Theory into Practice

plantcityorangeManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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1

Knowledge Management
and E
-
Learning: Putting
Theory into Practice


OR

“Two Jays are Better Than
One”

Dr. Jay Liebowitz

Orkand Endowed Chair in Management and Technology

Graduate School of Management & Technology

University of Maryland University College

jliebowitz@umuc.edu

E
-
Learning Trends 2011

(KMS Blog;
Learning Circuits

Nov/Dec 2010
)


How does your company use e
-
learning?


IT (end user/desktop applications): 39.2%


Regulatory/compliance issues: 35.4%


Task
-
specific skills: 35.4%


Customer service training: 34.2%


Others (Sales force training; external
customers/clients; general business skills; product
updates and rollouts; etc.)


2

E
-
Learning Trends 2011

(KMS Blog;
Learning Circuits

Cont.
)


What concerns does your organization have
about using e
-
learning?


Cost to implement:



48.4%


Time commitment required:


45.3%


Technical competency required:

37.5%


Cost to maintain:



34.4%


Culture doesn’t support EL:


31.3%


Quality of the programs:


31.3%


Management/Employee buy
-
in:

29.7%


EL not perceived as real training:

26.6%


3

Gartner’s View on KM (Sept. 9, 2010)


“As KM program leaders determine their goals
for 2011, they should consider how the
emphasis has shifted away from just collecting
content and refocus on connecting people
with the content or people they need.”


“…KM leaders need to shift their focus to the
management and people
-
related issues that
contribute to successful implementation”

4

“How to Find Answers Within Your
Company”

(Benbya and van Alstyne, MIT Sloan Management Review, Winter 2011)


Infosys: 17,000 employee consulting and
information technology company in Bangalore


Internal knowledge market called “K
-
Shop”
(with virtual knowledge currency units)


MIT Center for IS Research showed that
companies with above
-
average information
reuse experienced 4% higher margins and 12%
higher revenue growth in 2009 than
companies with below
-
average reuse.

5

Your People Are Your Competitive
Advantage


Jim Goodnight, CEO of SAS:


“About 95% of my assets walk out the front door
every evening and my job is to bring them back
the next day” (F. Leistner (2010), Mastering
Organizational Knowledge Flow: How to Make
Knowledge Sharing Work, John Wiley)

6

KM and E
-
Learning

(Taylor and Francis, 2011)

7

KM and EL Journal

8

“The Research Core of the KM
Literature”

(Wallace et al., Int. Journal of Info. Mgt., Vol. 31, 2011)


Bibliometric analysis and a content analysis on
KM literature based on 21,596 references from
2,771 source publications


27.8% used no identifiable research methods


Of the remaining refereed articles:


60% employed mainstream social sciences research


40% used provisional methods as a substitute for
more formally defined or scientifically
-
based research
methodologies


9


Tapping into Social Networking:
Collaborating Enhances Both KM and EL”

(Kane et al., VINE, 2010)


Synergy exists between KM and EL through social
networking


T. Rowe Price uses a wiki
-
based collaborative KM
tool


Sun Microsystem’s collaborative learning
environment includes wiki
-
driven capabilities
with their LMS


Shell’s e
-
learning integrates KM (web
-
based
expertise dictionary, KS forums, and centers of
excellence)

10

“Sharing Tacit Knowledge Online: A Case Study
of E
-
Learning in Cisco’s Network of System
Integrator Partner Firms”

(Hildrum, Industry and Innovation Journal, 2009)


Main conclusion: Advanced e
-
learning
systems

particularly remote laboratories

make possible efficient sharing of tacit
knowledge between internationally dispersed
technicians


Cisco uses online networks of practice and
local communities of practice

11

Organizational Learning


The MASIE Center, an international think
-
tank,
spoke with 6100 employees in companies
around the world in 2008


Found that “when it comes to organizational
learning, traditional courses and on
-
the
-
job
training are increasingly being supplemented
with e
-
learning modules, online video, social
networks, and other informal methods”.

12

John Crane (Global Engineering)


Know
-
How e
-
learning platform


Support the established organization, but also
emerging markets in India, China, Africa, and
the former Soviet states


Need to rapidly transfer specialized
engineering knowledge across employee base


Develop and improve the training resources

13

E
-
Learning Advantages for Gov
(RWD/NTIS)


Shorten time to competency


Reduced costs of continuous learning


Synchronized communities of practice with
common business practices and shared
experience


Facilitated change management by way of
organizational readiness and adoption

14

Naysayers of KM & EL

(“At Cross Purposes: Why E
-
Learning and KM Don’t Get Along, Learning Light, 2005)


E
-
Learning grew out of HR and Training Depts


KM grew out of IT and Methods
-
Depts


KM set out to be strategic but has turned out to
be too fragmented and anecdotal


E
-
Learning set out to meet tactical needs but got
hijacked as a medium for strategic messages


Neither model appears to be as effective as it
could be


Engaged or divorced?

15

The Future is “e”

(Adrian Snook, KM Magazine; e
-
learningzone.co.uk)


“The objective of all organizations is not
simply to have knowledgeable employees, but
to have competent ones.”

16

“A KM Roadmap for E
-
Learning”

(Lytras et al., Int. Journal of D.E. Tech., 2005)


Standards


Learning Objects Marketplaces


Ubiquitous Learning


Evaluation of E
-
Learning


International Partnerships


New Services for Citizens


Open, Virtual, and Corporate Universities


Multimedia E
-
Learning Content Management


Semantic E
-
Learning Realization

17

IBM 2010 CHRO Study

18

19

Strategic Intelligence

“Drives Innovation”

STRATEGIC

INTELLIGENCE


KM

BI

CI

20

Strategic Intelligence

STRATEGIC

INTELLIGENCE


KM=

Knowledge
-
Enabled

(e.g., KR&T;

SN)

BI=

Learner
-
Enabled

(e.g.,E
-
Learning,
SN)

CI=

Community
-
Enabled
(External/

Competitor)

e.g., SN

21

Trends in Business


Intelligence As Related to

E
-
Learning

22

Corporate Workforce Development:

Growth of Online Learning


3.9 million students (20% of US students) took at least one
online course during Fall 2007 (Sloan, 2008).


12 million students now take some or all classes online
(Ambient Insight, 2009).


22 million online students estimated by 2014 (Ambient
Insight, 2009).


$69 billion online learning market estimated by 2015 (Hezel
Associates, 2005).


The Online Classroom

24

UMUC’s National Leadership Institute


Provides corporate leadership development training


Affiliated with the Center for Creative Leadership


Provides leadership training for academic programs


Executive MBA


Doctor of Management in Community College Administration


Focuses on improving leadership behavior in the
workplace

25

Benefits of Virtual Corporate Training


Greater flexibility for employee and company


Enhanced peer
-
to
-
peer interaction


More one
-
on
-
one interaction with instructor


Greater access to experts through technology


Expanded time period allowing for more individual
reflection

26

Future Corporate Training


Seamless transition between learning management
systems and new technologies


Incorporation of latest Web technologies


Blogs


Wikis


Social networking


E
-
book expansion/wider accessibility


Course content accessed from hand
-
held devices



UMUC Data Mining Project

($1.2 M Grant from Kresge Foundation)


To increase the likelihood that students
entering UMUC will successfully complete the
course(s) in their first term AND re
-
enroll for
the immediate next term.

o
Enhance the Success of Transfer
Students


27

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Strategic Intelligence

STRATEGIC

INTELLIGENCE


KM=

Knowledge
-
Enabled

(e.g., KR&T;

SN)

BI=

Learner
-
Enabled

(e.g.,E
-
Learning,
SN)

CI=

Community
-
Enabled
(External/

Competitor)

e.g., SN

Managing Knowledge in Knowledge Organizations
Survey

(Amar and Coakes, 2010)

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Our survey found that
contemporary organizations depend
extensively on knowledge

for their success in the
marketplace.


Knowledge and its management is
not just a concern of KM
professionals but of all employees.



This redefines the role of knowledge management for the
purpose of
organizing and managing the experiences of
employees.



Thus the KM function extends to
efficiently and
expeditiously creating, locating, capturing, refining, and
sharing knowledge.


In its new role,
KM becomes a task for each employee
, and
those tasked with managing organizational knowledge
become facilitators for this process.

30


Leaders Know How to Make the Most of
Knowledge Management”

(September 9, 2009, Credit Union Times)


Society of Human Resource Management
study (April 2009):


Organizations that optimize knowledge
management are leaders in their fields.


“While some firms may view knowledge
management as nice to have, proactive
organizations see it as a key component of an
effective business plan.”

31

Importance of Cross
-
Generational
Knowledge Flows


“Generational differences significantly impact
employee attitudes and outcomes in the
workplace. If firms are unable to modify their
cultures and work environments to
adequately meet the needs of their younger
generation employees, they will continue to
experience high levels of dissatisfaction and
turnover.”


Westerman, J. and J. Yamamura (2007), “Generational preferences for work

environment fit: effects on employee outcomes”, Career Development Int. Journal, 12(2),


Emerald.

32

Intergenerational Knowledge Transfer


Debby McNichols: Dissertation on “Tacit Knowledge:
An Examination of Intergenerational Knowledge
Transfer Within an Aerospace Engineering
Community” (2008)


Baby boomers would share knowledge with Gen Xers on
the condition that the younger engineers display an
attitude of respect and appreciation


Communication, trust, proximity, insecurity and
unwillingness to share knowledge


Possible solutions: mentoring, teamwork, technology,
management involvement

33

80% of Respondents Say they Have no Formal
Retention Strategy in Place but 38% Have a
Backup Expert in their Knowledge Area
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
Percentage of Respondents Answering Yes/No About Having a Backup Expert
Yes
No
Cader, M. and J. Liebowitz, KR Survey, 69 respondents from 42 organizations, Spr.2008.

34

i4cp KR Survey (426 organizations
responded)

January 2009


Over 77% of the organizations don’t have
an owner for KR initiatives

In terms of resources dedicated to knowledge
retention, your organization has:
68.14%
16.95%
9.15%
5.76%
No specific dedicated operating
budget(s) for KR initiatives
KR initiative expenses funded by
business units from their own budgets
A dedicated corporate
-
level budget that
incorporates the expenses of most
ongoing knowledge retention initiatives
Other
35

Tacit Knowledge

Flows

Intergenerational

Biases

Edge Organizations

Main Areas of Research

36

Summary of the Findings


Important as critical success factors for cross
-
generational knowledge flows:


»
Shared understanding

refers to having a mutual
conveyance and agreement of ideas that are shared
between two parties.

»
Reciprocity

refers to being willing to share one’s
knowledge because given a similar situation, the
knowledge recipient would share


37

Summary of the Findings (cont.)

»
Intrinsic worth of knowledge

refers to the value and merit of the
knowledge being conveyed. A subset of overlapping values to
reduce generational gaps is also important to lead to a common,
shared understanding.

»
Convenient knowledge transfer mechanisms

need to exist for
cross
-
generational knowledge flows so that “user adoption” will
be enhanced. These knowledge transfer mechanisms could be
either codified or personalized approaches to sharing
knowledge.

»
Interpersonal trust and respect

for each other will enhance
knowledge sharing as well.


Knowledge sharing was more likely to occur with individuals with
pro
-
social traits
--
that is, people concerned more about the group
collective goals versus individual agendas


38

Bedell, K., “Succession Planning: Generational Diversity,”
Talent Management Magazine.


Onboarding
: Take a cohort approach, connect their work, solicit their input,
and have fun.



Training
: Include Gen X and boomers with the Gen Y’ers in the training to
heighten generational diversity awareness.



Mentoring/Reverse Mentoring
: Match Gen Y’er with a boomer, and let Gen
Y’er be a “technology mentor”.



Coaching
: coach the team at the beginning and beyond.



Give them a seat at the table
: get the Gen Y’er involved so they can
contribute to the decision making process.



Passport Initiatives
: Let the Gen Y’er “travel” to different functional and
geographical areas within the company to bridge across the silos.


39

Strategic Intelligence

STRATEGIC

INTELLIGENCE


KM=

Knowledge
-
Enabled

(e.g., KR&T;

SN)

BI=

Learner
-
Enabled

(e.g.,E
-
Learning,
SN)

CI=

Community
-
Enabled
(External/

Competitor)

e.g., SN

40

“Learning Gets Social”

(T. Bingham, T&D, August 2009)


ASTD and i4cp conducted research on
informal learning:


98% of those surveyed say that informal learning
enhances employee performance


However, 36% dedicated no money to informal
learning and 78% dedicated 10 percent or less of
the training budget to it


Web 2.0 Study (ASTD/i4cp/Booz Allen): only a
small minority of companies are using Web 2.0
technologies in learning

41

Just 1 Blogging Platform Wordpress.com for
Month of June 2009 (kmgov list, 7/31/09)


388,580 blogs were created


5,845,417 posts were published


8,330,617 comments


2,153,176 active blogs


1,447,021,840 words

42

“Social Networking Gets Down to
Business” (KMWorld, June 2009)


Forrester (Forrester.com) predicts that social
networking will account for nearly half of the
$4.6 billion market it forecasts for Web 2.0
products by 2013

43

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The Informal Organization

(Katzenbach Partners, 2007)

“Yet, in most corporate settings, the informal organization is poorly
understood, poorly managed, and often disregarded as
inconsequential.”

45

5 Signs Your Informal Organization
is Alive and Well

[Katzenbach Partners, 2007]


The Word Gets Out Fast


“Change” Isn’t a Dirty Word


Collaboration is the Default Mode


Employees are Tapped In


Stories Demonstrate Values

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49

50

51

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53

K Area

Isolate

Transmitter

Receiver

Carrier

Context

329

133

190

46

Exp. Pr

361

126

171

40

General

378

118

162

42

Process

442

110

109

37

Relation

445

94

121

38

Strategic

396

113

151

38

Node Types by Area

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Concluding Comments


Techniques like SNA can provide added insights into
the grapevine effect and can facilitate innovation and
informal learning


Cross
-
generational knowledge flows and knowledge
retention & transfer will become increasingly
important to organizations


E
-
Learning will continue to play an important role for
stimulating learning and creativity


Knowledge management and e
-
learning have strong
synergies


These areas will add to the strategic intelligence of
the organization

56

Final Thought


Scott Anthony’s “The Silver Lining: An
Innovation Playbook for Uncertain Times”
(Harvard Business Press, 2009):


“The biggest silver lining for innovation is that the
scarcity that is sure to result from the current
economic climate is actually a
good
thing for
innovation.”

57

Thank you…



Any
questions?