Notes for DSS

plantcityorangeManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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1

Knowledge Management
Notes for DSS

SOM 485

September 2007

Abe Feinberg

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KM USES


Decision Making


Planning/Strategies


Innovation


Design


Competition


Product/Process Design


Customer Relations


Education

3

Dalkir Chapter 1

Introduction


Organization in the knowledge age learns,
remembers and acts.


KM initially defined as the process of
applying a systematic approach to the
capture, structure, management and
dissemination of knowledge throughout
the organization for spped, reuse best
practices and reduce costly rework.


Add value through reuse and innovation

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Dalkir Chapter 1 Introduction

Some KM Objectives, etc.


Smooth Transitions and Minimization of K loss
for Quits, Transfers and Retirements


Identify critical resources and K areas


Build up a toolkit of methods to stem k losses


Interdisciplinary Nature of KM


Tacit vs. Explicit K


Levels of Intellectual Capital: Strategic
-
Tactical
-
Operational


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Dalkir Chapter 1 Introduction

Why KM is Important


Globalization of business


Leaner Organizations


Corporate Amnesia


Technological Advances


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Dalkir Chapter 2 KM Cycle


6 views of the cycle


Wiig: Create, Source, Compile, Transform,
Disseminate, Apply, and Realize Value (Build,
Hold, Pool, Apply)


Bukowitz and Williams: Get, Use, Learn,
Contribute, Assess, Build/Sustain and DIVEST


Meyer and Zack: Acquire, Refine, Store,
Distribute and Present


Strategic Implication: Retain and Share K

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Dalkir Chapter 4

Knowledge Capture & Codification


Known
-
Unknown Matrix: Danger is in the Lower
Right Corner “Don’t Know that we Don’t Know”


Capturing Tacit Knowledge: interviews, surveys,
questionnaires, observation, or simulation.


Storytelling; IBM and Xerox


Templates: Learning History p.92 and K
Acquisition Session p, 95


Decision Trees: see p. 99


Key point is that the more tacit K is, the more
valuable it is

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Dalkir Ch. 5

K sharing and CoP’s


K Sharing follows Acquisition and Codification


Social Network Analysis (SNA) is used to
identify connections with direction and volumes
p. 117 Fig. 5
-
3


CoP Types include: Member to Member
Content, Member to Member Interaction, Events
and Outreach p.125


CoP Roles include: visitors, novices, regulars,
leaders and elders

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Dalkir Ch. 5

K sharing and CoP’s


Best Practices begin with a good idea, then
good practice, then local best practice and finally
industry best practice or benchmark


K Sharing increases Human Capital


Sharing benefits include: standardization,
avoiding mistakes, leveraging best practices,
reducing time to achievement, building
reputation, and improving strategic capabilities

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Hislop Ch. 4

Motivating Knowledge Sharing



Conflict


Status


Equity Fairness


Trust


Organizational Commitment/Culture


Reward/ Recognition


Visibility to Top Management

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Hislop Ch. 5

Communities of Practice


Objective


Focus of efforts


Membership


Governance


______


External system


Time Frame


Internally Negotiated


Collective Practice/K


Voluntary


Consensually
Negotiated


Self Managed


Indefinite

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Hislop Ch. 6

Intercommunity K Processes


Limits include Cultural Differences


Systems of Measure: English vs. Metric


Trust and Social Relations


Private vs. Public Sector (CPM vs. PERT)


Inter
-
organizational Relations are Key


Link at the Top is Critical for Success

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Hislop Ch.7

Power, Conflict and K Processes


Conflict, Power and Politics; p. 91
Weberian
-
based


Traditional

(automatic)


Affective

(emotion shaped)


Value Rational (action oriented to values)


Calculative

(Instrumental rationality)

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Hislop Ch.7
-
Power


Power properties of Knowledge


Scarcity


Satisfy wants/needs


Shortage of alternatives



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Hislop Ch.7

Power Resources


Physical


Economic


Administrative K


Technical K


Normative (Individual Beliefs and Values)


16

Coakes Primer


What is Knowledge?


Acquaintance with facts, truths or principles


Familiarity or conversance with a topic


State of knowing/perception


Body of facts and truths accumulated over
time


enlightenment

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Coakes Primer 2


Web of Relationships View


Explicit vs Tacit Knowledge


Explicit: documented, archived or codified


Tacit: application of multiple intelligences


Start with web of social and cultural relations
within the organization

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Coakes Primer 3


What is the KM Payoff?


Faster decisions, improved efficiency and
effectiveness, develop innovative products
and services, and ultimately improve the
organization’s revenues and profit


Improve the organization’s longevity and
chance of survival

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Coakes Primer 4


Successes


Sieloff on p. 419 cites HP Success: with key of
encouraging innovation and sharing of
knowledge throughout the company


Newell et al. cite linkage of KM and ERP
systems that were simultaneously deployed, the
key was complementarity of the two systems


Pfeffer et al. p. 421 state that KM works best
when K generators also store, explain, and
coach others through implementation

20

Coakes Primer 5

Failures


Venture Capital Startups


Management is Critical


Chance of Success is Critical Too


Need Specific Objectives, Focus on Strategic
Priorities, and Top Management Involvement


Personal Experiences


Digital Audio


Decision Analysis Software


Cell Life Extension


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Coakes Primer 6

6 Traits of Successful CoP’s (p. 423)


Clear business value proposition


Dedicated Skilled Leader


Coherent, Comprehensive K
-
Map for Core


Easy
-
to Follow K sharing


Appropriate Technology to Facilitate
Sharing


Communication and Training Plans for
those Outside of the CoP

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Coakes Primer 6

4 More Traits of Successful CoP’s (p. 423)


Update, Dynamic Roster of CoP Members


Key Metrics of Success to Show Results


Recognition Plan for Participants


Agenda of topics for Early Months of
Existence

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Coakes Primer 7

K Culture (Chait article p. 431)


Valuing Knowledge and Placing it at the
Customer’s Disposal


Democratizing Knowledge by De
-
linking it
from Individuals


Valuing Diversity by recognizing no age,
experience, race or gender hegemony


Accepting a new role for Management


Focusing on the knowledge grid (see p. 79
in Dalkir)

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KM Tools Dalkir Chapter 8

Technology Classifications (Rollet)


Communication


Content Creation


Adaptation


Personal Tools


Networking


Collaboration


Content Management


E
-
Learning


Artificial Intelligence

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KM Tools Dalkir Chapter 8

Major Tools & Technologies p. 220


K Creation and Capture


K Sharing and Dissemination


K Acquisition and Application


Content Management


Networking Technologies


Artificial Intelligence Technologies

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KM Tools Dalkir Chapter 8

More Tools


Data Mining


Blogs


Groupware and Collaboration


Wikis


Networking


Filtering (p. 237)


Adaptive Techologies


Mercedes Benz assistance Center p.242

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KM Tools Hislop Chapter 8

Info. & Comm. Techs. (ICT’s)


ICT Applications


Search


Search


Create



e.g., CAD


Utilize



Decision Support Systems


Share



Intrranets, e
-
mail


Integrate


Groupware

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KM Tools Hislop Chapter 8

Concerns re; Objectivist View


Codification of Tacit Knowledge


Are Tacit and Explicit K Inseparable


Fragmentation of the Organization


Contect dependence of K


Ability to Collect K Centrally

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KM Tools Hislop Chapter 8 p. 113
Communications Media Characteristics


Face
-
to
-
Face Interaction


Video Conferencing Plus File Sharing


Telephone


E
-
Mail

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References


Coakes,Elayne, “Knowledge Management
-
A
Primer,” Communications of the Association for
Information Systems, Vol. 4, 2004, pp. 406
-
489.


Dalkir,

Kimiz, (2005),
Knowledge Management
in Theory and in Practice,
Elsevier
Butterworth Heinemann, ISBN 0
-
7506
-
7864
-
X.



Hislop, Donald, (2005),
Knowledge
Management in Organizations
-

A Critical
Introduction
, First Edition, Oxford University
Press, ISBN 0
-
19
-
926206
-
3.