SRT251: CONSTRUCTION AND STRUCTURES

plantcitybusinessUrban and Civil

Nov 26, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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SRT251: CONSTRUCTION
AND STRUCTURES

PROJECT 1: WAREHOUSE AND
OFFICE COMPLEX

Fiona Allpress: 300138121

Jamie Ifrah:

Steven Kymantas: 300175956

Adam Wood: 300182771

Stephen Young: 300150037

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Contents

WAREHOUSE:



Concrete for Slab: PG



Footing system: PG



Portal Frames: PG



Envelop System: PG



Roof Structure: PG



Roof Cladding: PG



Roller Door Systems & Exit


Doors: PG



Span Table: PG



Grid System: PG



Layout of Warehouse



Sketches: PG



Warehouse Design: PG


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OFFICE:



Concrete for Slab: PG



Footing system: PG



Portal Frames: PG


Envelop System: PG



Roof Structure: PG



Roof Cladding: PG



Exit Doors



Grid System: PG



Layout of Showroom: PG



Sketches: PG



Showroom/Office Design: PG

References: PG

Concrete for Slab & Retaining Walls

Reinforced concrete
:

Reinforced concrete combines concrete and some form of reinforcement into a composite
whole.

Concrete has high compressive strength but low tensile strength whereas steel has very high
tensile

strength. By combining steel and concrete into composite material we are taking advantage
of steel’s

High tensile strength and concrete’s compressive strength.


Retaining walls
:

Retaining walls likened to vertical beam fixed at one end. Soil or other material being
retained

causes wall to act as cantilever. The footing of the wall tends to bend or distort as load is
applied.

Reinforcement should be distributed to resist these stresses.


Joints in concrete construction
:

Joints can be of two general types:

1.
Those which allow no relative movement of concrete on either side of them.

2.
Those which allow relative movement.


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Concrete for Slab & Retaining Walls

It is recommended that joints allow relative movement. They are named according to type of movement

they allow:

Contraction joints


allow concrete to shrink away from plane of the joint while restraining relative

movement in other directions.

Expansion joints: separate two faces sufficiently to allow expansion towards the plane of the joint. This

also allows contraction but prevents movement in other directions.


Isolation joints


completely separates two faces and allows complete freedom of relative movement.


Location of joints:

Contraction joints should be located where severest concentrations of tensile stresses resulting from

shrinkage of the concrete are expected to occur. For example, in large areas of pavement or slab on

ground.


Spacing of contraction joints generally dictated by designer or supervising engineer, however, 5 to 6m

an be used as a guide.


Large areas of concrete should be divided into approximately square bays by means of contraction joints.

Joints must be spaced sufficiently close together to prevent shrinkage cracks from occurring between

successive joints.


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Concrete for Slab & Retaining Walls

Expansion joints create a gap between two surfaces so as to allow expansion of concrete into the gap.

The gap is usually filled with compressible filler, e.g. rubber, plastic, cork or mastic. All relative

movement in the plane of joint is prevented. Expansion joints most expensive type of joint to make. An

increase in concrete’s temperature will generally increase the concrete’s length, e.g. temperature rise of

10C. in a 10 metre length of unrestrained concrete will result in an expansion of about 1mm.


Under Australian climatic conditions normal maximum temperature differential through a year doesn’t

exceed about 40C. Therefore thermal movements at a joint wouldn’t exceed 10mm. per 25 m. of

concrete. Thus if decided to place expansion joints at 25m. intervals, they must be sufficiently wide

enough to allow for 10mm. movement. If joint made 15mm. wide at average temperature, should be

filled with material capable of being compressed to 10mm. thickness and of expanding to 20mm.

thickness.


Spacing of expansion joints is design consideration. Building rarely exceed 30m. in length without

introduction of either an expansion or an isolating joint into floors, columns and beams.


Class of concrete
:

Normal class of concrete is intended to cover the needs of the majority of domestic, commercial,

industrial and institutional building projects.


Normal class concrete has a strength grade chosen from N20, N25, N32, N40 or N50.


Slump required at point of delivery chosen from 40, 60, 80 or 100mm.


Maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate chosen from 10, 14 or 20mm.


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Footing System

The footing system we have chosen to use is an ‘isolated pad’ footing

system, at the point loads of the columns. The pads are 1000mm by

1000mm by 750mm. Once this has been achieved we will then poor

a 150mm thick slab with 300mm by 300mm edge beams running

around the exterior of the building. This will be poured so the

finished height of the slab is at the same level as the pad footings.











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300

150

1000

40000

300

750

Portal Frames

A Portal Frame is a ‘
continuous rigid frame with a restrained joint between the stanchion and beam
’ (Jeremy Ham’s
lecture notes; lecture 1). They provide an efficient structural solution to long span construction.



There are the three types of portal frame construction:

1.


3
-
pinned portal,

2.


2
-
pinned and

3.


Rigid base portal


3
-
pin portal frames have three pin joints. Two at each of the supports and one at ‘crown.’



2
-
pin frame has 2 pin joints at the supports.


In Two and Three pinned frames, the portal frame is supported at ground level with a pin joint, therefore
‘rotational’ forces don’t have to be resisted in the footing. Bending moments are transmitted vertically into
the ground, reducing footing size but as a consequence have a heavier frame.

All joints in rigid base

portal frames are restrained. This system
requires good foundations and is used to span smaller distances
compared with pinned construction. This inturn leads to greater
volumes of concrete required in the footing; hence adding to the
cost of the foundation. Rigid frames have lower bending moments
than Two and Three pinned frames resulting in rigid frames being
lighter and footings being heavier.

Source: Jeremy Ham’s lecture notes

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A Portal Frame

Source: Jeremy Ham’s Lecture notes.

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Purlins

Rafter/ beam

Stanchion/
column

Knee joint

Base

Pad footing

Girts

A Portal Frame

Source: Jeremy Ham’s Lecture notes.

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Portal Frames

(continued)

Portal Frames are most commonly used in



warehouses,



factory buildings,



large span storage buildings, and



heavy industrial process plant structures


When a beam in a portal frame is loaded it deforms elastically. The top
flange of the beam goes into compression, whilst the bottom flange goes
into tension. Such deformation would result in columns spreading at
base if there was no lateral restraint.

Footings resist this spreading and in doing so carry bending moments as
well as axial loads.

Columns also act in bending as connections between footings and
columns, and columns and beams are rigid.


Roof members generally have low pitched rafters or horizontal beams
that are connected to a stanchion with a rigid joint. Roof pitches
between 5 and 10 degrees are preferred in portal frame construction.
These pitches are suitable for any continuous length steel sheet profiles
and this factor outweighs superior structural action of higher pitch
roofs, which have additional sheeting costs.


The most popular portal frame system is the ‘column and truss system.’


On a ‘cost’ basis, the simplicity of a portal frame results it in being the
cheaper option for spans less than 45 metres. For our requirements, this
seems to be the most viable option.


Source: http://www.ul.ie/%7Egaughran/Gildea/page8.htm

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The portal frame we have opted
to use is Rigid Frame.

Portal Frames

(bracing and bolts)

We are using cross bracing, 30mm thick rods.

The Girts are one steel ‘c
-
section’ members. There size is

The bolt specification we have decided to use are M
-
20.

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Examples of Portal Frames

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Image: Bunnings Warehouse
Warn Ponds, showing the
layout of the warehouse.

Image: Bunnings Warehouse
Warn Ponds, showing
bracing above opening

Examples of Portal Frames

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Image: Bunnings Warehouse
Warn Ponds, showing the
flange of a beam in the
structure

Image: Colerain Warehouse,
Separation Street, showing Girts
providing horizontal supports for
the vertical columns

Envelop System: Tilt
-
up Concrete

Tilt up concrete construction is an economic & attractive alternative to the traditional
construction methods such as corrugated iron. It has a versatile design and is extremely
quick to construct.

By using a Tilt
-
up systems it helps ensure durability, with maintenance only required every
6 years with a new coat of paint.

Panel connections can be installed during initial construction to make panel detachment &
relocation easy.

Tilt
-
up concrete is ‘virtually’ impenetrable due to the thickness and strength of panels,
which proves a ‘positive’ with the use of folk lifts in our warehouse.

It is a first choice for fire resistance as a 6.5” wall will have a fire rating of 4 hours; this
inturn results in cheaper insurance for the client.

Slabs are casted on
-
site and after curing, are lifted or ‘tilted’ with crane & set on the
concrete foundations. The roof structure, once constructed, is anchored to walls.

After removal of panel braces, grout is applied at base of panels and all vertical joints are
caulked.

When determining the size crane to use it’s best to let the crane company decide this, based
on the size and weight of the panels.



http://www.tilt
-
up.org/construc/faq
-
general.htm

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Envelop System: Tilt
-
up Concrete

Expansion can be designed for by detaching and relocating the panels or cutting
new openings


Tilt up concrete also has excellent sound control through the sound reduction
properties of concrete. This is done by the ‘mass’ absorbing the sound rather than
‘letting it through.’


Tilt up is mainly done on the ground, so there is no vertical framework or
scaffolding required. There are also less labour crews since no vertical forming, or
other costly erection processes are required, thus allowing for a shorter project
cycle which presents less prosperous for accidents to occur.





http://www.tilt
-
up.org/

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Roof Structure

The roofing system we have opted for is using ‘C’ section rafters.

There will be 25 rafters overall, 12 on either side of the pitch and 1 at the joint
between both sides. On both sides of the pitch, the first and last rafter will sit in 1
metre from each end, with 10 in between at 1.8 metre centre spacings. These ‘C’
section rafters will be 200mm x 75mm x 6mm, and weigh 15.5 kg/m. Although
capable of spanning 12 metres we have these rafters spanning at 8 metres.

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Dura Gal channels are high strength cold formed structural sections that are in
-
line Hot
-
dip galvanised over a prepared surface, to produce a fully bonded coating
with a minimum average coating mass of 100 g/m
2
. The zinc surface then has a
surface conversion coating applied. All channels are coated with a clear polymer
over the conversion coat.

Source: Fielder's website http://www.fielders.com.au/product.asp?pID=4

Roof Cladding

The roof cladding we have used for this warehouse is Colourbond WideKlip
produced by Fielders. The width of the cladding is 760 mm and requires
no screws therefore no screw holes. This type of cladding uses a clip system
which allows for them to give a watertight guarantee. We chose the lighter
of the two choices which was 0.42 BMT in thickness, making the mass 4.55
kg/m
2
. Below is a picture of the WideKlip. For the natural lighting we have
used UV
-
Stabilised Commercial Grade Reinforced Translucent Roofing,
which is an economical product for natural lighting in a large enclosed area.
It is also extremely flexible allowing it to meet unique variations of design
criteria. Common applications for such a product are things such as
commercial and industrial developments, institutional and other projects
where long
-
term high quality lighting is required. We have chosen a
thickness of 2.5 mm which makes its mass 3.66 kg/m
2
.

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Topglass

ALSYNITE NZ LIMITED

WideKlip
FIELDERS

Roof Cladding

For the guttering we have chosen
to use ‘internally boxed gutters.’
This was due to the fact that they
are visually more appealing.

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Internal Boxed Gutter

Image: Bunnings Warehouse
Warn Ponds

Attached to the inside
section of Universal Beam

Roller Door System & Exit Doors

For the delivery doors we have chosen to use an ‘Industrial Steel Slat
Type Shutter

’ arrangement. These doors are specifically designed to
fulfill the requirements of commercial openings. Custom sizes range
from 900mm X 900mm to 6000m X 6000m, thus making it a viable
option as the two doors must be large enough to fit a truck through
(when at 6000mm).


For side access to Showroom we have also chosen an ‘Industrial
Steel Slat Type Shutter

’ arrangement, however at a size of

3000mm X 3000mm.


There are 5 exit doors. These are shown in figure 1.


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http://www.bnd.com.au/rollashutter.htm

Roller Door System & Emergency Exits

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Source: http://www.bnd.com.au/rollashutter.htm

Figure 1: Exit Doors








DOOR ONE


DOOR TWO










DOOR THREE










DOOR FOUR (EMERGENCY)







DOOR FIVE (EMERGENCY)

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Span Table

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9m

7m

7m

7m

Grid System for Warehouse

40,000

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8000

40,000

8000

The following diagram shows the proposed layout design of the pellet shelving for the
warehouse. This is based on a standard pellet size of 1200mm X 1200mm. Our shelfing
therefore is 1000mm X 1000mm.

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Layout of Warehouse

We have calculated that we would be able to fit 1200 pellets inside our warehouse using a 3 shelf
system.

Sketches

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Warehouse Design

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Showroom/Office Building

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Concrete for slab

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Portal Frame

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Envelop System: Tilt
-
up Concrete

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Roof Structure

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Roof Cladding

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Exit Doors

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Grid System

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Sketches

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Showroom/Office Design

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