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Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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1

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2005 by Prentice Hall

Managing Knowledge in

the Digital Firm

Chapter 11

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

11.
2

©

2005 by Prentice Hall

Objectives

1.
What is knowledge management? Why do
businesses today need knowledge management
programs and systems for knowledge
management?


2.
What types of systems are used for enterprise
-
wide knowledge management? How do they
provide value for organizations?


3.
How do knowledge work systems provide value
for firms? What are the major types of
knowledge work systems?

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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2005 by Prentice Hall

4.
What are the business benefits of using
intelligent techniques for knowledge
management?


5.
What major management issues and problems
are raised by knowledge management systems?
How can firms obtain value from their
investments in knowledge management
systems?


Objectives

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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2005 by Prentice Hall

1.
Designing knowledge systems that genuinely
enhance organizational performance


2.
Identifying and implementing appropriate
organizational applications for artificial
intelligence



Management Challenges

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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2005 by Prentice Hall


Knowledge



Wisdom



Tacit knowledge



Explicit knowledge

Important Dimensions of Knowledge

The Knowledge Management Landscape

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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2005 by Prentice Hall











U.S enterprise knowledge management software revenues, 2001
-
2006

The Knowledge Management Landscape

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Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Knowledge:


Is a firm asset


Has different forms


Has a location


Is situational


Important Dimensions of Knowledge

The Knowledge Management Landscape

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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2005 by Prentice Hall


Organizational learning:

Creation of new
standard operating procedures and business
processes reflecting experience



Knowledge management:

Set of processes
developed in an organization to create,
gather, store, disseminate, and apply
knowledge

Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management

The Knowledge Management Landscape

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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The knowledge management value chain

The Knowledge Management Landscape

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Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Knowledge acquisition



Knowledge storage



Knowledge dissemination



Knowledge application

The Knowledge Management Value Chain

The Knowledge Management Landscape

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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2005 by Prentice Hall


Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO):
Senior
executive in charge of the organization's
knowledge management program



Communities of Practice (COP):
Informal
groups who may live or work in different
locations but share a common profession

The Knowledge Management Value Chain

The Knowledge Management Landscape

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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2005 by Prentice Hall


Enterprise Knowledge Management Systems:
General purpose, integrated, and firm
-
wide
systems to collect, store and disseminate digital
content and knowledge



Knowledge Work Systems (KWS):
Information
systems that aid knowledge workers in the
creation and integration of new knowledge in the
organization



Intelligent Techniques:
Datamining and artificial
intelligence technologies used for discovering,
codifying, storing, and extending knowledge

Types of Knowledge Management Systems

Types of Knowledge Management Systems

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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2005 by Prentice Hall












Major types of knowledge management systems

Types of Knowledge Management Systems

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Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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2005 by Prentice Hall


Structured knowledge



Semistructured knowledge



Knowledge repository



Knowledge network



Structured Knowledge Systems

Enterprise
-
Wide Knowledge Management Systems

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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2005 by Prentice Hall












Enterprise
-
wide knowledge management systems

Enterprise
-
Wide Knowledge Management Systems

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Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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KWorld’s knowledge domain

Enterprise
-
Wide Knowledge Management Systems

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Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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KPMG knowledge system processes

Enterprise
-
Wide Knowledge Management Systems

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DaimlerChrysler Learns to Manage

Its Digital Assets



What are the management benefits of using
a digital asset management system?



How does ADAM provide value for
DaimlerChrysler?

Window on Technology

Enterprise
-
Wide Knowledge Management Systems

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Taxonomy:

Method of classifying things
according to a predetermined system



Tagging:

Once a knowledge taxonomy is
produced, documents are tagged with
proper classification

Organizing Knowledge: Taxonomies and Tagging

Enterprise
-
Wide Knowledge Management Systems

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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2005 by Prentice Hall








Hummingbird’s integrated knowledge management system

Enterprise
-
Wide Knowledge Management Systems

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Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Key Functions of an Enterprise
Knowledge Network




Knowledge exchange services



Community of practice support



Auto
-
Profiling Capabilities



Knowledge management services



Knowledge Networks

Enterprise
-
Wide Knowledge Management Systems

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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The problem of distributed knowledge

Enterprise
-
Wide Knowledge Management Systems

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Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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AskMe Enterprise knowledge network system

Enterprise
-
Wide Knowledge Management Systems

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Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Teamware:

Group collaboration software
running on intranets that is customized for
teamwork


Portals, Collaboration Tools, and Learning Management Systems

Enterprise
-
Wide Knowledge Management Systems

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Learning Management Systems (LMS):

Tools for the management, delivery,
tracking, and assessment of various types
of employee learning


Portals, Collaboration Tools, and Learning Management Systems

Enterprise
-
Wide Knowledge Management Systems

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

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Managing Employee Learning: New
Tools, New Benefits



What are the management benefits of using
learning management systems?



How do they provide value to Alyeska and
APL


Window on Management

Enterprise
-
Wide Knowledge Management Systems

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Knowledge workers perform 3 key roles:



Keeping the organization current in
knowledge as it develops in the external
world



Serving as integral consultants regarding
the areas of their knowledge, the changes
taking place, and opportunities



Acting as change agents


Knowledge Workers and Knowledge Work

Knowledge Work Systems

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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2005 by Prentice Hall








Requirements of knowledge work systems

Knowledge Work Systems

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Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Computer
-
aided design (CAD)



Virtual reality systems



Virtual Reality Modeling Language
(VRML)



Investment workstations

Examples of Knowledge Work Systems

Knowledge Work Systems

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Knowledge Base:

Model of human
knowledge



Rule
-
based Expert System:

Collection in
an AI system represented in the the form of
IF
-
THEN


Capturing Knowledge: Expert Systems

Intelligent Techniques

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

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AI shell:

programming environment



Inference Engine:

strategy used to search
through the rule base



Forward Chaining:

strategy for searching
the rules base that begins with the
information entered by user and searches
the rule base to arrive at a conclusion


Capturing Knowledge: Expert Systems

Intelligent Techniques

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Rules in an AI program

Intelligent Techniques

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Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Inference engines in expert systems

Intelligent Techniques

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Backward Chaining:

Strategy for
searching the rule base in an expert
system that acts as a problem solver



Knowledge Engineer:

Specialist who
elicits information and expertise from other
professionals and translates it into set of
rules for an expert system

Capturing Knowledge: Expert Systems

Intelligent Techniques

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Galeria Kaufhof



Countrywide Funding Corp.

Examples of Successful Expert Systems

Intelligent Techniques

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

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Case
-
based Reasoning (CBR):
Artificial intelligence technology that
represents knowledge as a database of
cases and solutions

Organizational Intelligence: Case
-
Based Reasoning

Intelligent Techniques

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

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How case
-
based reasoning works

Intelligent Techniques

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Rule
-
based AI



Tolerates imprecision



Uses nonspecific terms called membership
functions to solve problems

Fuzzy Logic Systems

Fuzzy Logic Systems

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Implementing fuzzy logic rules in hardware

Fuzzy Logic Systems

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Hardware or software emulating processing
patterns of biological brain



Put intelligence into hardware in form of a
generalized capability to learn

Neural Networks

Neural Networks

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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How a neural network works

Neural Networks

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Problem
-
solving methods



Promote evolution of solutions to specified
problems



Use a model of living organisms adapting
to their environment

Genetic Algorithms

Genetic Algorithms

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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The components of a genetic algorithm

Genetic Algorithms

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Integration of multiple AI technologies into
a single application



Takes advantage of best features of
technologies

Hybrid AI Systems

Genetic Algorithms

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Software program that uses built
-
in or
learned knowledge base to carry out
specific, repetitive, and predictable tasks
for an individual user, business process, or
software application

Intelligent Agents

Intelligent Agents

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Intelligent agent technology at work

Intelligent Agents

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Insufficient resources available to structure
and update the content in repositories



Poor quality and high variability of content
quality because of insufficient mechanisms



Content in repositories lacks context,
making documents difficult to understand

Implementation Challenges

Management Issues for Knowledge Management Systems

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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2005 by Prentice Hall


Individual employees not rewarded for
contributing content, and many fear sharing
knowledge with others on the job



Search engines return too much
information, reflecting lack of knowledge
structure or taxonomy

Implementation Challenges

Management Issues for Knowledge Management Systems

Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Implementing knowledge management projects in stages

Management Issues for Knowledge Management Systems

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1.
Develop in stages


2.
Choose a high
-
value business process


3.
Choose the right audience


4.
Measure ROI during initial implementation


5.
Use the preliminary ROI to project enterprise
-
wide values

Obtaining Value from Knowledge Management Systems

Obtaining Value from Knowledge Management Systems

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Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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1.
Analyze P&G’s business strategy using the
value chain and competitive forces models.


2.
What business and technology conditions
caused P&G to change its business
strategy? What management, organization,
and technology problems did P&G face?

Can Knowledge Systems Help Procter & Gamble Stay Ahead of the Pack?

Chapter 11 Case Study

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Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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3.
What is the role of knowledge management in
supporting P&G’s business strategy? Explain how
knowledge management systems help P&G
execute its business strategy.


4.
How successful has P&G been in pursuing its
business strategy and using knowledge
management? How successful do you think that
strategy will be in the future? Explain your
answer.

Can Knowledge Systems Help Procter & Gamble Stay Ahead of the Pack?

Chapter 11 Case Study