The Nature of Learning

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Nov 6, 2013 (4 years and 4 days ago)

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Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

Management and Organisational Behaviour

7th Edition

CHAPTER 10

The Nature of Learning

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
2

Learning


Learning means change



Learning implies a different internal state that may
result in new behaviours & actions or new
understanding & knowledge



Learning can be undertaken within a formal setting or
be spontaneous or incremental



Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
3

Factors influencing the learning process

Figure 10.1

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
4

The significance of learning for psychologists

1.
Provides understanding of development &
deterioration and is at the very heart of demonstrating
the ways in which individuals differ


2.
Studies are dependent upon knowledge of memory &
intelligence


3.
It is a challenge to find new ways of studying invisible
processes and of accurately measuring changes to
behaviour

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
5

The significance of learning for managers

1.
Powerful processes which can lead to positive
outcomes, e.g. increased competence, understanding,
self esteem & morale


2.
Individuals who enjoy learning are more likely to be
flexible in times of constant change & therefore more
adaptable to organisational turbulence


3.
Growing evidence that a learning culture can affect an
organisation’s effectiveness

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
6

Knowledge management




The promotion & formalisation of learning within
the workplace with the aim of aligning training
with the needs of the business

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
7

Types of knowledge

Explicit knowledge



knowledge that is easily
communicated, quantified and systematic


Tacit knowledge



knowledge and wisdom that is not
easily communicated or quantified but is gained through
experience and communicated on an informal basis


Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
8

Types of knowledge

Knowledge
-
creating companies systematically ensure that
tacit & explicit knowledge feed into each other in a spiral of
knowledge


Tacit knowledge is converted into explicit knowledge by
articulation.


Explicit knowledge is used with an individual’s cognitive
understanding by a process of internalisation



Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
9

The importance of knowledge management


Business pressure on innovation


Inter
-
organisational enterprises


Networked organisations & the need to co
-
ordinate
geographically dispersed groups


Increasingly complex products & services with a
significant knowledge component


Hyper
-
competitive marketplaces


Digitisation of business environments


Concerns about the loss of knowledge due to
increasing staff mobility, attrition etc.


Kerr


Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
10

Knowledge management practices

The Business Processes Resource Centre at Warwick
University has distinguished four different types of
knowledge management practices





1.
Valuing knowledge

2.
Exploiting intellectual property

3.
Capturing project
-
based learning

4.
Managing knowledge workers



Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
11

Knowledge management initiatives

1.
Getting employees on board


2.
Allowing technology to dictate knowledge
management


3.
Not having a specific goal


4.
Knowledge management is not static


5.
Not all information is knowledge


Santosus & Surmacz

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
12

Knowledge management processes


Managing the generation of new knowledge through
learning



Capturing knowledge & experience



Sharing, collaborating, & communicating



Organising information for easy access



Using & building on what is known


Mayo


Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
13

The learning organisation




an organisation which facilitates the learning of all its
members and continuously transforms itself.




Pedler, Boydell & Burgoyne

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
14

Basic principles of a learning organisation

1.
It can learn as much, if not more, from failure as from
success

2.
Rejects the adage ‘if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it’ as it
constantly scrutinises the way things are done

3.
Assumes that managers and workers closest to the
design, manufacturing, distribution & sale of the
product often know more about these activities than
their superiors

4.
Seeks to move knowledge from one part of the
organisation to another

5.
Spends a lot of energy looking outside its own
boundaries for knowledge


Lampel

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
15

Learning experiences of different companies

Table 10.3

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
16

Difficulties with the learning organisation concept


Effective implementation of the learning
organisation concept requires the resolution of:


Meaning (or definition)


Management (or practical operational advice)


Measurement (tools for assessment)


Garvin

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
17

How people learn



Classical conditioning



Operant conditioning



Social learning


Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
18

Classical conditioning



Figure 10.2

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
19

Classical conditioning



Figure 10.2

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
20

Classical conditioning



Figure 10.2

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
21

Classical conditioning




Figure 10.2

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
22

Operant conditioning

Figure 10.3

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
23

Operant conditioning

Figure 10.3

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
24

Operant conditioning

Figure 10.3

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
25

Operant conditioning

Figure 10.3

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
26

Social learning



Drive Cue Response Reward

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
27

Kolb’s learning cycle

Figure 10.4

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
28

Components of the thinking environment



Attention


Incisive questions


Equality


Appreciation


Ease



Kline



Encouragement


Feelings


Information


Place


Diversity



Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
29

Action learning sets



Small groups of people who all wish to develop
themselves through tackling live issues



The sets provide opportunities for each
individual to report in turn on their actions and
reflect on the progress they have made

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
30

Learning styles


Accommodative



Divergent



Assimilative



Convergent


Honey & Mumford

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
31

Learning styles

Mayo

suggests that organisations need to recognise the
fact that people learn in different ways & that the following
actions should be taken:




Give people the opportunity to discover their most
natural learning style(s)


Offer learning opportunities that suit people with different
learning styles


Recognise the need to complete the full learning cycle


Help people to translate the learning cycle into an
upwards continuous spiral of learning

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
32

Creative thinking process


Creativity


the application of imaginative thought which
results in innovative solutions to many problems

Goodman



1.
Preparation

2.
Incubation

3.
Illumination

4.
Verification


Wallas

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
33

Blocks to personal creativity


Perceptual


Emotional


Process


Communication


Environmental


Cultural


Goodman

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
34

Coaching


Uses deductive techniques to increase an
individual’s ability & willingness in a specific
subject or problem area



Ideally the techniques are used in a structured
way



The coach does not have to be an expert in the
subject

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
35

Mentoring


Uses a mixture of inductive & deductive
techniques to increase an individual’s ability in a
specific subject



Ideally a structured programme is used



The mentor must be an expert in the subject

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
36

The GROW model



G
oals


what does the coachee want to achieve, how do
they want to feel afterwards?


R
eality


what is the scenario, what is the context, what
are the problems?


O
ptions


what are the possible actions, which are most
attractive, what has worked in the past?


W
rap up


what actions are needed, what does success
look like, what if things get in the way?


Starr

Mullins:
Management and Organisational Behaviour,

7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 10.
37

Applying theories of learning to organisations


1.
Self development


learning what to do, how to
be, learning the ropes

2.
Development of others


personal
development, development of planned learning
events

3.
Development of learning culture


policy
development