AIT 687 - National Security Challenges - Department of Applied ...

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Feb 16, 2014 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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National Security

Challenges

(AIT687
-
DL1)

Professor J
.
D. Maddox

Contact:
prof.maddox@gmail.com

or (703) 509
-
9539

Fall 2013

Description
:
In this course, we will examine
the
prevailing

range of special

challenges to US national
security

and the difficulties of countering them
.

The US

is confronted by an increasingly diffuse and
hidden

adversary.
US technical capabilities, from detection to intervention, are a useful but limited
means of countering thi
s adversarial threat.

Students will be
challenged
to develop

meaningful
s
olutions to security challenges that feasibly counter the adversary while avoiding legal and ethical
pitfalls.

Expected Outcomes
: Understanding the complexities of technology applic
ation in the national security
context. Experience in developing technical solutions to national security challenges.

How this class will work
: This class will be taught online using GMU’s Blackboard system. Each
Monday

morning
, the professo
r will
provid
e a
lesson
, supported by
the
pre
-
assigned

read
ings
/videos

in this
syllabus
,

to begin
a
virtual
class
room

discussion.

Students are expected to
have
read and watch
ed

all
materials

in preparation for the discussion
. The professor will provide one or more
written questions to
initiate an online, asymmetric discussion of class topics

that
will
begin on Monday morning and end on
Thursday morning
.

The professor will provide more guidance and answer questions during the first
class.


Examinations
: Mid
-
semeste
r, students will write a 5
-
page paper cogently assessing the implications and
potential impact of one of the national security challenges covered in
the first half of
this course,
providing one or more feasible technical solutions to the challenge. Studen
ts will post their papers to
the online forum. These papers will serve as discussion topics for the next week and authors will be
expected to explain their views to the class. For the final examination, the professor will provide a
number of research que
stions to choose from, and students will again write a 5
-
page paper and post it
to the online class forum for discussion. In addition to this written examination research paper,
students will post videos of themselves presenting their research paper topic
s. Students should not
read from their papers.

Grades
:

Students

wi
ll be assigned a grade based on their

online

class participation (30
%),
written
projects (5
0
%),
and f
inal examination presentation (2
0%). Quality of online class participation will be
jud
ged based on mastery of substantive issues and writing/communication skills, including the content
of students’ answers to the professor’s questions.

(Note: All online communications must be in full
sentences. Use of internet shorthand (i.e., “omg,” “fwiw
,” etc.) will negatively impact students’ grades.)

Credit note
:
Students cannot receive credit for both AIT690.DL1 National Security Challenges and
AIT678 Intelligence Problems and Challenges.



Schedule and readings
:


1.

Overview
,

introductions

and
online
course de
-
bugging


Mid
-
term examination research p
aper assignment: 5
-
page paper
cogently assessing the
implications and potential impact of one of the
national security

challenges to be covered in
the
first half of
this course
, and
providing
one or more
feasible technical solution
s

to the challenge
.


I. CURRENT TECHNICAL CHALLENGES:

2.


The

lone wolf
” attacker

a.

History of recent attacks

b.

V
ulnerabilities to detection

c.

Limitations of detection

Readings:

Post, Jerrold M. “Terrorist psycho
-
logic: Terrorist
behavior as a product of psychological
forces
.

Origins of Terrorism
.

Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998.
25
-
42,

Gartenstein
-
Ross and Grossman,

Homegrown Terrorists in the US and UK
: An Empirical
Examination of the Radicalization Process
,

FDD P
ress, 2009.
http://www.amazon.com/Homegrown
-
Terrorists
-
U
-
S
-
U
-
K
-
Radicalization/dp/0981971210/ref=sr_1_2?s=books&
ie=UTF8&qid=1309813615&sr=1
-
2

Jenkins, Brian M.

“No Path To Glory: Deterring Homegrown Terrorism
,


RAND Corporation,
2010.

http://www.rand.org/pubs/testimonies/CT348.html

United States.
Congressional Research Service.
Government Collection of Private
Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization
,

Washington: CRS,
2010
.
http://opencrs.com/do
cument/R40980/2010
-
03
-
02/

Video
s
:

Public Broadcasting Service,
Frontline: Spying on the Home

F
ront
, 2007.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/homefront/view/

Optional BBC video do
cumentary

on Anders Behring Breivik:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=qwSvck7jgck

Optional MSNBC documentary

on Timothy McVeigh
:
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/36135258/ns/msnbc_tv/t/mcveigh
-
tapes
-
confessions
-
american
-
terrorist/#.UQOAGb8_Br0



3.

Radicalization


a.

Contributing factor
s of radicalization

b.

US
-
based and external radicalization

trends

c.

Counterradicalization theories

Readings:

Bandura, Albert.
“Mechanisms of moral disengagement
.

Origins of Terrorism
. Ed. Walter
Reich. Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press,
1998.
[Pages
161
-
191.
]


“Reform Or Radicalisation
,


RAND Corporation, 2010.
http://www.rand.org/pubs/corporate_pubs/CP602z6.html

Jenkins, Brian M.
“Would
-
be Warriors: Incidents of Jihadist Terrorist R
adicalization in the US
Since 2001
,” RAND Corporation, 2010.

http://www.rand.org/pubs/occasional_papers/OP292.html

Rabasa, Pettyjohn, Ghez and Boucek.
“Deradicalizing Islamist Extremist
s

Summary
,” RAND
Corporation, 2010.

http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG1053.html

[Read the
15
-
page
s
ummary document only.]

New York Police Department.
Radicalization in the West: The Homeg
rown Threat
, New York,
2007.


http://www.brennancenter.org/page/
-
/Justice/20070816.NYPD.Radicalization.in.the.West.pdf

4.

Internet
-
based adversaries

a.

Recent trends: non
-
state actors

b.

State responses

Readings:

Kimmage, Daniel.
“Al
-
Qaeda Central and the Internet,”
New America Foundation, 2009.
http://www.hum
ansecuritygateway.com/documents/NAF_AlQaedaCentralAndTheInternet.
pdf

United States. Congressional Research Service.
Terrorist Use of the Internet: Information
Operations in Cyberspace
,
Washington: CRS, 2011.
http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/r41674.pdf

Fishman, Brachman and Felter. “The Power of Truth,” Combating Terrorism Center at West
Point, 2009.
http://www.ctc.usma
.edu/posts/the
-
power
-
of
-
truth

“Country P
rofile: United States and Canada
,” OpenNet Initiative, 2010.
http://opennet.net/sites/opennet.net/files/ONI_UnitedStatesan
dCanada_2010.pdf

Video
s
:

P
ublic
B
roadcasting
S
ervice.

Need
-
to
-
Know: The Revolution Will Not be Firewalled
, 2011.
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/need
-
to
-
know/security/video
-
the
-
revolution
-
will
-
not
-
be
-
firewalled
-
gabriella
-
coleman
-
on
-
the
-
hacktivist
-
underground/10584/

5.

Border security


a.

Immigration vulnerabilities

b.

History of border incursions

c.

Difficulty of
detection

d.

Difficulty of disruption


Readings:


Alden and Roberts. “Are US Borders Secure?”
Foreign Affairs

July/August 2011.

http://www.forei
gnaffairs.com/articles/67901/edward
-
alden
-
and
-
bryan
-
roberts/are
-
us
-
borders
-
secure


United States. Congressional Research Service.
Border Security: Key Agencies and Their
Missions
, Washington: CRS, 2011.
http://opencrs.com/document/RS21899/2010
-
01
-
26/


United States. Congressional Research Service.
Securing America's Borders: The Role of the
Intelligence Community
, Washington: CRS, 2010.
http://opencrs.com/document/R41520/2010
-
12
-
07/


United States. Congressional Research Service.
Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial
Vehicles and Border Surveillance,
Washington: CRS, 2008.
http://opencrs.com/document/RS21698/2008
-
05
-
13/


Willis, Predd, Davis and Brown.

Measuring the Effectiveness of Border Security Between
Ports
-
of
-
Entry
,


RAND Corporation, 2010.
http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR837.html


Videos:


Unattributable
Video:

Illegal Immigration


Clip 1


Border Crossing


Mexico


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KA9Iy0GFbsI


Unattributable
Video:

Illegal Aliens Sneaking into the US


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gVB3XMeW4vc&feature=related


6.

Improvised Explosive Device (IED) proliferation


a.

History of
use and effects

b.

Ease of manufacture

c.

Difficulty of defeat and detection


Readings:


United States. Congressional Research Service.
Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq and
Afghanistan
,
Washington: CRS, 2008.
http://opencrs.com/document/RS22330/2008
-
02
-
08/


Benmelech, Berrebi and Klor.
“Counter
-
Suicide
-
Terrorism
,”

RAND Corporation, 2010.
http://www.rand.org/pubs/ext
ernal_publications/EP201000171.html


United States. Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization.
JIEDDO 2010 Annual
Report
, Washington: JIEDDO, 2010.
https://www.jieddo.dod.mil/content/docs/JIEDDO_2010_Annual_Report_U.pdf


United States. Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization.
JIEDDO 2012
-
2015
Strategic Plan
, Washington: JIEDDO, 2012.
https://www.jieddo.mil/content/docs/20120116_JIEDDOC
-
IEDStrategicPlan_MEDprint.pdf


Optional
Videos:


Unattributable Video: “Children Playing Suicide Bomber Game” [Pakistan]

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g_xoyosKy3w


Unattributable
Video:

IED Emplacement Engagement


[Iraq]

http://www.youtube.com
/watch?v=I6g7llvKYIE&feature=related


Unattributable
Video:

Footage of Car Bomb Explosion in Juarez


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=alXnawbJZFY


Unattributable
Video:

Baghdad


Car Bomb Footage


10
-
26
-
2009


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=laAcKdMp
-
cw&feature=related


Unattributable
Video:

Suicide Bomber Detonates on Camera

[Kabul]

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gE7cW23ak6Q&feature=related


Unattributable
Video:

Suicide Bomber Blowing Herself Up in Russia’s Ingushetia


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wSHUBDtx
-
7Y&feature=related


7.

Mid
-
term examination
research papers due to be posted
by
the next week

on
the
course
Blackboard site
.


Students should read each other’s posted research papers as they become
available, and prepar
e to discuss them.


8.

Online c
lass discussion of mid
-
term examination research papers.


9.

Radiological/nuclear technology proliferation

a.

Radiological/nuclear principles

b.

Explosion and radiation effects

c.

History of use

d.

Difficulty of development

Readings:


“NBC Acq
uisition and Covert Delivery
.


America’s Achilles Heel
. Falkanrath, Newman and
Tha
yer eds. Cambridge: MIT Press. [Pages
97
-
159
.
]

United States. Congressional Research Service.
Securing Nuclear Materials: The 2010
Summit and Issues for Congress,

Washi
ngton: CRS, 2011.
http://opencrs.com/document/R41169/2011
-
04
-
27/

Haphuriwat, Bier and Willis.
“Deterring the Smuggling of Nuclear Weapons in Container
Freight Through Detection and Retaliation
,


RAND Corporation, 2010.
http://www.rand.org/pubs/external_publications/EP201100114.html

Videos:

CBS

Australia
,

84 Missing Russian Suitcase Nukes
, 1998.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kR2IarjjmxE

Inside Washington,

7 26 2006 Rep Dan Burton Interview with Rep Curt Weldon Regarding
Suitcase Nukes
, 2006.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OtcoEyEAxaA

10.

Chemical/biological weapon proliferation

a.

Chem/bio principles

b.

Effects

c.

History of use

d.

Difficulty of development

Readings:

United States. Congressional Research Service.
Small
-
scale Terrorist Attacks
Using Chemical
and Biological Agents: An Assessment Framework and Preliminary Comparisons
,
Washington: CRS, 2004. [Pages 1
-
52 only.]
http://opencrs.com/document/RL32391/2004
-
06
-
23/

United States. Congressional Research Service.
Safeguarding the Nation's Drinking Water:
EPA and Congressional Actions
,
Washington: CRS, 2010. [Pages 1
-
15 only.]
http://opencrs.com/document/
RL31294/2010
-
09
-
30/

Videos:


Unattributable
Video:

The Poor Man’s James Bond Strikes Again


[start
watching
at 43:53]

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=
-
6669351592755260685

II. EMERGING CHALLENGES:

11.

The changing face of al
-
Qa`ida

a.

Al
-
Qa`ida Core

b.

Al
-
Shabaab

c.

Al
-
Qa`ida in the Arabian Peninsula

d.

Al
-
Qa`ida in Iraq

e.

Al
-
Qa`ida in the Islamic Maghreb

f.

“Al
-
Qaeda After bin Laden”

and relations to the Arab Spring

Mueller and Mark.

“Hardly Existential: Thinking Rationally About Terrorism,”
Foreign Affairs
,
2 April 2010.
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/66186/john
-
mue
ller
-
and
-
mark
-
g
-
stewart/hardly
-
existential

Mudd
, Philip. “The Death of UBL: Threat Implications for the Homeland,” Combating
Terr
orism Center at West Point, 2011
.
http://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/the
-
death
-
of
-
usama
-
bin
-
ladin
-
threat
-
implications
-
for
-
the
-
u
-
s
-
homeland

Connable and Libicki.
“How Insurgencies End
,


RAND Corporation, 2010.

[
R
ead pages xi
-
xviii
and scan pages 27
-
125
.
]

http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG965.html

Video
s
:

Public Broadcasting Service,
Frontline: Fighting for Bin Laden
, 2011.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/fighting
-
for
-
bin
-
laden/

12.

Technology
Imp
lications

of the “Arab Spring”


a.

Origins of the various movements

b.

Casus belli of the movement

c.

Immediate outcomes

d.

Unexpected outcomes

Readings:

Wolman, David. “Faceboo
k, Twitter Help the Arab Spring Blossom,”

Wired
, 16 April 2013.

http://www.wired.com/magazine/2013/04/arabspring/

Norton, Quinn. “How Anonymous Picks Targets, Launches Attacks, and Takes Po
werful
Organizations Down,”
Wired
, 3 July 2012.

http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2012/07/ff_anonymous/all/

Alden and Roberts.
“Demystifying the Arab Spring
,


Foreign Affairs

July/August 2011.
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67901/edward
-
alden
-
and
-
bryan
-
roberts/are
-
us
-
borders
-
secure

Byman, Daniel. “Terrorism

After the Revolutions,”
Foreign Affairs

July/August 2011.
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67697/daniel
-
byman/terrorism
-
after
-
the
-
revolutions

S
pringborg, Robert. “Sisi’s Islamist Agenda for Egypt,”
Foreign Affairs
, 28 July 2013.
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139605/robert
-
spri
ngborg/sisis
-
islamist
-
agenda
-
for
-
egypt

Video
s
:

Public Broadcasting Service,
Frontline: Revolution in Cairo: How It Started
, 2011.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/p
ages/frontline/revolution
-
in
-
cairo/inside
-
april6
-
movement/

13.

Future u
ncertainty

a.

Debt crisis

b.

Technology competition

c.

Military power shift

Readings:

Schwartz, Peter.
The Art of the Long View
. New York: Doubleday, 1996.
[
Read chapters “
The
Scenario
-
Building
Animal” and “Rehearsing the Future.”
]

http://www.amazon.com/Art
-
Long
-
View
-
Planning
-
Uncertain/dp/0385267320/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=
1312216820&sr=8
-
1

United States. National Intelligence Council.
Global Tr
ends 2030
: A
lternative Worlds
,
Washington: US GPO, 2012
. [Read

pages

i
-
xiv
.
]


http://www.dni.gov/in
dex.php/about/organization/global
-
trends
-
2030

Bremmer and Roubini. “A G
-
Zero World,”
Foreign Affairs

March/April 2011.
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67339/ian
-
bremmer
-
and
-
nouriel
-
roubini/a
-
g
-
zero
-
world

14.

Final examination research paper assignment: 5
-
page paper answering one of five research
questions provided by the professor.
Send the paper directly to the profes
sor.
Papers will serve
as the bases of vide
o
-
presentations by each student. Video presentations
also
should

be posted
to the class forum
. Video presentations will be discussed by the class during the next

class
.


15.

S
tudent
online video
presentations; clas
sroom discussion
.