Tools for Decision-Making

plantcityorangeManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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4/10: Managing Knowledge & IS
Tools for Decision
-
Making


Knowledge Management


Office & document management systems


Knowledge work systems


Group collaboration systems, intranet knowledge
environments


Artificial intelligence: Expert Systems, Case
-
based reasoning


Neural networks, Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithms, Hybrid AI
systems, Intelligent agents


Enhancing Management Decision
-
Making


Decision Support Systems (DSS)


Group DSS


Executive Support Systems (ESS)

Knowledge Management


“ The process of systematically and actively
managing and leveraging the stores of
knowledge in an organization.”



An organization’s
knowledge base

may include:


Structured internal knowledge


External knowledge


Informal internal knowledge (tacit knowledge)

Information Work


“Work that primarily consists of creating or
processing information.”


Two types of workers:


Data workers: those who

process & disseminate


information & paperwork.


Knowledge workers: those

who
create

knowledge;

those who design products

& services.

Office & Document Management
Systems


3 basic functions of an office:


Managing & coordinating the work of data &
knowledge workers


Connecting the work of the local info workers with
the larger organization


Connecting the organization to the

external environment

Office Workers: Activities


Managing documents


Document creation, storage, retrieval, dissemination


Scheduling for individuals & groups


Communicating for individuals & groups


Voice,digital, & document
-
based communications


Managing data

Office Systems Help Office Workers


“Computer systems, such as word processing,
voice mail, and imaging that are designed to
increase productivity of office workers.”


Help with:


Document creation, dissemination, & retrieval


Collaboration


Scheduling


Etc.

Document Imaging Systems


Convert printed documents & images to digital
form for storage & access by computer.



Not
-
often
-
used documents can be stored on a
jukebox (optical disk system w/ multiple disks).



Alternative to DIS: Intranets


Workers publish documents to web
-
based form
directly

Knowledge Work Systems


“Information systems that aid knowledge
workers in the creation and integration of new
knowledge in the organization.”



3 key roles for knowledge workers:


Keeping the organization up to date with knowledge
in external world


Serving as internal consultants in their areas of
expertise


Acting as change agents to evaluate, initialize, &
promote change.

Requirements for KWS


Specialized tools needed for particular task


User
-
friendly interface


Access to external databases



Examples of KWS:


CAD


Virtual reality systems, VRML systems


Investment workstations

CAD: Computer
-
Aided Design


Automates creation & modification of designs
by using computers.

Virtual Reality, VRML Systems


Have visualization, rendering, and simulation
capabilities beyond conventional CAD.



VRML: Virtual Reality Markup Language


Virtual reality designed for the Web

Group Collaboration Systems


Groupware


“Software that provides functions and services that
support the collaborative activities of workgroups.”


Examples:


publishing: tracking multiple users’ edits to a document


replication: keeping identical data on multiple PCs


discussion tracking


security: preventing unauthorized access to data

Group Collaboration Systems


Intranet knowledge environments


An alternative to traditional groupware


Cheaper, easier to maintain for email, discussion
groups, multimedia Web documents



Which to choose?


Groupware: projects requiring extensive
coordination & management, editing on the fly,
tracking revisions, greater security


Intranet: simple tasks like sharing documents, email,
publishing documents, etc.

Artificial Intelligence


“The effort to develop computer
-
based systems that
behave like humans.” (inc. hardware & software)


AI systems are based on human expertise, knowledge,
and selected reasoning patterns, but
do not exhibit
human intelligence
.



Why would businesses want this science
-
fiction idea?


to preserve expertise that may be lost


to store information in an active form


to create a mechanism invulnerable to human feelings


to eliminate boring & unsatisfying jobs


to enhance an organization’s knowledge base by providing
interactivity.

Expert Systems


“Knowledge
-
intensive computer program that
captures the expertise of a human in limited
domains of knowledge.”


Narrow & brittle


Perform tasks that a professional could do in a
few minutes or hours.





Expert Systems: Parts


Knowledge base: model of human knowledge
used by ES.


Rule base: the part of the knowledge base that is
contained in IF/THEN structures.


Knowledge frames: organizes knowledge into
chunks of interrelated characteristics.


AI shell: programming environment of an ES.



Knowledge engineer: a systems analyst expert in
converting human knowledge into an ES.

Case
-
based reasoning


“Artificial intelligence technology that
represents knowledge as a database of cases and
solutions.”



Each new case is compared with existing cases
to suggest a solution. Each new case is added to
the database of cases upon arriving at a
satisfactory solution.



Other Intelligent Techniques


Neural networks


attempt to emulate the processing patterns of the
biological brain; have a general capacity to learn.


Fuzzy logic


rule
-
based AI that tolerates imprecision using
membership functions.


Genetic algorithms


Solution evolves through mutation, adaptation, and
natural selection out of possible answers.

Intelligent agents


“Software that uses a built
-
in or learned
knowledge base to carry out specific, repetitive,
and predictible tasks for the user, business
process, or other software application.”


Example uses:


wizards in MS Office


delete junk email


find cheapest airfare



search auctions for lowest price on item


Bots


http://www.mySimon.com


Enhancing Management Decision
-
Making


Decision Support Systems (DSS)


“Computer systems for management that combines
data, analytical tools, and models to support semi
-
structured and unstructured decision
-
making.



MIS are predefined management reports, etc., not
unstructured.

Two types of DSS


Model
-
driven DSS


“Primarily stand
-
alone system that uses a model to
perform “what
-
if” analysis.”


Data
-
driven DSS


“A system that allows users to extract & analyze
information in large databases.”

Data
-
driven DSS: Datamining


Associations: things linked to a single event.


Sequences: events linked over time.


Classification: patterns that describe a group,
inferring a set of rules.


Clustering: like classification, but no defined
group yet exists.


Forecasting: using a series of values to forecast
what other values may be.

Parts of a DSS


Database: all the data


historical and/or current from various applications.


Software system


Software tools used for analysis.


Examples inc.

web
-
based DSS

Examples of DSS


American Airlines: price & route selection


Frito
-
Lay: price, advertising, & promotion mix


Texas Oil & Gas: evaluation of drilling sites


General Accident Insurance: fraud detection

Group DSS


“An interactive computer
-
based system that
facilitates solutions to unstructured problems by
decision
-
makers working as a group.”


Parts:


Hardware: conference facility itself, PCs, overheads,
etc.


Software tools: electronic questionnaires,
brainstorming tools, voting tools, etc.


People

Executive Support Systems (ESS)


“Information systems for strategic
-
level
unstructured decision
-
making in an organization
through advanced graphics & communications.”



Drilling down: ability to move from summary
data to lower and lower levels of detail.

Benefits of ESS


Easy to use; little training needed.


Ability to analyze, compare, and highlight
trends.


Enhance quality of decision
-
making because of
drill
-
down capability