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CERN

an (unusual) introduction

Rolf
-
Dieter Heuer

Director
-
General, CERN

India and CERN


Visions for Future Collaboration


Mumbai

28 February 2011



United Kingdom and CERN / September 2010

2

The Mission of CERN


Push back

the frontiers of knowledge


E.g. the secrets of the Big Bang …what
was
matter like within
the first moments of the Universe’s existence?



Develop

new technologies for
accelerators and detectors


Information technology
-

the Web and the GRID


Medicine
-

diagnosis and therapy



Train

scientists and engineers of
tomorrow



Unite

people from different countries and
cultures

3

CERN was founded 1954:
12 European States

Today: 20 Member States


~ 2300 staff


~ 790 other paid personnel


> 10000 users


Budget (2011) ~1000 MCHF


20 Member States:

Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the
Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland and the United Kingdom.


1 Candidate for Accession to Membership of
CERN:

Romania


5 Applicants for Membership of CERN:

Cyprus,
Israel, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey


8 Observers to Council:

India, Israel, Japan, the
Russian Federation, the United States of America,
Turkey, the European Commission and UNESCO


New status of Associate Membership



Breaking the Walls between


Cultures and Nations since 1954

Opening the door…


CERN Council opened the door to greater integration in particle physics when it
recently unanimously adopted the recommendations to examine the role of
CERN in the light of increasing globalization in particle physics.


Particle physics is becoming increasingly integrated at the global level.


Council’s decision contributes to creating the conditions that will enable
CERN to play a full role in any future facility wherever in the world it might
be.



The key points agreed by Council include:


All states shall be eligible for Membership, irrespective of their geographical
location;


A new Associate Membership status is to be introduced to allow non
-
Member States to establish or intensify their institutional links with CERN;


Associate Membership shall also serve as the obligatory pre
-
stage to
Membership.


Participation in Global Projects wherever sited

5

Primary motivation for research:
CURIOSITY


Results of Research:


Fundamental Research
↔ Applied Research


Knowledge / Know
-
how
↔ Application / Use


Culture ↔ Technology



Primary aim of fundamental research


KNOWLEDGE


Primary aim of applied research


APPLICATIONS



Fundamental and applied research are inseparably
connected

Fundamental Research


Fundamental research results in gain of knowledge/know
-
how



But also results in applications


Applications from the
research itself
(time frame and areas are not predictable)


Applications from the
tools and methods
needed to perform the research



Fundamental research


Is
innovation


Needs
innovation


Drives
innovation

Essential Ingredients to Drive Innovation


A concrete project with ambitious goals & a deadline


Highly competent and motivated teams in all
domains and at all levels


Open collaboration with competent partners


Prestigious universities and research institutes


Industrial partners for key technologies


Learning from others, sharing the results freely


Investment in training and education

Innovation in Fundamental Research

Large
scientific

projects

stimulate

innovation


Space

: Apollo missions,
Space

Station, Pioneer/Voyager
Missions


Particle

Physics

:
accelerators

in
general


at CERN : LEP, LHC


Pushing

back the
frontiers

of
technology
. CERN
Examples
:


Superconductivity
,
magnets
,
cryogenics
, vacuum,
survey
/
metrology
.


Transport and installation of
heavy

equipment
.


Solid
-
state detectors
resistant

to
high
-
intensity

radiation.


Large
-
scale

industrial

control
systems
.


Electronic

and information
systems
.


Project management and
co
-
ordination
.

CERN’s Tools


Innovation at all Levels


The world’s most powerful
accelerator
: Large
Hadron

Collider (LHC)


A 27 km long tunnel filled with high
-
tech instruments


Equipped with thousands of superconducting magnets


Accelerates particles to energies never obtained before


Produces particle collisions creating microscopic “big bangs”


Very large sophisticated
detectors


Four experiments each the size of a cathedral


Hundred million measurement channels each


Data acquisition systems treating
Petabytes

per second


Top level
computing

to distribute and analyse the data


A Computing Grid linking ~200 computer centres around the
globe


Sufficient computing power and storage to handle 15
Petabytes

per year, making them available to thousands of physicists for
analysis

11

Example: medical application

Accelerating

particle beams

Detecting
particles

Large
-
scale

computing

(Grid)

Grid computing for

medical data management and analysis

Medical imaging

CERN Technologies
-

Innovation

Tumour Target

Detection

of Container Contents
with

a Multi
-
wire

Chamber

(G
.
Charpak
-

Nobel
Prize

Physics 1992)

Detectors for Industry


Breaking the
Wall of Communication


22 years ago: the Web was born

. . . and today ?

One of the most
extensive

computer systems in the
world…

To
analyse

the data, tens of thousands of computers around the world
are being harnessed in the Grid. The laboratory that gave the world

the web, is now taking distributed computing a big step further.


Breaking the
Wall of Communication:


yesterday the Web, today the Grid



Address


-

fundamental science questions


at the forefront of research and technology



Need


-

large and sustained infrastructures


-

global collaboration on long time scales



Provide



-

unique equipment


-

challenging requests for high technology and innovation


-

stimulating ideas which in turn attract good people


-

occasion to bring people together

Large
-
scale Science Projects

Survey in March 2009

They do not all stay: where do they go?

2500 PhD students

in LHC experiments

Age Distribution of Scientists

-

and where they go afterwards


“Discovery” of Standard Model

through synergy of


hadron

-

hadron

colliders
(e.g.
Tevatron
)

lepton
-

hadron

colliders
(HERA)

lepton
-

lepton

colliders
(e.g. LEP, SLC)


Past few decades

United Kingdom and CERN / May 2009

18

Enter a New Era in Fundamental Science

Start
-
up of the Large Hadron Collider (
LHC
), one of the
largest and truly global scientific projects ever, is the
most exciting turning point in particle physics.

Exploration of a new energy frontier

p
roton
-
proton
collisions at E
CM

up to
14
TeV

LHC ring:

27 km circumference

CMS

ALICE

LHCb

ATLAS

+
LHCf
,
MoEDAL
, TOTEM

2010
-
2013: Decisive Years


Experimental data will take the floor to drive
the field to the next steps:



LHC results



13

(T2K,
DChooz
, etc..)




masses (
Cuore
,
Gerda
,
Nemo
…)


Dark Matter searches


…….






19



2012 Update of the


European Strategy for Particle Physics

Road beyond the Standard
Model

through synergy of


hadron

-

hadron

colliders
(LHC + upgrades)

lepton
-

hadron

colliders
(
LHeC

??)

lepton
-

lepton

colliders
(ILC/CLIC ?)


Next decades


The machine which will complement and
extend the LHC best, and is closest to be
realized, is a Linear
e
+
e
-

Collider with a
collision energy of at least 500
GeV
.




PROJECTS
:



T
eV

Colliders (CMS energy up to 1
TeV
)


Technology ~ready


ILC
with superconducting cavities





Multi
-
TeV

Collider (CMS energies in multi
-
TeV

range)


R&D


CLIC


Two Beam Acceleration

21

Linear
e
+
e
-
Colliders

Results from LHC will Guide the Way

Expect



Period for decision enabling on next steps earliest 2012

(at least)
concerning energy frontier


Similar situation concerning neutrino sector
Θ
13



We are
NOW

in a new exciting era of accelerator

planning
-
design
-
construction
-
running


and
need


intensified efforts on
R&D

and technical design work

to enable these decisions;


global collaboration

and
stability on long time scales

(don‘t forget: first workshop on LHC was 1984)


22


Facts today

Facilities for HEP (and other sciences) becoming larger

and more expensive.


Funding not increasing.


Fewer facilities realisable.


Time scales becoming longer.


Laboratories are changing missions.




M
ore coordination and more collaboration required


23

CERN Education Activities

Scientists at CERN

Academic Training
Programme

Young Researchers

CERN School of High Energy Physics

CERN School of Computing

CERN Accelerator School

Physics Students

Summer Students

Programme

School of Computing

Norway, 2008


2
nd

Latin American School

of High Energy Physics

Mexico, 2003

CERN Teacher Schools

International and National
Programmes

24

CERN /
February
2011

CERN Education Activities

CERN Teacher Programme Participants: 1998


December 2010

CERN /
February
2011

CERN Education Activities

Large
-
scale Science Projects
-

Summary

-

address fundamental science questions

-

stimulate general interest

-

fascinate and inspire

-

stimulate fantasy

-

increase knowledge

-

educate

-

train scientists and engineers for tomorrow

-

drive innovation and technology

-

are global by nature

-

need international collaboration and understanding

-

need giving and sharing

Today, the LHC is attracting immense attention,

it is possibly THE most watched science project




CERN is in the spotlight of the general public,


the journalists, and, and, and . . .


Fascinating science


Addresses long standing questions of mankind


Forefront science


Forefront technologies


Sociological experiment

Fascinating Science

Why?

Large International Collaborations



a place where people learn to work together


collaboration and competition


diversity: good opportunity to recognize differences,
accept them and learn to use them


influence the way of thinking, planning at general level


information sharing: role of computing in
internationalization and communication


experience can be used by individuals and in other fields





management
through ‘common goals’




management by ‘convincing partners’


Sociology


… and bring
the world together

CERN


Innovate, discover, publish, share