Footings, Foundations, and
Use plot plan to stake out location of the
house on the lot.
Control point (usually highest point)
Bulldozer or tractor with blade is used to
remove topsoil, for fill later.
Trencher or backhoe used for excavating
Footings should extend down a minimum of
6” below the average minimum frost depth
and 6” into undisturbed soil. (Local code)
Plan for settling.
Increase the supporting capacity of the
foundation wall by spreading the load over
a larger area.
Footing Shapes and Sizes
Extends from the first floor to the footing
Basement wall or crawlspace
(see page 165)
Drain Tile (4” perforated (weep) tile)
Sand Cushion (between poured floor and
fixed or moving weight not
part of structure
Fixed weights of the
Beams and Girders
Used to cover large spans, where wood
would not be sufficient
beam) and Wide flange beam
horizontal support over an opening
Concrete and Masonry
Cement, sand, aggregate and
Mixture of lime, silica (sand),
alumina, iron and gypsum.
Sold by the cubic yard ~ $30.00/cu.yd.
Concrete block (cinder block) (p. 179)