Ch. 9

plantcitybusinessUrban and Civil

Nov 26, 2013 (3 years and 22 days ago)

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Chapter 9

Footings, Foundations, and
Concrete

Staking Out?


Use plot plan to stake out location of the
house on the lot.


Layout corners


3
-
4
-
5 (9
-
12
-
15)method


Batter boards


Control point (usually highest point)


Excavation


Bulldozer or tractor with blade is used to
remove topsoil, for fill later.


Trencher or backhoe used for excavating
earth.


Footings should extend down a minimum of
6” below the average minimum frost depth
and 6” into undisturbed soil. (Local code)


Plan for settling.


Footing Shapes


Increase the supporting capacity of the
foundation wall by spreading the load over
a larger area.


Footing Shapes and Sizes

Foundation Walls


Extends from the first floor to the footing


Basement wall or crawlspace


T
-
Foundation


Slab Foundation


Pier/Post Foundation


(see page 165)


Terminology


Drain Tile (4” perforated (weep) tile)


Pilasters


Beam Pocket


Gravel Fill


Sand Cushion (between poured floor and
footing)


Vapor Barrier


Live Loads


fixed or moving weight not
part of structure


Dead Loads


Fixed weights of the
structure.

Beams and Girders


Used to cover large spans, where wood
would not be sufficient


S
-
Beam (I
-

beam) and Wide flange beam


Lintels


horizontal support over an opening



Concrete and Masonry


Concrete
-

Cement, sand, aggregate and
water


Cement


Mixture of lime, silica (sand),
alumina, iron and gypsum.


Sold by the cubic yard ~ $30.00/cu.yd.


Concrete block (cinder block) (p. 179)


Pavers