How can social protection contribute to food security and nutrition in West Africa

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Feb 16, 2014 (3 years and 3 months ago)

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Proceedings
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ㄳ1ㄱ⸲〱0







Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

in West Africa

www.fao.org/fsnforum/west
-
africa










How can social protection contribute to food
security and nutrition in West Africa


Collection of contributions







2

How can social protection
contribute to food security and nutrition in West Africa
?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

in West Africa

www.fao.org/fsnforum/west
-
africa



TABLE OF CONTENTS



Introduction to the topic

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

4

Contributions received

................................
................................
................................
................................
..................

6

1.

Thierry Kesteloot, Oxfam, Belgium

................................
................................
................................
............

6

2.

Soré Abdou,

Association Relwendé pour le Développement, Burkina Faso

.............................

6

3.

Ali Bossa, Directrice de l'Agence de Solidarité Nationale
-
Togo

................................
.....................

8

4.

Dr. John Adu Kumi
,

Ghana

................................
................................
................................
..........................

13

5.

Renata Mirulla

FAO, Italy

................................
................................
................................
............................

14

6.

Al Hassan Cissé

Oxfam, Senegal

................................
................................
................................
...............

14

7.

Anna Antwi

GD Resource Center, Ghana

................................
................................
..............................

15

8.

Raymond Enoch, National Alliance Against Hunger Nigeria, Nigeria

................................
.......

16

9.

Pamela Pozarny

FAO, Italy

................................
................................
................................
.........................

16

10.

Cheikhou Konate

, Senegal

................................
................................
................................
.....................

17

11.

Mamadou Salla

Afrique Solidarité A.I.S.E.D., Senegal

................................
................................
.

17

12.

Annemarie van de Vijsel

The Broker, Netherlands

................................
................................
.....

20

13.

Stephen Adejoro

Zartec limited, Nigeria

................................
................................
..........................

21

14.

Douillet Mathilde

Foundation for World Agriculture and Rural Life (FARM), France

.

21

15.

Dr. John Adu Kumi

Ghan
a

................................
................................
................................
.......................

26

16.

Subhash Mehta

Devarao Shivaram Trust, India
................................
................................
............

27

17.

Subhash Mehta

Devarao Shivaram Trust, India
................................
................................
............

27

18.

Georges BAZONGO Self Help Africa, Burkina Faso

................................
................................
......

27

19.

Kingsley Ofei
-
Nkansah General Agricultural Workers
Union, Ghana

................................
..

28

20.

Anna Antwi GD Resource Center, Ghana
-

Facilitator

................................
................................

29

21.

Emilia Venetsanou freelancer, Italy

................................
................................
................................
...

30

22.

Al Hassan Cissé Oxfam, Senegal


Facilitator

................................
................................
.................

31

23.

Concern 3 University of Guyana, Guyana

................................
................................
........................

33

24.

Dr. John Adu Kumi Ghana

................................
................................
................................
.......................

34

25.

Group 4 University of Guyana, Guyana

................................
................................
.............................

34

26.

Boubacar Maiga Centre Régional de Recherche Agronomique (CRRA/IER
-
Niono), Mali

35

27.

University of Guyana
Agriculture Economics Research Group 1 University of Guyana,
Guyana

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

36

3

How can social protection
contribute to food security and nutrition in West Africa
?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

in West Africa

www.fao.org/fsnforum/west
-
africa


28.

Prof Ignatius Onimawo Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma
, Nigeria

................................
....

37

29.

Moussa Na Abou Mamouda ENDA TM, Senegal

................................
................................
............

37

30.

Andréa Houindote Ministere de la Santé, Point Focal Nutrition, Benin
..............................

38

31.

Agriculture Economics Research Group 1 University of Guyana, Guyana

.........................

38

32.

Concern 3 University

of Guyana, Guyana

................................
................................
........................

39

33.

Peter Steele Independent Consultant Agricultural Engineer, Australia

.............................

40

34.

Mme TCHOHLO Akossiwa ex
-
députée à l’Assemblée nationale, Togo

................................

42

35.

Ms. Edith HOUHA AICFM BENIN, Benin

................................
................................
...........................

43

36.

University of Guyana Agriculture Economics Research Group 1 University of Guyana,
Guyana

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

44

37.

Tosin Apiriola Victo
ria Women and youth development initiative, Nigeria

.....................

45

38.

Mawuli Sablah Helen Keller International, Senegal

................................
................................
....

45

39.

Al Hassan Cissé

Oxfam, Senegal


Concluding remarks

................................
.............................

47

40.

Anna Antwi GD Resource Center, Ghana


Concluding remarks

................................
...........

50









4

How can social protection
contribute to food security and nutrition in West Africa
?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

in West Africa

www.fao.org/fsnforum/west
-
africa


I
ntroduction

to the topic



Welcome to the first Food Security and Nutrition Forum discus
sion dedicated to West Africa.


West Africa and more specifically the Sahel region, faces increasingly frequent food crisis which
affect a growing number of areas and people. It is established

fact that promoting broad
-
based
economic growth is essential for development in general. However the benefits of such growth do
not necessarily reach the poorest segment of society and therefore direct interventions are
needed to target the socially and e
conomically deprived groups. As highlighted by FAO’s State of
Food Insecurity in the World 2012, social protection has a role to play in reducing hunger and
increase economic growth. In this context, creating and strengthening social protection systems is
considered as a way forward for governments and their partners in development to contribute
to
food security and nutrition.


Social protection has many definitions and may take many forms. A generally agreed definition
for
social protection is the support
provided in the form of income or benefits to the poor,
vulnerable and socially excluded in society with the aim of enhancing capacity to protect
themselves against social and economic shocks and risks
.


It is believed that when the right policies and tar
geting is done, social protection mechanisms,
including safety nets, can protect the most disadvantaged and reduce social, economic and
cultural inequalities which increase their resilience regarding food security and nutrition.
However, in implementation
of social protection for the under
-
privileged in society, West African
governments face considerable demands that force them to focus on immediate solutions to
poverty because of the large number of poor and vulnerable people in the various countries in t
h
e
region.


Social protection has been given increased attention in Africa, with interventions taking many
forms ranging from cash transfers, child allowances, food aid, subsidies to goods purchased
(including agricultural inputs) to health and unemploymen
t insurances.


Social protection may be seen as primarily a national issue but the (sub)
-
regional institutions
have important roles to play in defining a direction and in monitoring progress towards agreed
social protection targets. The (sub)
-
regional lev
els may also have the needed capacity to support
with national policy
-
making processes and for harmonization. Regional initiatives such as the
African Union’s Social Policy Framework (2008), recognizes a minimum social package, and the
ECOWAS Hunger Free I
nitiative includes strategies to combine social protection and agriculture.
With increase in population and drift in urbanization, coupled with high levels of poverty and
faster economic growth in most African countries, demands for social protection are l
ikely to rise.


Some countries in Africa, such as Malawi, Ethiopia, and South Africa demonstrated the positive
impact of social protection schemes on food security and nutrition. In West Africa, there are pilot
initiatives in Burkina Faso, Guinea, Ghana,
Senegal, Nigeria, Togo (among others). Lessons learnt
on coverage, sustainability, institutionalization and impacts may b
e drawn from these initiatives.

5

How can social protection
contribute to food security and nutrition in West Africa
?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

in West Africa

www.fao.org/fsnforum/west
-
africa



We invite you to take part in this discussion and share your experience and knowledge on this
topic. B
elow are some guiding questions. Feel free
to answer one or more of these.


1.
What is your understanding of social protection? How these programmes can address West
African countries’ needs?


2.
What social protection programmes or interventions are ta
king place in your country? What
are the challenges


weaknesses and limitations of these interventions? How do you think they
could be addressed? Please give concrete recommendations to address them. Any success story i
n
addressing these challenges?


3.
How social protection initiatives should be implemented so that they increase agricultural
production and productivity, and improve food security and nutrition?


4.
What are the roles for government, civil society organizations, private sector, academ
ics and
other development partners? Suggest ways to ensure better governance for fostering linkages
between social protection, food security and nutrition and agriculture.


If you want to know more, please find a list of resources on the webpage.


The fac
ilitators:


Anna Antwi

Al Hassan Cissé




6

How can social protection
contribute to food security and nutrition in West Africa
?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

in West Africa

www.fao.org/fsnforum/west
-
africa


Contributions received


1.

Thierry Kesteloot
,

Oxfam, Belgium

Please find enclosed a useful report of a seminar held at the ILO on social protection as a catalyst
for food security and the right to adequate food

It
wanted to contribute to the recommendation made by the Committee on World Food Security
(CFS) to further integrate food security and nutrition issues within the social protection floors.

It brought together participants from UN, member states, civil societ
y organisations, researchers.

The report looks at the opportunities and constraints of SP, at social protection floors as a catalyst
for food security and identifies recommendations for future work.

See the attachment:
social protection as catalyst for food security and the right to adequate food



2.

Soré Abdou
,

Association Relwendé pour le Développement, Burkina Faso

[
Original contribution in French
]

Dear colleagues,

Please find below my contribution:

Social protection is the fact to grant a support to the
most
vulnerable groups

(women, children,
people with disabilities) in order to support their emancipation.

The programmes can answer the needs of West African countries in terms of food security and
nutrition but it requires first a
consultation with beneficiar
ies
. Development structures, most
often, don’t consult grassroots populations to identify their priority needs. Population faces
with a
fait accompli
, with funds for the implementation of such activity. It is then as a constraint that
beneficiaries accept
to work. As a consequence, when they
turn their back, everything comes to a
n

end.

So after this introductory phase, structures can help
,

especially women, because everything turns
around them. We must
provide them with

subsidies for

building infrastructure

to meet and work
(weaving, saponification, awareness about reproductive health, agricultural products, etc

).

Social protection programmes or interventions implemented in Burkina Faso aim to

fight hunger
and poverty.

The major weaknesses relate to
what is

achieved not always meet the populations’
needs. Consequently, the constraints come from the weak on inexistent contribution of a
population who has a low interest in these programmes

that force development agents to strong
negotiations
, often involving l
ocal authorities. So
,

in the end, the targeted population works
against their will. As a recommendation, it is needed that development structure, don’t impose
activities to the beneficiaries but discuss with the targeted population to identify its prioriti
es.

7

How can social protection
contribute to food security and nutrition in West Africa
?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

in West Africa

www.fao.org/fsnforum/west
-
africa


A noted success in the
field

is the elaboration of
projects
by women
’s

civil society
organizations.
These projects are submitted to donors and, once, the fundraising

phase achieved,
the activities
implemented take into account women in general and chil
dren
. They also set up a
working capital

to the limits of their
resources;

they
allocate

money in the form of micro
-
credit
s

to others for
individual
income generating activities
which is a

pride
for these
women who find
these
funds too
limited. Why not
encourage this kind of initiative?

Social pr
otection can increase agricultural

production and productivity and improve food security
and nutrition because the subsidies received can facilitate the culture of improved crops during
wintering

and off
-
season a
ctivities by increasing the quantity of water points. When
these
conditions are met
, we move towards food security. Malnutrition can be avoided through the
combination of agricultural production and the feeding with other natural products. This requires
to

train people or
to
deepen
the
knowledge of community health workers on nutritious foods.

The role of
governments
, civil society, private sector, universities and other development
partners that can improve governance and strengthen ties between social pro
tection, food
security and nutrition and agriculture
:

It is the responsibility of

governments through
decentralized State bodies

to consult others and to involve local partners i
n the agricultural
development, and all other partners, including donors witho
ut those we can’t achieve our
objective. Development stakeholders need to be united for social protection to become a reality.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

Chers collègues,

Ci
-
dessous ma contribution :

1. La protection sociale es
t le fait d’octroyer un appui aux couches vulnérables (femmes, enfants,
personnes en situations de handicap) afin de leur permettre de s’émanciper.

Ces programmes peuvent répondre aux besoins des pays de d’Afrique de l’Ouest en termes de
sécurité alimentai
re et de nutrition, mais il va falloir d’abord par une concertation avec les
bénéficiaires. Le plus souvent, les structures de développement ne consultent pas la population à
la base pour obtenir les besoins prioritaires de cette couche. La population se r
etrouve face à un
fait accompli, de présence de fonds pour la réalisation de telle activité. C’est donc sous contrainte
que les bénéficiaires acceptent de travailler. La c
onséquence est que lorsque ceux
-
ci tournent le
dos, tout revient au néant.

Après donc

cette phase introductive, les structures peuvent aider surtout les femmes, car tout
tourne autour d’elles. Il faut leur octroyer des subventions pour la construction des
infrastructures de rencontre et de travail (tissage, saponification, sensibilisation
sur la santé de la
reproduction, transformation des produits agricoles


etc.).

2. Les programmes ou interventions de protection sociale mis en œuvre au Burkina Faso sont
pour la lutte contre la faim et la pauvreté. Cela dans le but d’extraire la couche vul
nérable de la
situation de précarité. Les faiblesses résident au fait que ce qui est réalisé n’est pas
nécessairement les besoins prioritaires des bénéficiaires. Les contraintes sont que comme
souvent la population n’est pas assez intéresser par le program
me, leur contribution vient
8

How can social protection
contribute to food security and nutrition in West Africa
?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

in West Africa

www.fao.org/fsnforum/west
-
africa


lentement ou même pas, ce qui amène les agents de développement à de fortes négociations
impliquant souvent les autorités de la localité. En fin de compte les bénéficiaires travaillent
malgré eux. Comme recommandation, il va fal
loir que les structures de développement
n’imposent pas des activités aux bénéficiaires mais plutôt discuter avec eux sur les priorités à
mettre en œuvre.

Comme réussite constatée sur le terrain, des organisations de la société civile de femmes ont
élaboré

des projets qui sont soumis à des bailleurs et après acquisition des fonds, celles
-
ci mènent
des activités qui prennent en compte les femmes de façon générale et les enfants. Elles ont aussi
mis en place un fonds de roulement à la limite de leurs moyens,
elles donnent de l’argent sous
forme de microcrédits aux autres pour des activités génératrices de
revenus

cela de façon
individuelle cela fait la fierté de ces femmes mais qui trouvent que les fonds sont trop limités.
Pourquoi ne pas encourager ce genre d
’initiative ?

3. La protection sociale peut accroître la production et la productivité agricoles et améliorer la
sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition en ce sens que les subventions perçues ont la possibilité de
faciliter la culture des variétés améliorées
pendant l’hivernage, et les activités de contre saison en
augmentant les points d’eau. Lorsque ces conditions seront réunies, nous pouvons dire que nous
tendons vers une sécurité alimentaire. Pour éviter la malnutrition il suffit de combiner des
éléments d
e la production agricole ou de s’alimenter avec d’autres produits issus de la nature
pour cela il sera donc impératif de former au sein des populations des personnes ou
d’approfondir la connaissance des agents de santé communautaire sur les aliments nutrit
ifs.

4. Les rôles des gouvernements, des organisations de la société civile, du secteur privé, des
universités et d'autres partenaires du développement susceptibles d'améliorer la gouvernance et
renforcer les liens entre protection sociale, sécurité
alimentaire et nutrition, et agriculture. Il
appartient d’abord aux gouvernements à partir de ses structures déconcentrées de consulter les
autres pour que chacun s’implique dans les activités du développement agricole. Aussi pour les
autres partenaires de

développement surtout les bailleurs de fonds sans leurs appui nous ne
pouvons pas atteindre notre objectif. L’Afrique veut être autosuffisante mais sa capacité
financière ne lui permet pas d’être autonome. Pour cela il faut que tous les acteurs au
dévelop
pement s’unissent pour que la protection sociale soit une réalité.


3.

Ali Bossa,
Directrice de l'Agence de Solidarité Nationale
-
Togo

[
Original contribution in French
]

1/

What is your understanding of social protection? How these programmes can address
West
African countries’ needs?


Social protection is a system that enables populations to face up to different social risks, to
increase their productivity and income, to live in decent conditions and to reduce social
inequalities. Equally, this system makes
possible to people

improved access to basic social
services, especially for the poorest segment of society. (
SCAPE
-
Togo
, 2012).

9

How can social protection
contribute to food security and nutrition in West Africa
?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

in West Africa

www.fao.org/fsnforum/west
-
africa


At the national level, social protection means a range of public and private measures put in place
to protect the population fro
m social vulnerabilities and risks in order to promote social cohesion
and equality. It comprises a wide range of tools and has as general

objectives the promotion of
inclusion and access to basic social services (health, education, food and lodging, etc),

to
employment and to earnings; the mitigation of the impact of shocks to

the well
-
being, and to
ensure a minimum of resources for the poorest segment of society in order to avoid extreme
poverty.

To meet the needs of West African countries in terms of foo
d security and nutrition, it is
important to

promote inclusion as well as productivity by making sure that women and men
enjoy the same working conditions.


2/What social protection programmes or interventions are taking place in your country?

Answer 1

It
should be noted that Togo is on the right track in the implementation of the social protection
systems

with mechanisms of social safety nets, especially cash transfer systems to benefit poor
households;

labor
-
intensive public works; help for people with HI
V/AIDS; subsidies for cases of
caesarean sections; free schooling in primary State education; implementation of school canteens
in the poorest regions; expanded vaccinations programs; food and non
-
food assistance for victims
of catastrophes, disadvantaged
households and centers of reception and caring for vulnerable
children; provision of school materials to children from disadvantaged or vulnerable families.

Mandatory sickness insurance for

employees in the public sector and their partners in
development

h
as been implemented with the idea of progressively expanding

it to all sectors of

the people of Togo, together with

community health
mutual
s
, retirement pensions,

and work
related accident compensation.

What are the challenges


weaknesses and limitations
of these interventions?


Health insurance coverage of private, public and informal sectors;

Coordination of all social protection actions developed in several ministerial departments and
other institutions;

Seeking consensus in relation to the question of
social protection by the participation of all
parties involved (social dialogue);

Financing social protection which must prioritize internal resources to guarantee the
sustainability/durability of these programs or mechanisms for social protection;


How do

you think they could be addressed?

Good governance or increased clarity in managing any system or mechanism must be a
permanent goal because it is a condition for the success of policies and programs for social
protection. It is essential for the credibil
ity and sustainability of social protection programs;

10

How can social protection
contribute to food security and nutrition in West Africa
?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

in West Africa

www.fao.org/fsnforum/west
-
africa


The role of social dialogue: the participation of social partners (workers, employers) and other
involved parties (rural workers, informal economy, NGOs, associations) will guarantee the
success of the
social protection strategy implementation.

Please give concrete recommendations to address them.

Organizing, within a suitable timeframe, a meeting to rationalize training on social protection in
the concerned sectors.

Any success story in addressing these

challenges?


The training of stakeholders involved in the fight against poverty will encompass all aspects of
social protection and its implementation. This will enable efficient

endeavors for reducing the
rate of poverty in the country.

3/

How social pro
tection initiatives should be implemented so that they increase
agricultural production and productivity, and improve food security and nutrition?


Through an inclusive social dialogue of all stakeholders involved in the theme of social protection.

4/

What

are the roles for government, civil society organizations, private sector, academics
and other development partners?

*
Governments

must put in place a framework for cooperation (social dialogue), must promote
good governance, must contribute to financing s
ocial protection programs and projects and, must
reinforce the capabilities of stakeholders involved.

*
Civil Society Organizations

must contribute to informing the population about social
protection mechanisms, and ensure the promotion and extension of uni
versal social protection.

*
The Private Sector

must contribute to financing social protection.

*
Universities

must contribute to training stakeholders, carry out research in the social protection
domain and made the results available for policies on decision

making.

*
Other partners in development

must sustain (financially and technically) the States in the
implementation of policies for social protection.

Suggest ways to ensure better governance for fostering linkages between social protection,
food security
and nutrition and agriculture.


The facilitators:

*
Transparency in the management of public markets;

*
Share the knowledge of good governance and its significance in the formulation and distribution
of social protection;

*
Identify the guiding principles, t
he guidelines, the governance structures and the mechanisms
which will help to generate and support good governance;

11

How can social protection
contribute to food security and nutrition in West Africa
?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

in West Africa

www.fao.org/fsnforum/west
-
africa


*
Draw an action plan to promote and improve good governance and its institutions;

*Implement social dialogue
.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

[
Original text
]

1. Qu’entendez
-
vous par protection sociale ?
De quelle manière ces programmes peuvent
-
ils répondre aux besoins des pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest en termes de sécurité alimentaire
et de
nut
rition ?

Réponse

1
:

La protection sociale est un système qui permet aux populations de faire face aux différents
risques sociaux, d’accroître leur productivité et leur revenu, de vivre dans des conditions
décentes et de réduire les disparités sociales. Ce
système permet également d’améliorer l’accès
des populations, surtout les plus pauvres, aux services sociaux de base (
SCAPE
-
Togo
, 2012).

La protection sociale au plan national désigne l’ensemble des mesures publiques et privées mises
en place pour protéger

la population contre les vulnérabilités et les risques sociaux afin de
promouvoir la cohésion sociale et l’égalité. Elle englobe un large éventail d'outils et a pour
objectifs généraux de promouvoir l’inclusion et l’accès aux services sociaux de base (san
té,
éducation, alimentation, logement, etc.), à l’emploi et aux revenus, d’atténuer l’impact des chocs
sur le bien
-
être, et d’assurer un minimum de ressources aux plus pauvres afin d'éviter l'indigence.

Pour répondre aux besoins des pays d’Afrique de l’Oue
st en termes de sécurité alimentaire et de
nutrition, il est important de

promouvoir aussi bien l’inclusion que la productivité en veillant à ce
que les femmes et les hommes bénéficient des mêmes conditions de travail.

2.

Quels sont les programmes ou inter
ventions de protection sociale mis en œuvre dans
votre pays ?

Réponse

1:
Il est à noter que le Togo est sur la bonne voie dans la mise en place de son système de
protection sociale avec les mécanismes de filets sociaux de sécurité notamment le transfert
m
onétaire au profit des ménages pauvres, des travaux à haute intensité de main d’œuvre,
l’assistance aux personnes porteuses du VIH / sida, la subvention de la césarienne, la gratuité des
frais scolaires dans les établissements primaires publics, la mise en

place des cantines scolaires
dans les régions les plus pauvres, les programmes élargis de vaccination, le transfert de vivres et
non vivres aux sinistrés des catastrophes, aux ménages démunis et aux centres d’accueil et de
prise en charge des enfants vuln
érables, le transfert de fournitures scolaires aux enfants issus de
familles démunies ou vulnérables.

L’assurance maladie obligatoire au profit des agents publics et assimilés développée avec la vision
de l’étendre de façon progressive à toutes les couches

de la population Togolaise, les mutuelles de
santé communautaire, les pensions de retraites, les indemnités d’accident de travail etc.

Quels sont les enjeux, faiblesses et contraintes de ces interventions ?

12

How can social protection
contribute to food security and nutrition in West Africa
?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

in West Africa

www.fao.org/fsnforum/west
-
africa


Réponse 2

:

La couverture du secteur privé,
parapublic et de l’informel en assurance maladie;

La coordination de toutes les actions de protection sociale développées dans plusieurs
départements ministériels et autres institutions ;

La recherche du consensus autour de la question de la protection soc
iale par l’implication de
toutes les parties prenantes (dialogue social) ;

Le financement de la protection sociale qui doit privilégier les ressources internes pour garantir
la pérennité/la durabilité de ces programmes ou mécanismes de protection sociale ;

Quelles seraient, à votre avis, les mesures à prendre pour relever ces défis ?

Réponse 3

:

La bonne gouvernance ou la grande clarté dans la gestion de tout système ou de mécanisme doit
être une quête permanente, car elle est la condition de succès des
politiques et programmes de
protection sociale, elle est essentielle pour la crédibilité, la soutenabilité des programmes de
protection sociale

;

Le rôle du dialogue social

: l’implication des partenaires sociaux (travailleurs, employeurs) et
autres partie
s prenantes (travailleurs ruraux, économie informelle, ONG, associations) garantit la
réussite dans la mise en œuvre d’une stratégie de protection sociale.

Veuillez donner des recommandations concrètes à cet égard.

Réponse 4

:

Organiser dans un délai souh
aitable une rencontre de démultiplication de la formation sur la
protection sociale au niveau des secteurs concernés.

Avez
-
vous des exemples concrets de réussite de ce type de mesure ?

Réponses 2
: La formation des acteurs intervenant dans la lutte contre
la pauvreté permet de
cerner tous les aspects de la protection sociale et sa mise en œuvre. Ceci permet d’œuvrer
efficacement à la réduction du taux de pauvreté dans le pays.

3.

Comment les mécanismes de protection sociale peuvent
-
ils être mis en œuvre de
manière à accroître la production et la productivité agricoles et améliorer la sécurité
alimentaire et la
nutrition?

Réponse

3

: A travers un dialogue social inclusif de tous les acteurs concernés par la thématique
de protection sociale.

4. Quels sont les
rôles des gouvernements, des organisations de la société civile, du
secteur privé, des universités et d'autres partenaires du développement?

Réponses 4

:

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-
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*Les gouvernements doivent mettre en place un cadre de concertation (dialogue social),
promouvoir la

bonne gouvernance, contribuer aux financements des programmes et projets de
protection sociale, renforcer les capacités des acteurs concernés.

*Les organisations de la société civile doivent contribuer à la sensibilisation des populations sur
les mécanism
es de protection sociale, veillez à la promotion et l’extension de la protection sociale
universelle.

*Le secteur privé doit contribuer au financement de la protection sociale.

*Les universités doivent contribuer à la formation des
acteurs,

effectuer des recherches dans le
domaine de la protection sociale et mettre les résultats à la disposition des politiques pour la
prise de décision.

*Les autres partenaires de développement doivent soutenir (financièrement et techniquement)
les Etats dans

la mise en place des politiques de protection sociale.

Veuillez formuler des recommandations susceptibles d'améliorer la gouvernance et renforcer les liens
entre protection sociale, sécurité alimentaire et nutrition, et agriculture.

Réponse

5:

*Transpare
nce dans la gestion des marchés publics

;

*Partager le savoir sur la bonne gouvernance et son importance dans l'élaboration et la
distribution de la protection sociale

;

*Identifier les principes directeurs, les lignes directrices, les structures de gouver
nance et les
mécanismes qui aideront à engendrer et à supporter la bonne gouvernance

;

*Tracer un plan d'action pour promouvoir et améliorer la bonne gouvernance et ses institutions

;

*Mettre en place le dialogue social.


4.

Dr. John Adu Kumi
,

Ghana


Issues on social protection lean on the identification of unique organized concerns of various
groups in society that interrelate to make systems work effectively.


In this light, mutual
relations will have to be promoted in villages and the categories/classes of
humans documented for the purpose on designing interventions. Communities have to build
confidence in interveners before realistic information about the target groups can be elici
ted.
Ethical considerations need to be given to all approaches for offering support to the vulnerable
and hard
-
to
-
reach poor in society. Let us identify the existing values, beliefs, cultures, principles
underlying activities of the people and clearly obta
in cognitive insight into their practices. This
serves as the foundation to social protection.


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In order to link this foundation with nutrition in West Africa, a collection of various diets within
the different societies identified in West Africa would be
helpful with a display of the nutritional
values and quantities required to be consumed for sustenance. Extension education is required
to educate the beneficiaries on the tenets of nutrition and food security and the contributions for
achieving best resul
ts will emanate from the target groups themselves.


5.

Renata Mirulla

FAO, Italy

Dear colleagues in West Africa,

I

would like to share the interview with Lawrence Ofori
-
Addo from

the Department of Social Welfare in
Ghana government, coordinator of the

LEAP cash transfer programme "
Exploring links between
Social Protection and Agriculture".

Lawrence

talks about

challenges encountered and evidence
collected so far on how cash transf
ers can promote agriculture productive activities.

The interview was realized in the context of the

From Protection to Production (PtoP) project.


6.

Al Hassan Cissé

Oxfam,
Senegal

Dear Colleagues,



Thank you very much for taking part in this discussion. We have received interesting
contributions and we encourage others to do the same. This would give us an even broader view
regarding the discussed issues.



Generally there
is a good understanding of social protection which is considered by the first
contributions as a set of measures (public and private) to tackle the vulnerability by enabling
households to face shocks and increase their revenues.



However, the justificatio
n of social protection in West African countries for improved food
security and nutrition it is not clearly stated. In more clear terms we would like to ask to respond
to the question:

What is your comprehension of social protection for improved food
secur
ity?

If we consider that social

protection covers a wide range of instruments such as
cash transfers, cash for work, school feeding, inputs subsidies
…, can those instruments be
used to develop a comprehensive programme, or not?



From the first contributio
ns, we realized also that social protection is generally integrated in the
fight to poverty strategy and not well designed as a separated policy. Social protection
programmes target poor people using different instruments. The question you could respond
ba
sed on your experience and knowledge is: Are these programmes well integrated to tackle the
challenges you have identified?

What are the relevant instruments for increasing agricultural
production and productivity, and improve food security and nutrition?



We would also like you

to elaborate more on the

challenges
. What they are and how to tackle
them (question 2). For instance, during the seminar on "social protection as a catalyst for food
security and the right to adequate food" as well others
contributions particularly highlights
the

financing challenge
. How do you think it could be tackled? What mechanism do you
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Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

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www.fao.org/fsnforum/west
-
africa


propose? What about the about the others challenges such as the targeting, the coherence with
others programmes which are not discuss
ed? Please more elaborate on the

governance for
fostering linkages between social protection, food security and nutrition; and
agriculture

by giving concrete propositions (questions 4).



Many thanks in advance.



We are looking forward to your comments an
d contributions.



Al Hassan Cissé

7.

Anna Antwi

GD Resource Center, Ghana

Dear Colleagues,

It is really encouraging to read the diverse contributions from West Africa, and we do apprec
iate
your inputs.


Thank you to those who have sent their contributions for finding precious time to
share and we are convinced that others are preparing to do the same.

The definitions and understanding of social protection provided by contributors are lo
oking at
the

poor and most vulnerable people and those at risk to either get them out of poverty or
to support their production.

The purpose in some cases is also to reduce hunger. From the
contributions, it seems there are

various forms of social protection within the sub
-
regional
countries, and there is the likelihood that more programmes and interventions will
emerge to support eradication of hunger and poverty
.


As countries develop, their capacity to develop and manage s
ocial protection interventions
increases and their ability to fund their own programmes will also increase or improve. The lists
of interventions are tall as Togo for example even covers caesarean sessions, and Burkina Faso
also mentions gender issues. Thi
s shows the likelihood also of West African governments to
increasing interventions and their coverage, with passing of time. Social protection can actually
address food insecurity through gender
-
sensitive programmes.

West Africa as a whole is food
insecure area due to a number of challenges and the sub
-
region
has more Least Developed Countries as a result of peculiar vulnerabilities including threat of
climate variability, expansion of desertification, conflicts and civil unrests, high poverty level
s,
low adaptive capacity and lack of institutional support among other factors.


Social protection, like right to food is a human right, enshrined in numerous sources of
international law, which many of our governments have signed on to
. These laws togeth
er
with Article 25 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights


(UDHR) forms the right to standard of
living adequate for health and well
-
being of one’s self and family, including food, clothing,
housing, health care and other basic needs. The main livelihood

options in the sub
-
region are
agriculture and its related natural resource based activities. Human rights entail that people live
a life of dignity.

Social protection can play a vital role in increasing the ability of individuals
to have access to food
. C
onventionally, social protection has mostly focused on short term
protective interventions or mechanisms to protect people in extreme poor households from
shocks, however, it has crucial role in increasing the ability of these households to have access to
food and to increase production.

In subsequent contributions,

we would like to have more concrete or explicit examples from
your countries as to know how to link agricultural production with social protection to
enhance food security and nutrition
. Please
refer to question 2 and kindly share success
stories from your countries and social interventions in Africa you are familiar with. How do we
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-
africa


ensure the political will of our governments to link agriculture specifically to social protection to
boost food se
curity and nutrition?

We are grateful for your contributions and we would like to hear more wonderful experiences
from you.

The attachment from the contribution from Belgium provides a summary on social protection as
catalyst for food security and the righ
t to food, please read. Ghana contributor advocates for
training/ extension services, Burkina Faso mentions link to productivity but the how is not
explicit. Let us sustain the momentum to keep the discussion going. Have wonderful and fruitful
discussions
to contribute and eradicate poverty from West Africa.

Thank you and regards

Anna Antwi


8.

Raymond Enoch, National Alliance Against Hunger Nigeria, Nigeria


Dear All,

The concept of Social Protection as it relates to Food Security and Nutrition, its approache
s and
contexts plays a significant role in agriculture and as they relate to each other. Concept of Social
Protection must be a broadening field away from social assistance to embrace ways in which it
can reduce shocks and stresses in both domestic and pro
ductive environments. Agricultural
growth and its

expansion will not alleviate all rural poverty alone. In the short run, it is likely
that substantial numbers of the poor will benefit from the growth but only a little while if at all
from such growth. Soc
ial protection will be needed to assist the very poor. But how can such
social protection be offered in ways that are both efficient and effective, and that also
complement growth?

That is the more reason why the discussion on "
How can social protection co
ntribute to food
security and nutrition in West Africa?
" is critical and must be addressed


if we are to address
hunger and malnutrition issues in West Africa. This is where West African Alliance Against

Hunger and Malnutrition (WAAAHM) and NAAHMs are critical to its advocacy and promotion of
the concept, working with other stakeholders.

It is therefore in doing so that we would seek to prevent the onset of shocks or stresses, mitigate
their impact throug
h e.g. insurances of various kinds, enhance the resilience of households and
individuals, through e.g. asset
-
building strategies, so that they are better able to cope with the
impacts, and, for the longer term, work in trans
-
formative ways by addressing th
e vulnerabilities
arising from social inequities and exclusion.

Raymond Enoch

Chair WAAAHM and NAAHM Nigeria


9.

Pamela Pozarny

FAO, Italy

Implementation considerations, including
roles and linkages:

I agree with many of the comments of previous interventions and would like to further highlight
a few points

concerning implementation considerations particularly in the design of social
protection programmes that seem

relevant

to West
Africa. It seems a great deal of
decentralization is well underway in a number of countries in West Africa, where varying
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-
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degrees of genuine local empowerment, transfer of responsibility and decision
-
making have
evolved. Therein, relevant operating structu
res are in place

with people assuming their
appropriate roles and mandates.

It seems important that the national overall social protection framework in these countries
should build on, be

designed with

and work

through these structures

as much as possible, from
targeting procedures, to implementation, grievances and monitoring etc
. The benefits are many
-

not only do many of these local institutions represent local populations, they also work in these
zones and are well informed of the socio
-
economic contexts, wealth categories, and causes of
acute poverty and shocks, as well as me
asures to strengthen household resilience to shocks and
risk. These structures also aim to ensure synergies and complementarities among programmes,
which would include social

protection programmes, and these with other development
-
oriented
interventions.

T
his may sound simple and common knowledge, but implementation presents challenges.
Prevailing gaps continue. Limited coordination at local levels among and within sectors actually
pose considerable problems limiting outcomes


-

target groups may be poorly
defined,
programmes may not reach intended

beneficiaries or may not be well tailored to real constraints
or priorities, etc. Findings from impact evaluations of social

protection programmes, such as the
cash

transfer have shown that impacts can be vast, as
sisting households in immediate and even
longer
-
term resilience and growth, and also

spill over into the local economy, boosting economic
activity for the wider community.

It seems important therefore that social protection design takes into account existi
ng local
structures (inclusive of government, non
-
government, formal and informal institutions and
services) to build linkages, ensure complementarities and achieve wide and sustainable impacts.


10.

Cheikhou Konate

, Senegal

[Original contribution in French]

Cher tous,

La protection sociale consiste à protéger les couches les plus vulnérables. À avoir accès à une
bonne alimentation, protéger les femmes,

et les former pour qu'elles
puissent se prendre en
charge.


[Original text]


Dear all,

Social protection consists in protecting the most vulnerable parts of the society, to enable them
to access to a good nutrition, to protect and train women so that they can support themselves.


11.

Mamadou Salla

Afrique Solidarité A.I.S.E.D., Senegal


[Original contribution in French]


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Dear colleagues,



Please find below my contribution to this discussion.

Senegal and Right
to Food



Senegal such as other West African French speaking countries is at the heart of the debate.
Several international treaties have been signed. It should be noted that in order to reduce
malnutrition significantly nutrition plays a key role in polic
y making processes that are
translated into efficient programmes to tackle existing challenges in households and
communities. This requests a multi
-
sectorial effort where each sector takes actions to:




Insert nutrition in on
-
going programmes



Enhance its
collaboration efforts with other sectors and institutions



Sectorial strategies contributing to nutrition are as follows:



1
-

Agriculture

Increase the nutritional value of food and support the access to this nutritious food to all.
Support their producti
on by smallholder farmers as a source of income.




2
-

Drinking water and sanitation

Better access is needed to reduce infections and diseases



3
-

Education and employment

Make sure children receive the food they need to learn and have a decent job when a
dults.



4
-

Health


The access to health services should be granted to women and children




5
-

Support improved resilience



Enable population to be in better health and to have a sustainable prosperity. This would
support their resilience to emergency a
nd conflict situations.





The specific objectives to reach these points are:




1.

Structure a multi stakeholder and multi sectorial platform;


2.

Enhance capacities of civil society stakeholders on advocacy, lobbying


et accountability;

3.

Enhance capacities of
members, journalists, lawyers and parliamentarians on the Right to food
and nutrition;

4.

Participate in the


budget preparation of food security related policies and programmes


at
national scale (agriculture, health, education, environment and social well
-
b
eing);

5.

Make a comprehensive review


of the state of nutrition and right to food and nutrition;

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6.

Organize fundraising campaigns.

MAMADOU


SALLA


CONSULTANT


PRESIDENT of NGO

AFRIQUE SOLIDARITÉ


A.I.S.E.D.

BP 10728


VILLA 477 H.L.M2

DAKAR


SENEGAL

(MEMBER OF
A.N.C.F.M.S)



[Original text]


Chers collègues,

Je vous prie de trouver ci
-
dessous ma contribution à cette discussion.

Le Sénégal et le droit à l’alimentation.

Le Sénégal, à l’instar des autres pays de l’Afrique de l’Ouest francophones, est au centre
des
débats. Plusieurs traités internationaux


ont été signés.


Il faut noter que pour réduire la
malnutrition de façon significative, la nutrition doit jouer un rôle majeur dans les processus
d’élaboration de politiques qui doivent ensuite se traduire en p
olitiques et programmes efficaces
répondant aux défis qui s’imposent au niveau du foyer, de la communauté et du pays Cela
requiert un effort multisectoriel où chaque secteur prend des mesures pour :



intégrer la nutrition au sein des programmes en cour;



amé
liorer les efforts de collaboration entre secteurs et institution.

Les stratégies sectorielles contribuant à la nutrition

:



1
-

L’agriculture

Rendre des aliments


nutritifs


plus accessibles à tous et soutenir les petites exploitations
familiales en tant
que sources de revenus.



2
-

Eau potable et assainissement

Améliorer l’accès pour réduire les infections et les maladies.



3
-

Education et emploi

S’assurer que les enfants reçoivent la nourriture dont ils ont besoin pour apprendre et recevoir
un emploi dé
cent à l’âge adulte.



4
-

Soins de santé

Accès


aux services permettant aux femmes


et aux enfants d’être en bonne santé



5
-

Appui à la résilience

Permettre à la population d’être


en meilleur santé


plus forte et de connaitre une prospérité
durable


afin

qu’elle soit apte


à mieux supporter les situations d’urgence et de conflits.





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Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

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Pour arriver à ce niveau d’exécution il faudra compter avec les objectifs spécifiques
suivants :

1.

Structurer une plateforme multi
-
acteurs et multi
-
secteurs;

2.

Renforcer les cap
acités des acteurs de la société civile


en plaidoyer, lobbyings


et reddition de
compte;

3.

Renforcer les capacités des membres, des journalistes, des juristes et des parlementaires


sur le
droit à l’alimentation et la nutrition;

4.

Participer à


l’élaboration
de budgets des


programmes et politiques


des déterminants de la
sécurité alimentaire au niveau national (agriculture, santé, éducation, environnement et bien être
social);

5.

Faire l’état des lieux


sur la nutrition et le droit à l’alimentation;

6.

Organiser
des campagnes de mobilisation de fonds (fundraising).

MAMADOU


SALLA

CONSULTANT


PRÉSIDENT DE L O.N.G.

AFRIQUE SOLIDARITÉ


A.I.S.E.D.

BP 10728


VILLA 477 H.L.M2

DAKAR


SÉNÉGAL

(MEMBRE DE


A.N.C.F.M.S)


12.

Annemarie van de Vijsel

The Broker, Netherlands



Dear colleagues,

The discussion on how social protection can contribute to food security and nutrition in West
Africa that the FAO is

currently hosting is very interesting and highly relevant. It combines two
topics that The Broker, an independent online knowledge platform on global development, has
also addressed recently.

Social protection

Last week The Broker published a dossier on s
ocial protection. Here, The Broker looks at

the
international discussion on how to secure decent protection for all human beings.

Social
protection is increasingly seen as an instrument to promote economic opportunities for the poor
and support inclusive d
evelopment. In its social protection dossier, The Broker examines what
different actors mean by social protection and what policies are implemented on the ground.

We
discuss the wider political and
economic

consequences and the

impact on the lives of the p
oor

in
the search for a more inclusive economy.

Please find the dossier here:

http://www.thebrokeronline.eu/Dossiers/Social
-
protection

Food security

Earlier this year The
Broker hosted an online debate on food security, one of the main themes we
continuously work on. Here,

The Broker

explores comprehensive food security strategies that
ensure a secure supply of affordable food using less land and water, produce less waste a
nd
emissions, and alleviate worldwide poverty
.

The online debate involved policy
-
makers,
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Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

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-
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researchers and practitioners. Over 90 international experts helped determine key challenges
and offered answers on how a knowledge
-
based policy can tackle global food

issues.

You can find the food security theme page here:

http://www.thebrokeronline.eu/Themes/Food
-
Security

We encourage very much the combination of these two topics and like t
o see the

lively debate
actually running on your website. We will use the results of this Forum into our work.

Please, if you have any questions

or

suggestions for us, contact us at

debate@thebrokeronline.eu
.



13.

Stephen Adejoro

Zartec limited, Nigeria


Dear colleagues,

Social protection for food security is a social norm well recognised and practiced by the Yoruba
people of the South West of
Nigeria in the West Africa sub region.

The practice is aimed at protecting the negative impacts of

agricultural production logistics on
the poor, the weak and members of the communities who have limited hands that could be
engaged in land preparation for f
ood cultivation

Association of age grade are formed to assist members of the community in preparing their farm
land, planting, harrowing and harvesting such that an individual could farm sizable land and
nurture to harvesting thus helping a vulnerable memb
er of the family to sustain the family food
security and have products for sale or exchange to meet the social and food need of respective
members

In Yoruba culture, we refer to these
system of social protection as

Aroje, (cooperative farm
support) Isusu

or cooperative banking to raise capital base for the members

Livestock such as Hen, Goat and Sheep can be given out to the less privileged to raise such that
the less privileged family can have access to more nutritive food like milk or egg

but at the sam
e
time pay a regular of an offspring of the type of animal loaned to the principal annually.

Honestly this is my traditional understanding of social protection at the grass root level in my
part of West Africa that had helped our fore fathers to sustain th
e needed food security

It is possible for society to
repackage

this traditional system and restructure

it into agricultural
input services

that will

support the resilience and the vulnerable farming members of the
society

in sustaining a healthy food secur
ity

Thank you for giving me the opportunity to make a simple contribution to this first edition of the
Global Forum for food Security in West Africa and hope you will find my first letter to the
coordinator on the inauguration of this forum a useful

discus
sion

for

the region

Dr Adejoro

Independent livestock consultant and contract Head of Research for Zartech Limited in Nigeria



14.

Douillet Mathilde

Foundation for World Agriculture

and Rural Life (FARM),
France



[Original contribution in French]

Dear Colleagues,

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Malawi, historically known for its poverty and its serious food crises, made itself known in 2008
by symbolically committing to provide several hundred tons of maize to the World Food
Programme and to neighboring countries with food crises. Since then, the

country is often
mentioned in debates on food security in Africa, just as in the framing of this debate.

At FARM (Foundation for Agriculture and Rurality), I studied closely the agricultural policy of
Malawi and in effect I think that the experience of th
is country could be useful to West African
countries. My contribution to this discussion is therefore based on the lessons learned from the
Malawian experience. In particular, my contribution is largely inspired by the analysis developed
in the FARM note o
f February 2013, dedicated to the presentation of the assessment of the
program of subsidies to Malawi's inputs and the comparison of this to the cash transfer program.

This note is available in English and French in the Foundation's website:

http://www.fondation
-
farm.org/spip.php?article853

To answer the latest questions of Al Hassan Cissé, in the Malawian case, social protection for
food security is supported by a number of meas
ures, but two main components may be
mentioned due to the size of their budgets:

On one hand, the Input Subsidy Program, the FISP (Fertiliser Input Subsidy Program) was
launched in 2005, following the


serious food crises of 2001 and 2004 which led to cos
tly
imports of foodstuffs. Thanks to the annual distribution, to 1.5 million families (about 50% of the
population), of about 160,000 tons of fertilizers intended for maize production


the staple diet
of the people,
-

the FISP enabled Malawi to come from
the situation of a structural importer to
that of an occasional exporter of this cereal. This change has been noticed by the international
community, which often cites it as an example of the success of a voluntary agricultural policy.


According to its su
pporters, this programme offers smart subsidies, because the beneficiaries
receive coupons exchangeable in shops for inputs, which makes it possible, in theory, to involve
of the private sector and to target people according to their needs. However, today
the
programme is much criticized. It has not sufficiently pushed back rural poverty and was not able
to prevent the outbreak of a new food crisis at the end of 2012. The most common criticisms are
directed to the way in which it was implemented (see note f
or more details). But in reality, it
must be recognized that the external macroeconomic context has been specially adverse to the
country.

On the other hand, following the success of the Pilot Programme for social transfers of cash in
the Mchinji province
(2006
-
2009), the government has launched the extension phase of this
Programme at national level for the period 2012
-
2015 with the objective of reaching the poorest
10%.


It is important to notice at this present time that this social programme is still in

the
implementation phase. Therefore, so far it has not been possible to prove its effectiveness. In
reality the cash transfers which


have had a demonstrable effect on girls’ schooling, on poverty,
on food security and on food diversification for


targete
d households are more modest projects,
let us say pilot phases (as in the case of the Mchinji project), and thus involve a small number of
beneficiaries in specific regions. For example, impact studies for the Mchinji pilot programme
have shown that some b
eneficiaries invest in activities that create income, such as agriculture.
However, this is a central region close to the capital where the markets operate much better than
in other more remote areas of the country. Yet, as described in the note, the expec
ted effects of
the cash transfer programmes on agricultural productivity depend greatly on the beneficiaries'
readiness to invest and on the workings of the markets. The expected impacts of the extension of
this program on a national level are far from bei
ng clearly established.

To use these instruments to make a “comprehensive program” for “a social protection policy for
food security” as such is complex and exposes itself to many challenges.


To remain brief, I will
only mention three:

-

Political will

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How can social protection
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?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

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-
africa


A
determined political will was needed on the part of President Bingu Wa Mutharika for the
program of subsidies for agricultural inputs to be launched on a grand scale and maintained for
years (initially against the advice of the World Bank and of the Intern
ational Monetary Fund).
That was probably made easy by the choice of a path
-
finding instrument (the use of coupons to
subsidize a technical package), already in use in the country for over ten years. However on the
other hand, bearing in mind its considera
ble social implications, this program has become very
politically sensitive, its costs tending to mount in pre
-
election years, due to political influence


the temptation to print a larger number of coupons.


And despite the change of President, it is
unli
kely that the program will be substantially reformed before the presidential elections of
2014, despite the need to do so.

-

The clarity of the objective
: targets and termination of the program (“graduation”).

Beyond the political will to subsidize agricul
tural inputs to increase the production of maize, the
exact objective of this program was not at first clear: was it to increase national agricultural
production or increase agricultural production in the poorest households?

While initially directed to poo
r households, defined by contrast with “large
-
scale agricultural
exploitation”, the allocation of subsidized inputs was left to a great extent to the discretion of the
local chiefs.


This gave rise to significant misappropriations. When faced by criticisms
, the
government has progresively reformed the coupons allotment procedure to make it transparent
and has set out the selection criteria in favor of the most vulnerable households. Yet, according
to existing studies, the poorest households do not use the f
ertilizers (even those subsidized) in
the best way, because the price of chemical fertilizers is not the only constraint on increasing
their production. For this category of farmers, the limited use of fertilizers and low maize
productivity is also explain
ed by the lack of cash and the difficulties of getting credit,
insufficiency of jobs prospects and losses after harvest. Thus targeting them in this way has
repercussions on the overall economic efficiency of inputs subsidies.

On paper, the allocation crit
eria between the two programs (agricultural and social) are
different: the inputs subsidies are only directed to farmers, while the cash transfers program
prioritizes people with limited capacity to work, for example


young orphans or


the aged poor.
In re
ality in Malawi, the two programs are partly directed at the same vulnerable families, mainly
rural and having farming activities. The targeting difference is still less marked in Malawi than in
other countries, like Ghana, where there is great disparity i
n the profiles of rural poverty; or
Tanzania, where the government has chosen to keep the fertilizer subsidies for those households
that will use them more efficiently.

Finally, no exit strategy has yet been defined for this programme.

-

Coordination betwe
en stakeholders and consistency of different measures taken
:

Intersectorial coordination is a real challenge because the agricultural component, essentially
nutritional and the social component are implemented by different institutions, under the
control o
f different ministries, even when sometimes they are funded by the same partners. For
example, the FISP is handled by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security in Malawi, and the
transfers programme is handled by the Ministry of Gender, Child Developme
nt and Community
Development, with the support of UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency
Fund) And yet, apart from the need to create inter
-
ministerial and inter
-
sectorial liaisons at all
levels, to give them the means for functioning an
d to educate staff about the links between their
different fields of traditional activities,


collaboration is often difficult because there is
competition between them for restricted budgets.

Ideally social support programs for the most vulnerable and pro
duction support for poor
farmers are complementary, because they do not face the same constraints and provide different
possibilities (as analyzed in detail in the note). It is this double approach that has been
recommended by the High Level Panel of Exper
ts for Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) in their
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How can social protection
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?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

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-
africa


4th report of 2012. Yet, coordination among stakeholders and bringing consistency to the
different measures seems to be one of the greatest challenges.



Mathilde Douillet

Project Manager "Agricultural mar
kets and policies" at the Fondation pour l'agriculture et la
ruralité dans le monde (FARM)




[Original text]


Chers collègues,

Historiquement connu pour sa pauvreté et ses graves crises alimentaires, le Malawi s’est fait
remarquer en 2008 en s’engageant

symboliquement à fournir plusieurs centaines de tonnes de
maïs au Programme alimentaire mondial et aux pays voisins en crise alimentaire. Depuis le pays
est souvent cité dans les débats sur la sécurité alimentaire en Afrique, comme dans le cadrage de
ce d
ébat.

A la Fondation FARM, j’ai étudié de près la politique agricole du Malawi et je pense effectivement
que l’expérience de ce pays peut être utile pour les pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Ma contribution à
cette discussion est donc centrée sur les enseignemen
ts de l’expérience du Malawi. En
particulier, elle s’inspire très largement des analyses développées dans la note de FARM de
février 2013, consacrée à la présentation du bilan du programme de subvention aux intrants du
Malawi et à sa comparaison avec le pr
ogramme de transfert d’espèces. Cette note est disponible
en anglais et en français sur le site de la fondation
:
http://www.fondation
-
farm.org/spip.php?article853

Pour répondre aux dernière
s questions de Al Hassan Cissé, dans le cas du Malawi la protection
sociale pour la sécurité alimentaire s’appuie sur une multitude de mesures, mais deux volets
principaux peuvent être cités en raison de leur ampleur budgétaire

:

D’un côté, le programme de

subvention des intrants, le FISP (
Fertiliser Input Subsidy Program
) a
été lancé en 2005 suite aux graves crises alimentaires de 2001 et 2004 qui avaient entraîné de
coûteuses importations de denrées. Grâce à la distribution annuelle, à 1,5 million de fami
lles
(soit environ 50% de la population), d'environ 160

000 tonnes d'engrais destinés à la production
de maïs
-

aliment de base de la population
-
, le FISP aurait permis au Malawi de passer de la
situation d'importateur structurel à celle d'exportateur occ
asionnel de cette céréale. Ce
changement a été remarqué par la communauté internationale, qui le cite souvent comme
exemple de succès d'une politique agricole volontariste. Ce programme offrirait, selon ses
partisans, des «subventions intelligentes» (
smart

subsidies
), car les bénéficiaires reçoivent des
coupons échangeables en magasin contre des intrants, ce qui permet en théorie d'impliquer le
secteur privé et de cibler les personnes selon leurs besoins. Pourtant aujourd’hui ce programme
est très critiqué.

Il n’a pas suffi à faire reculer la pauvreté rurale et n’a pu empêcher le
déclenchement d’une nouvelle crise alimentaire, fin 2012. Les critiques les plus fréquentes visent
la manière dont il est mise en œuvre (voir la note pour plus de détails). Mais en
réalité, il faut
reconnaître que le contexte macroéconomique externe a été particulièrement défavorable au
pays.

De l’autre, suite au succès du Programme pilote de transferts sociaux en espèces dans la province
de Mchinji (2006
-
2008), le gouvernement s'est

lancé dans une phase d'extension à l’échelle
nationale de ce dispositif sur la période 2012
-
2015 dans le but de toucher les 10 % les plus
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How can social protection
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?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

in West Africa

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-
africa


pauvres. Il est important de noter dès à présent, que ce programme social est encore en phase de
déploiement. Il n’a
donc pas encore pu faire la preuve de son efficacité. Les transferts monétaires
qui ont eu des effets démontrés sur la scolarisation des filles, la pauvreté, la sécurité alimentaire
et la diversification de l’alimentation des ménages ciblés sont en réalité

des projets plus
modestes, voire des phases pilotes (comme dans le cas du projet de Mchinji), et concernent donc
un nombre réduit de bénéficiaires dans des régions précises. Par exemple, les études d’impact du
programme pilote de Mchinji ont montré que ce
rtains bénéficiaires investissent dans des
activités créatrices de revenus, dont l’agriculture. Cependant, c’est une région centrale proche de
la capitale, où les marchés fonctionnent beaucoup mieux que dans d’autres zones plus reculées
du pays. Or, comme
décrit dans la note, les effets attendus des programmes de transferts
monétaires sur la productivité agricole dépendent grandement de la propension à investir des
bénéficiaires et du fonctionnement des marchés. Les impacts attendus de l’extension de ce
pro
gramme à l’échelle nationale sont donc loin d’être clairement établis.

Faire de ces instruments un «

programme complet

» d’une «

politique de protection sociale pour
la sécurité alimentaire

» en tant que telle est complexe et se heurte à de nombreux défis.

Pour
rester brève, je n’en citerai que trois :

-

La volonté politique

Il a fallu une forte volonté politique de la part du Président Bingu Wa Mutharika pour que le
programme de subvention des intrants agricoles soit lancé à grande échelle et maintenu au c
ours
des années (initialement contre l'avis de la Banque mondiale et du Fonds Monétaire
International). Cela a été probablement facilité par le choix d’un instrument phare (l’utilisation
de coupons pour subventionner un paquet technique), déjà utilisé dans

le pays depuis plus d’une
dizaine d’années. Cependant en contrepartie, compte tenu de ses fortes implications sociales, ce
programme est devenu très sensible politiquement, son coût tendant à augmenter en année pré
-
électorale, en raison de la mainmise des

politiques


tentés d'imprimer un nombre croissant de
coupons
-
. Et malgré le changement de Président, il est peu probable qu’il soit substantiellement
réformé avant les élections présidentielles de 2014, malgré la nécessité de le faire.

-

La clarté de l’
objectif

: ciblage et sortie du programme («

graduation

»)

Au
-
delà de la volonté politique de subventionner les intrants agricoles pour augmenter la
production de maïs,
l’objectif

précis de ce programme manquait initialement de clarté

: était
-
il
d’augmente
r la production agricole nationale ou d’augmenter la production agricole des
ménages les plus pauvres

?

S’adressant initialement aux «

ménages pauvres

» définis par opposition aux «

grandes
exploitations agricoles

», l’attribution des intrants subventionné
s était dans les faits laissée dans
une grande mesure à la discrétion des chefs locaux. Cela a occasionné d’importants
détournements. Face aux critiques, le gouvernement a progressivement réformé la procédure
d’attribution des coupons pour la rendre plus t
ransparente et a précisé les critères de ciblage en
faveur des ménages les plus vulnérables. Or, d’après les études existantes, les ménages les plus
pauvres utilisent les engrais (même subventionnés) de façon moins optimale, car le prix de
l’engrais chimiq
ue n’est pas la seule contrainte à l’accroissement de leur production. Le recours
limité aux engrais et la faible productivité du maïs, pour cette catégorie d’agriculteurs,
s’expliquent aussi par le manque de liquidités et les difficultés d’accès au crédit
, l’insuffisance des
débouchés et les pertes post
-
récolte. Ainsi le choix de les cibler a des répercussions sur
l’efficacité économique de la subvention aux intrants.

Sur le papier, les critères d’attribution entre les deux programmes (agricole et social)
diffèrent :
les subventions aux intrants ne s’adressent qu’aux agriculteurs, tandis que les transferts
d’espèces ciblent en priorité les personnes dont les capacités de travail sont limitées, par
exemple les jeunes orphelins ou les personnes pauvres âgées.

Mais de fait, au Malawi, les deux
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How can social protection
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?





Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition

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-
africa


programmes visent en partie les mêmes familles vulnérables, majoritairement rurales et ayant
des activités agricoles. La différence en termes de ciblage est encore moins marquée au Malawi
que dans d’autres pays, comme le
Ghana, où il existe de grandes disparités dans les profils de
pauvreté rurale, ou la Tanzanie, où le gouvernement a choisi de réserver les subventions aux
engrais aux ménages susceptibles de les utiliser le plus efficacement.

Enfin, aucune stratégie de sor
tie de ce programme n’est encore à ce jour définie.

-

La coordination entre les acteurs et la mise en cohérence des différentes mesures :

La coordination intersectorielle reste un véritable défi car les volets agricoles, éventuellement
nutritionnels et soc
iaux sont mis en œuvre par des institutions distinctes, sous le pilotage de
ministères différents, même si ils sont quelquefois financés par les mêmes bailleurs. Par
exemple, le FISP est géré par le ministère de l'agriculture et de la sécurité alimentaire
du Malawi,
et le programme de transfert par le ministère du genre, des enfants et du développement
communautaire, avec l’appui de l’UNICEF (Fonds des Nations unies pour l’enfance). Or au
-
delà
de la nécessité de devoir créer des instances interministérielle
s et intersectorielles à tous les
niveaux, de les doter de moyens pour fonctionner, et de former les acteurs aux liens entre leurs
différents champs d’activité traditionnels, la collaboration est d’autant plus difficile qu’il existe
souvent une compétition

entre eux pour des budgets restreints.

Idéalement les programmes de soutiens sociaux pour les plus vulnérables et les soutiens
productifs pour les agriculteurs pauvres sont complémentaires, car ils ne répondent pas aux
mêmes contraintes et donnent des pos
sibilités différentes (comme cela est analysé en détail dans
la note). C’est cette double approche qui a été recommandée par le Groupe d’experts de haut
niveau sur la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition (HLPE) dans son rapport 4 de 2012. Or la