SECTION 02455 STEEL DRIVEN PILES

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Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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(G&O #07550)

02455
-
1

SECTION
0245
5


STEEL
DRIVEN

PILES


PART 1

GENERAL


1.1

SCOPE


The work specified in this Section
covers
the installation of
driven steel
pipe piles.


1.2

RELATED WORK SPECIFI
ED ELSEWHERE


Section

Items

01400

Quality Control

02240

Dewatering

02250

Temporary Shoring and Br
acing

02300

Site Earthwork

02305

Wet Weather Earthwork

03
300

Cast
-
in
-
Place
Concrete


1.3

REFERENCES


This Section references the latest revisions of the following documents:


Reference

Title

ASTM A 252

Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe Piles

ASTM D 4945

High Str
ain Dynamic Testing of Piles

AASHTO/AWS

Welding Specifications

Geotechnical Report

Geotechnical Engineering Services,
Northshore

Utility District Headquarters Site Improvements


1.4

SUBMITTALS


Submittals shall be in accordance with Section
3.18 of the Genera
l
Conditions
.


A.

Manufacturer or fabricator of steel pipe piling, product data
including proof of certification by Steel Plate Fabricators
Association (SPFA) and recommended installation instructions for
submitted pile hammer.


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B.

List of equipment and procedur
e intended to be utilized in pile
driving, noting hammer types and sizes, lead lengths, crane
capacities, and cushions for each pile type.


C.

Order lengths for steel pipe piling.


D.

Mill certifications for steel pipe piling.


E.

Preliminary schedule for pile driv
ing.


F.

PDA test work plan, including proposed locations, testing methods
and agency credentials.


G.

PDA test results.


The
Owner
will provide within 14 calendar days of submitting this
information, either:


1.

Approval to continue
.


2.

Notification of inadequate eq
uipment
.


1.5

QUALITY ASSURANCE


Keep complete and accurate as
-
built records of all piles. Indicate the pile
location, date, diameter, length,
type and size, hammer used, rated
hammer energy pile cushion used,
e
levation of tip and top of pile
. Record
and rep
ort immediately to the
Owner
any unusual conditions encountered
during pile installation.


Pile installer shall be regularly engaged in the installation of piles similar to
the requirements of this project for at least 5 years. Provide
documentation demon
strating same.


Design deviations shall provide an installation equivalent to the basic
intent without incurring additional cost to the Owner.


1.6

COORDINATION


Coordinate work with
Owner regarding maintaining their ongoing
operations
. Coordinate the install
ation of piles with erection of concrete
formwork and placement of form accessories.


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PART 2

PRODUCTS


2.1

MATERIALS


A.

STEEL PIPE


ASTM A53, Type E or S Grade B.


B.

PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE


Shall comply with Section
03300
.


2.2

FABRICATION


A.

GENERAL


The diameter of piles
shall be as specified
o
n the
D
rawings. A full
penetration groove weld with a maximum 1/16
-
inch offset between
welded edges is required.


B.

WELDING CONSTRUCTION


Comply wit
h

AWS Code for procedures, appearance, and quality of
welds, and methods used in corre
ct
i
ng the welding work.
Assemble and weld built
-
up sections where indicated by methods
which will produce true alignment of axes without warp.


C.

CORROSION PROTECTIO
N


S
teel pipe piles sh
all be zinc gal
vanized by the “hot
-
dip” method

in
accordance with ASTM

A123.


2.3

STORAGE AND HANDLING


The Contractor shall store and handle piles in ways that protect them from
damage.


2.4

STEEL CASINGS AND ST
EEL PILES


The
Owner
will reject bent, deformed, or kinked piles that cannot be
straightened without damaging the metal.


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2.5

PILE TIPS AND SHOES


The
lower end of each casing shall have a steel driving plate that is thick
enough to keep the casing watertight and free from distortion as it is
driven.


2.6

PILE DRIVING EQUIPME
NT


Prior to driving any piles, the Contractor shall submi
t to the
Owner
for
approval the details of each proposed pile driving system. The Contractor
shall v
erify the equipment can drive piles to the required ultimate driving
resistance without damage or without requiring an excessive number of
blows to achieve

the required tip elevation and capacity before mobilizing
pile driver to site.


Equip pile driver following the Manufacturer’s recommendations.


PART 3

EXECUTION


3.1

PREPARTATION


Complete all foundation excavation before driving piles.


Dewater excavation at least

1 f
oo
t below bottom of foundation at all times
during pile foundation operations.


Notify
the Owner
of any conflicts between the designated position of piles
and the locations of existing piles from previous construction, existing
utilities, old foundatio
ns, or other potential conflicts.

The
Owner
will
designate new pile locations as required.


3.2

INSTAL
LATION


A.

LOCATION


Drill and install piles from the existing ground surfaces as shown on
the Drawings
. Locate piles where indicated on the Drawings.

The
max
imum permissible variation of the center of each pile from the
required location is 1 inch. No pile shall be out of required axial
alignment by more than 2

percent
.
Installed piles which are
damaged, mislocated, or out of alignment beyond the maximum
tol
erance specified or which are unsuitable for other reasons shall
be abandoned and replaced with
additional piles placed at no
additional cost to the Owner.


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B.

TOLERANCES IN DRIVING

PILES


1.

Maximum permissible tolerance in driving shall be as
follows:


a.

Plumb P
iles


Deviation from plumb shall not be more than 1/8 inch
per foot of pile length.


b.

Batter Piles


Deviation from indicated batter shall not be more (or
less) than 1/4 inch per foot of pile length in the
direction of batter.


c.

Pile Location


The top centerl
ine of sheet piling shall be within
3

inches of the plan location shown on the Drawings.
The tops of all other piling shall be within 4 inches of
the indicated plan location.


2.

Pulling, pushing, or manipulation of piles to force them into
position will not

be permitted. Any piling that deviate more
than the limits specified may be rejected by the Engineer.
Rejected piles will not be paid for by the Port. At no
additional cost to the Port, rejected piles shall be removed
and redriven, or cut off below the

mudline, and a new pile
shall be driven in a location determined by the Engineer.
Design and construction costs resulting from rejected piling,
including modifications to pile caps or bulkheads, shall be
borne by the Contractor.


C.

SPLICING


All pipe splic
es shall be made with standard couplers.

Welding of
pipe joints shall not be allowed.


D.

REFUSAL CRITERIA


The criterion for driving refusal is defined as the minimum amount
of time (in seconds) required to achieve
a 1
-
inch penetration, and it
v
aries with t
he size of hammer used for pile driving. The following
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is a summary of driving refusal criteria for different hammer sizes
that are commonly use
d for nominal 6
-
inch pipe piles.


Summary of Commonly

Accepted Driving Criteria for a 6
-
Inch
Pipe

with a 15
-
Ton

Allowable Axial Compression Load


Hammer Weight

Refusal Criteria
(seconds/inch)

Blows
per
Minute

1,100
lbs

18
-
20

550
-
1,100

1,500 lbs

16
-
20

500
-
900


Please note that these refusal criteria were established empirically
based on previous load tests. Cont
ractors may select a different
hammer for driving these piles, and propose a different driving
criterion. It is the Contractor’s responsibility to demonstrate to the
Owner’s satisfaction that the design load can be achieved based
on the Contractor’s selec
ted equipment and driving criteria.


3.3

PILE LENGTHS


The required pile length to achieve the driving refusal criteria is expected
to vary along the alignment, largely due to the
variation of peat thickness.
For cost estimating purposes, a pile embedment of
50

to
60

feet

below
ground surface

has been used for estimating the pile lengths for the
Project. The actual pile lengths shall be determined in the field based on
actual driving conditions.


3.4

CUTTING AND CAPPING
PILES


R
emove all damaged material from the

top of the piles.


K
eep sides of piles at least 9 inches away from the nearest edge of pile
cap.


C
ut off piles with clean, straight
-
line cuts to the designated elevation at a
right angle to the pile axis
.


L
evel all irregularities before placing concrete

for pile cap
.



*** END OF SECTION

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