Knowledge Management: On the Road to Nirvana - STC India

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Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Knowledge Management: On the Road to
Nirvana

Saurabh Kudesia

Manager, Technical Documentation

Tejas Networks Ltd. Bangalore

saurabhkudesia@gmail.com

Presented at the STC India 12
th

Annual Conference, November 11, 12, and 13, 2010, New Delhi

About the Speaker: Saurabh Kudesia


Manager, Technical Documentation at
Tejas Networks Bangalore


Co
-
founder, former editor
-
in
-
chief,
KnowGenesis International Journal for
Technical Communication

(IJTC)


Former associate editor of
Directives,

a
newsletter published by the (STC)
Management SIG


Bachelor of Electronics and a Certified
Scrum Master (CSM)


Alumnus of Symbiosis Institute (Pune) and
IIM (Bangalore)

In this session


Popular Myths and Realities of Knowledge
Management (KM)


The Essence of Knowledge Management


Knowledge flow and KM framework


Understanding KM Models and Value Chain


Why KM Systems Fail?


Approaches to KM


Some exercises


Summary

Exercise: Myths or Realities?


Knowledge can be shared.


Knowledge can be transferred.


Knowledge Management is a new phenomenon.


Knowledge Management is about technology.


KM is ‘One size fits all’ mantra.


Knowledge Management = data warehousing.


People do not like to share their knowledge.


Knowledge sharing is difficult in organization.


Knowledge management dramatically affects the bottom line.


Knowledge management must be implemented on an
enterprise basis.


Knowledge management needs a chief knowledge officer.

Understanding Knowledge


a systemic and organizationally specified process for acquiring, organizing,
and communicating both tacit and explicit knowledge of employees so
that other employees may make use of it to be more effective and
productive in their work. (Alavi and Leidner, 1999)



fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert
insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new
experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the minds of
knowers. In organizations, it often becomes embedded not only in
documents or repositories, but also in organization routines, processes,
and norms. (Davenport and Prusak, 2000)



the formalization of and access to experience, knowledge and expertise
that create new capabilities, enable superior performance, encourage
innovation and enhance customer value. (Beckman, 1999)


Phases of Knowledge Creation


Not a linear process.


Each phase influences previous phases.


Each phase is influenced by the
task

at hand, the
objective

or
purpose
, the
context

in which this task is to be performed and
the
context

in which the required signals could be
perceived

perceiving

interpreting

understanding

justifying

Impression

Interpretation

Conviction

Knowledge

Knowledge Transfer


Knowledge sharer creates signals.


Receiver has to complete all the phases of knowledge creation


Knowledge created by the receiver need not be same as original
knowledge of sender.


Knowledge can be shared, but not transferred.


Signals

Receiver

Sharer

perceiving

interpreting

understanding

justifying

Impression

Interpretation

Conviction

Knowledge

Unless converted, knowledge has no value

Knowledge

Knowledge

Derivative

Labor


Knowledge in itself has no value.


Knowledge resides within a human being, and it cannot be
detached.


This human being can produce knowledge derivates.


These knowledge derivates could have value when they can be
combined with Labor.


We can sell/trade the knowledge derivates.


We can sell signals, but we cannot sell the knowledge from
which these signals originate.


Therefore, knowledge production is not a linear process.

Value

Simple Knowledge Flow

Capture

Organize

Distribute

Develop

Use Knowledge

Create Knowledge

Manage Knowledge

Resource

Process View of Knowledge Management

Store

Acquire

Deploy

Add Value

Manage Knowledge

Define the Resource

Create the Resource

Manage the Resource

Resource
-
based Customer Services

Create

Knowledge

Use

Knowledge

Develop
Knowledge

Distribute
Knowledge

Capture
Knowledge

Organize
Knowledge

Major Knowledge Management Systems

Enterprise Wide KM Systems

Knowledge Work Systems

Intelligent Techniques

General Purpose,
integrated, firm
-
wide
efforts to collect, store,
disseminate, and use
digital content and
knowledge

Specialized workstation
and systems that enable
other knowledge workers
to create and discover
new knowledge

Tools for discovering
patterns and applying
knowledge to discrete
decisions and knowledge
domains


Structured knowledge
systems


Semi
-
structured
knowledge systems


Knowledge network
systems


Computer
-
aided design
(CAD)


3D Visualization


Virtual Reality


Investment workstations


Data mining


Neural networks


Expert systems


Case
-
based reasoning


Fuzzy logic


Genetic algorithms


Intelligent agents


Increasing intelligence axis

Goals of KM


Manage and Locate crucial information


Capture competitive advantages


Avoid costs and consequences of relearning lessons


Focus on long term than short term


Stimulate knowledge growth and creation


Recognize and reward knowledge reuse

Knowledge Management Models


Models provide a way of translating managerial activities and guiding
managerial efforts in managing knowledge in the organizations.


KM models have evolved over time


Models


Boisot’s Knowledge Category Models


Nonaka’s Knowledge Management Model


Hedlund and Nonaka’s Knowledge Management Model


Skandia Intellectual Capital Model of Knowledge Management


Demerest’s Knowledge Management Model


Frid’s Knowledge Management Model


Stankosky and Baldanza’s Knowledge Management Framework


Kogut and Zander’s Knowledge Management Model


A constant shift from categorical view to the more complicated and
complex mechanistic and socially constructed perspective.


Centralized & Distributed Knowledge Models


Centralized Organizational Model:
Knowledge is
continuously negotiated and created within an
organizational unit.



Distributed Organizational Model:
Knowledge is
continuously managed within organizational units, and it
is continuously negotiated by people who try to
understand how other units look like from different
interpretation schemas.



Exercise


Brainstorm on how can you build a Knowledge Management
System for Developing, Capturing, Organizing, and Distributing
knowledge within your team (Technical Publications
Department)


Sit with your own team members if possible.


You have got 5 minutes for the exercise.


Let’s hear to two groups and their ideas after that. Please also
mention the challenges that you foresee.


List any work that you have already done, which you think will
be useful to you in developing a KM System.


Why KM Systems Fail


Focus on only one requirement


Thinking of technology first than the users.


Uncomfortable ‘IT experience’


Lack of support from Management


People are afraid of losing “competitive advantage”


Representations of knowledge does not satisfy the needs and
the interpretation schemas of users.


The existing KM models tend to narrowly define knowledge
from conceptual and perceptual perspectives and fail to
recognize affectual knowledge such as values and visions.


Most models view KM as a linear or cyclical process and thus
fail to identify the multidimensional nature of the knowledge
dynamics between individuals and organizations.




Strategic Design Perspective


Political Perspective


Cultural Perspective

Supporting Framework Various Perspectives

Supporting Framework: Strategic Design
Perspective


What are the strategic grouping structures in the
organization/team?


What are the principal linking mechanisms?


What are the major alignment challenges, and how are they
addressed?


What are the major strengths and weaknesses of the
organization design?



How much power to the organization/team has in the
situation?


What are the bases of the power?


What is the potential effect of the proposed system on the
different stakeholders influence in the organization?


What are the resistances?


What are the effects of the resistances on the success or
failure of the initiative?

Supporting Framework: Political Perspective


How is the initiative been portrayed to the organization? How
do people “see” it? How do they define it?


How is the initiative related to the values and basic
assumptions of the organization? Does it reinforce them or
challenge them?


Are there any “ceremonies” or rituals involved in introducing
the initiative? How are they interpreted?


What type of language is used in discussing the initiative?
Does it vary, depending on who is speaking, or on who is
listening?

Supporting Framework: Cultural Perspective

IT Infrastructure

The Balancing Act

Culture





Knowledge

Architecture

Supporting

Services

-

Balance corporate and local goals

-

Facilitate communities of practice

-

Create reward and recognition

-

Recognize ownership

-

Enable sharing and reuse

KM

-

Capture content

-

Provide content

-

Require interoperability

-

Maintain directories

-

Develop and gather repositories

-

Categorize and codify knowledge
resources

-

Specify access methods

-

Create building blocks

-

Adopt standards

-

Sustain service bases

-

Deliver training

-

Mainstream services

-

Create strategic tools

-

Form partnerships

Two guiding principles

Principle of Autonomy


each organizational unit
should be granted a high degree of autonomy to
manage its local knowledge and its interpretation
schema


Principle of Coordination


each organizational unit
must be enabled to exchange knowledge with
others not through the adoption of a single,
common interpretation schema.

Summary


Important variables which determine success or failure of KM
systems:


organizational model


technological architecture


Three main areas of KM: processes, systems and data


People are the key. Recognize people and reward people for
sharing knowledge


Encourage and support communities of practice


Strike a balance between long
-
term corporate needs (capturing
knowledge) with short
-
term local needs (completing a task
quickly)


Suggested Readings


Websites:


Sun's knowledge network enhances its selling skills.
http://www.kmtalk.net/article.php?story=20050412032755660


Dow chemical capitalizes on intellectual assets
http://www.kmtalk.net/article.php?story=20050412033035404



Knowledge Management at The MITRE Corporation
http://www.mitre.org/work/tech_papers/tech_papers_03/maybury_knowledge/KM_MITRE.pdf



Additional Readings:


Nonaka, I. And Takeuchi, H (1995). The Knowledge
-
Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create
the Dynamics of Innovation. Oxford University Press.


Haslinda, Sarinah (2009) A Review of Knowledge Management Models, The Journal of International
Social Research, Volume 2 / 9.


Saurabh Kudesia (Oct 2009). From Electronics Landfills to Information Superhighway: Enhancing
Document Management Framework at Tejas Networks. Dr. Vijay Kumar Festschrift ‘Serving Knowledge
in the 21st Century; published by Knowledge Management Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center,
Mumbai.


Thomas Stewart (1997). Intellectual Capital, The New Wealth of Organizations. Doubleday/Currency.


Melissie Clemmons Rumizen (2002). The Complete Idiot’s Guide To Knowledge Management. John A.
Woods, CWL Publishing Enterprises.


Harvard Business Review on Measuring Corporate Performance, 1998, Harvard Business Review.


Cisco Systems, Inc.: Implementing ERP. Harvard Business School case 699
-
022


Buckman Laboratories (A). Harvard Business School case 800
-
160

Question Answers?

Thank You!


For additional information, contact:

Saurabh Kudesia

saurabhkudesia@gmail.com