Knowledge Based Information Systems - suzhou

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Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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1

Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


KNOWLEDGE
-
BASED
INFORMATION
SYSTEMS

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2

Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems



Why do businesses today need knowledge
management programs and systems for
knowledge management?



Which information system applications
are most useful for distributing, creating,
and sharing knowledge in the firm?


continued

OBJECTIVES

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems



What are the business benefits of using
artificial intelligence technology for
knowledge management?



How can businesses use expert systems
and case
-
based reasoning to capture
knowledge?



How can organizations benefit from using
neural networks and other intelligent
techniques?

OBJECTIVES (continued)

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


HILL AND KNOWLTON CANADA LIMITED

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


1.
Designing knowledge systems that
genuinely enhance organizational
performance


2.
Identifying and implementing appropriate
organizational applications for artificial
intelligence

MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems



Knowledge Assets


Organizational knowledge regarding how
to efficiently and effectively perform
business processes and create new
products and services that enable the
business to create value

14.1 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION

Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Organizational Learning


Creation of new standard operating
procedures and business processes
reflecting experience


Knowledge Management


Set of processes developed to create,
gather, store, maintain, and apply the
firm’s knowledge

14.1 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION

Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO)


Senior executive in charge of
organization’s knowledge management
program

Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management

14.1 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Tacit Knowledge


Expertise and experience not formally
documented


Best Practices


Successful solutions or problem
-
solving
methods developed by specific
organization or industry

Systems and Infrastructure for Knowledge Management

14.1 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Organizational Memory


Stored learning from organization’s
history


Used for decision making and other
purposes

Systems and Infrastructure for Knowledge Management

14.1 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Systems and Infrastructure for Knowledge Management

14.1 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Information Work


Consists of creating or processing information

Data Workers


Personnel, such as secretaries, who process and
disseminate the organization’s information and
paperwork

Knowledge Workers


Professionals, such as engineers, who design
products or services, or create knowledge

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Office Systems



Manage and coordinate work of data and
knowledge workers



Connect work of local information workers
with all levels and functions of organization



Connect organization to external world



Example: Word processing, voice mail, and
imaging

Distributing Knowledge: Office and Document Management Systems

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Distributing Knowledge: Office and Document Management Systems

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Distributing Knowledge: Office and Document Management Systems

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Document Imaging Systems



Convert documents and images into
digital form


Can be stored and accessed by the
computer


Knowledge Repository


Documented knowledge in a single
location

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

Distributing Knowledge: Office and Document Management Systems

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

Distributing Knowledge: Office and Document Management Systems

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

Distributing Knowledge: Office and Document Management Systems

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Knowledge Work Systems (KWS)


Aid knowledge workers in creation and
integration of new knowledge



Specialized tools for specific types of
knowledge work




User
-
friendly interface


Creating Knowledge: Knowledge Work Systems

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Creating Knowledge: Knowledge Work Systems

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Creating Knowledge: Knowledge Work Systems

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Examples of Knowledge Work Systems


Computer
-
aided design (CAD)



Virtual reality systems



Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)



Investment workstations

Creating Knowledge: Knowledge Work Systems

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Creating Knowledge: Knowledge Work Systems

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems



Groupware



Intranets and Enterprise Knowledge
Environments



Enterprise information portals



Teamware

Sharing Knowledge: Group Collaboration Systems and Enterprise
Knowledge Environments

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Intranets and Enterprise Knowledge Environments

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

Knowledge Map


Tool for identifying and locating the
organization’s knowledge resources


Enterprise Information Portal


Application that enables companies to
provide users with a single gateway to
internal and external sources of
information

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Intranets and Enterprise Knowledge Environments

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Intranets and Enterprise Knowledge Environments

14.2 INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

Figure 14.9

An Enterprise
Information
Portal

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Artificial Intelligence


Effort to develop computer
-
based systems
that behave like humans



Ability to learn language, accomplish
physical tasks, use a perceptual
apparatus, and emulate human expertise
and decision making

14.3 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

What is Artificial Intelligence?

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


14.3 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

What is Artificial Intelligence?

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Artificial Intelligence:


Stores information in active form


Creates mechanism not subjected to
human feelings


Eliminates routine and unsatisfying jobs


Enhances organization’s knowledge base
by generating solutions to specific
problems

Why Business is Interested in Artificial Intelligence

14.3 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Capturing Knowledge: Expert Systems

14.3 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Expert System


Knowledge
-
intensive computer program
that captures the expertise of a human in
limited domains of knowledge


Knowledge Base


Model of human knowledge that is used
by expert system

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Capturing Knowledge: Expert Systems

14.3 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

How Expert Systems Work


Rule
-
Based Expert System


An AI program that has a large number of
interconnected and nested IF
-
THEN statements or
rules that are the basis for the knowledge


Rule Base


The collection of knowledge in an AI system,
represented by IF
-
THEN statements


AI Shell


The programming environment of an expert system


continued

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Capturing Knowledge: Expert Systems

14.3 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Capturing Knowledge: Expert Systems

14.3 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

How Expert Systems Work
(continued)



Inference Engine


The strategy used to search through the rule
base in an expert system


Can be forward or backward chaining

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Capturing Knowledge: Expert Systems

14.3 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Capturing Knowledge: Expert Systems

14.3 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Strategies for Searching the Rule Base



Forward Chaining


begins with the information entered by the user
and searches the rule base to arrive at a
conclusion


Backward Chaining


acts like a problem solver


begins with a hypothesis and seeks out more
information until the hypothesis is either proven
or disproved

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Capturing Knowledge: Expert Systems

14.3 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Knowledge Engineer



Specialist eliciting information and
expertise from other professionals



Translates information into set of rules for
an expert system

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Case
-
Based Reasoning (CBR)



Captures and stores collective knowledge



Represents knowledge as database of
cases and solutions

Organizational Intelligence: Case
-
Based Reasoning

14.3 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Organizational Intelligence: Case
-
Based Reasoning

14.3 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems



Hardware or software emulating
processing patterns of a biological brain



Put intelligence into hardware in form of a
generalized capability to learn

Neural Networks

14.4 OTHER INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems



Rule
-
based AI



Tolerates imprecision



Uses nonspecific terms called
membership functions to solve problems

Fuzzy Logic

14.4 OTHER INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems



Problem
-
solving methods that promote
evolution of solutions to specified
problems



Use a model of living organisms adapting
to their environment

Genetic Algorithms

14. 4 OTHER INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


Hybrid AI Systems


Integration of multiple AI technologies into
a single application



Takes advantage of best features of
technologies

14.4 OTHER INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems



Software programs



Use built
-
in or learned knowledge base to
carry out specific, repetitive, and
predictable tasks

Intelligent Agents

14.4 OTHER INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES

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Copyright

©

2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Management Information Systems,
Second Canadian Edition

Chapter 14: Knowledge
-
Based Information Systems


KNOWLEDGE
-
BASED
INFORMATION
SYSTEMS