService

in Services in the
CPE.</description>

617


<paramete
r name="Enable" access="readWrite">

618


<description>Enables or disables this {{object}} instance.</description>

619


<syntax>

620


<boolean/>

621


</syntax>

622


</parameter>

623


</object>

624


625


<object name=
"
PrintService.{i}.
Subunits
.
"


626


access="readOnly"
minEntries="1"

maxEntries="1"
>

627


<description>
PWG
PrintService
Configuration

in the CPE.
</description>

628


<parameter name="InputTray
NumberOfEntries" access="
readOnly
">

629



<description>Numbe
r of entries in the {{InputTray
}}
table.</description>

630

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31 August 2013



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56

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-
2013 The Printer Working Group. All rights reserved.




<syntax>

631




<unsignedInt/>

632




</syntax>

633



</parameter>

634


<parameter name="Marker
NumberOfEntries" access="
readOnly
">

635



<description>Numbe
r of entries in the {{Marker
}} table.</description>

636



<synt
ax>

637




<unsignedInt/>

638




</syntax>

639



</parameter>

640


<parameter name="Processor
NumberOfEntries" access="
readOnly
">

641



<description>Numbe
r of entries in the {{Processor
}} table.</description>

642



<syntax>

643




<unsignedInt/>

644




</syntax>

645



</parameter>

646


<!
--

more number of entries parameters for all subunit tables
--
>

647


</object>

648


649


<object name=
"
PrintService.{i}.Subunits.
InputTray
.{i}.
"


650


access="readOnly" minEntries="1
"

maxEntries="unbounded"

651


numEnt
riesParameter=
"
InputTrayNumberOfEntries
"
>

652


<description>
PWG InputTray

in the CPE.
</description>

653


<parameter name="Enable" access="readWrite">

654


<description>Enables or disables this {{object}} instance.</description>

655


<syntax>

656


<boolean/>

657


</syntax>

658


</parameter>

659


660


<!
--

PWG InputTrayDescription parameters
--
>

661


<parameter name="Description
" access="readWrite">

662


<syntax>

663


<string
/>

664


</syntax>

665


</parameter>

666


667


<!
--

PWG
InputTrayStatus parameters
--
>

668


<parameter name="DeviceErrors" access="readOnly
">

669


<syntax>

670


<int
/>

671


</syntax>

672


</parameter>

673


<parameter name="Id" access="readOnly
">

674


<syntax>

675


<int
/>

676


</syntax>

677


</parameter>

678


<!
--

more parameter definitions that correspond to PWG SM schema elements
--
>

679


</object>

680


681


<object name=
"
PrintService.{i}.Subunits.
Marker
.{i}.
"


682


access="readOnly" minEntries="1
"

maxEntries="unbounded"

683


numEntriesParameter=”MarkerNumberOfEntries”
>

684


<description>
PWG
Marker

in the CPE.
</description>

685


<parameter name="Enable" access="readWrite">

686


<description>Enables or disables this {{object}} instance.</description>

687


<syntax>

688



<boolean/>

689


</syntax>

690


</parameter>

691


<parameter name="Colorant
NumberOfEntries" access="
readOnly
">

692

Working Draft


CWMP Printer Data Model

31 August 2013



Page
34

of
56

Copyright © 2011
-
2013 The Printer Working Group. All rights reserved.




<description>Numbe
r of entries in the {{Colorant
}} table.</description>

693



<syntax>

694




<unsignedInt/>

695




</synta
x>

696



</parameter>

697


<parameter name="Supply
NumberOfEntries" access="
readOnly
">

698



<description>Numbe
r of entries in the {{Supply
}} table.</description>

699



<syntax>

700




<unsignedInt/>

701




</syntax>

702



</parameter>

703


704


<!
--

PWG MarkerDescription parameters
--
>

705


<parameter name="Description
" access="readWrite">

706


<syntax>

707


<string
/>

708


</syntax>

709


</parameter>

710


711


<!
--

PWG MarkerStatus parameters
--
>

712


<parameter name="DeviceErrors" access="
readOnly
">

713


<syntax>

714


<int
/>

715


</syntax>

716


</parameter>

717


<parameter name="Id" access="readOnly
">

718


<syntax>

719


<int
/>

720


</syntax>

721


</parameter>

722


</object>

723


724


<object name=
"
PrintService.{i}.
Subunits.
Marker
.{i}.Supply
.{i}.
"

725


access="readOnly" minEntries="1
"

maxEntries="unbounded"

726


numEntriesParameter=
"
SupplyNumberOfEntries
"
>

727


<description>
PWG MarkerSupplies

in the CPE.
</description>

728


<parameter name="Enable" access="readWrite">

729


<description>Enables or disables this {{object}} instance.</description>

730


<syntax>

731


<boolean/>

732


</syntax>

733


</parameter>

734


735


<!
--

PWG MarkerSupplyDescription parameters
--
>

736


<parameter name="Description
" access="
readWrite">

737


<syntax>

738


<string
/>

739


</syntax>

740


</parameter>

741


742


<!
--

PWG MarkerSupplyStatus parameters
--
>

743


<parameter name="Id" access="readOnly
">

744


<syntax>

745


<int
/>

746


</syntax>

747


</parameter>

748


<!
--

more parameter definitions that correspond to PWG SM schema elements
--
>

749


</object>

750


751


<object name=
"
PrintService.{i}.Subunits.
Processor
.{i}.
"


752


access="readOnly" minEntries="1
"

maxEntries="unbounded"

753


numEntriesParameter=”ProcessorNu
mberOfEntries”
>

754

Working Draft


CWMP Printer Data Model

31 August 2013



Page
35

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56

Copyright © 2011
-
2013 The Printer Working Group. All rights reserved.



<description>
PWG
Processor

in the CPE.
</description>

755


<parameter name="Enable" access="readWrite">

756


<description>E
nables or disables this {{object
}} instance.</description>

757


<syntax>

758


<boolean/>

759


</s
yntax>

760


</parameter>

761


<parameter name="PowerCalendar
NumberOfEntries" access="
readOnly
">

762



<description>Numbe
r of entries in the {{PowerCalendar
}} table.</description>

763



<syntax>

764




<unsignedInt/>

765




</syntax>

766



<
/parameter>

767


<parameter name="PowerEvent
NumberOfEntries" access="
readOnly
">

768



<description>Numbe
r of entries in the {{PowerEvent}
} table.</description>

769



<syntax>

770




<unsignedInt/>

771




</syntax>

772



</parameter>

773


<
parameter name="PowerTimeout
NumberOfEntries" access="
readOnly
">

774



<description>Numbe
r of entries in the {{PowerTimeout}
} table.</description>

775



<syntax>

776




<unsignedInt/>

777




</syntax>

778



</parameter>

779


</object>

780


781


<object na
me=
"
PrintService.{i}.Subunits.
Processor
.{i}.PowerCalendar.{i}.
"


782


access="readOnly" minEntries="1
"

maxEntries="unbounded"

783


numEntriesParameter=
"
PowerCalendarNumberOfEntries
"
>

784


<description>
PWG ProcessorDescription.PowerCalendar

in the CPE.
<
/description>

785


<parameter name="Id
" access="
readOnly
">

786



<syntax>

787



<i
nt/>

788




</syntax>

789



</parameter>

790


<parameter name="RequestPowerState
" access="
readWrite
">

791



<syntax>

792



<string
/>

793




</syntax>

794



</
parameter>

795


<parameter name="CalendarRunOnce
" access="
readWrite
">

796



<syntax>

797



<boolean
/>

798




</syntax>

799



</parameter>

800


</object>

801


802


803


<object name=
"
PrintService.{i}.
Capabilities
.
"


804


access="readOnly"
minEntries="1"

maxEntries="1"
>

805


<description>
PWG PrintServiceCapabilities

in the CPE.
</description>

806


<parameter name="Enable" access="readWrite">

807


<description>Enables or disables this {{object}} instance.</description>

808


<syntax>

809


<boolea
n/>

810


</syntax>

811


</parameter>

812


</object>

813


814


<object name=
"
PrintService.{i}.
Capabilities.Jo
bDescription
.
"


815


access="readOnly"
minEntries="1"

maxEntries="1"
>

816

Working Draft


CWMP Printer Data Model

31 August 2013



Page
36

of
56

Copyright © 2011
-
2013 The Printer Working Group. All rights reserved.



<description>
PWG
Print
JobDescription
Capabilities

in the CPE.
</description>

817


<parameter name="ElementsNaturalLanguage" access="readWrite
">

818



<syntax>

819



<string
/>

820




</syntax>

821