and confer
crease resistance
74
.

67
纬向
/
6
8
蒸发、
汽化

69
回收

70

洗可穿

7
1
耐湿磨性

72
沾污

73
树脂整理

74
抗皱性


1. True or False

(
1
)

Mercerization is a chemical finish applied to cellulosi
c fibers, especially cotton.

(2)

Mercerization under tension produces fibers with increased strength and increased
affinity for dyestuffs.

(3)
The new process now available for mercerizing cotton yarn and also fabric

use liquid
ammonia at about
-
33


to eff
ect changes in the cotton fibers similar to those produced by
mercerization with caustic soda.

2


慮s污瑥⁴桥⁦潬o潷楮朠
獥n瑥nce猠楮瑯⁃×楮e獥 ⁅n杬·獨

(1)
Mercerization under tension produces fibers with increased strength and increased
affinity for dy
estuffs.

(2)
The convention alset
-
up for fabric mercerization generally consists of two 3
-
bowl
mangles with a set of freely rotating rolls following each mangle, a tenter

fram
e

,and a number
of boxes for washing and souring.

(3)
To some degree the liquid a
mmonia treatment of cotton fabric can have the effect of
resin finishing

and confer
crease resistance
.


Passage Two

Heat
S
etting

It is necessary to subject the majority of fabrics woven or knitted with
man
-
made fibres to a setting treatment at some stage i
n the preparatory,

dyeing or finishing processe
s
.
T
he main object of heat setting is to release
strains imposed during the weaving or knitting processes, minimize









75
尺寸的
/
76

型的、外形的
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creasing during wet processing and impart the high degree of dimensional
75

and configurationa
l
76

stability which will be required in subsequent
processing and ultimate use, and improve the dyeability
77

of fabrics.

Heat setting may be done before any wet treatment, after scouring and
mercerizing, or after dyeing of the fabric. Fabric heat setting
before dyeing
resists undesirable creasing
78

and wrinkling
79

in the dyeing process and
accepts dye more uniformly if the heat setting process is controlled well.
On the other hand, heat setting can cause

non
-
uniform dyeing
80

if the
setting temperature
vari
es along the length or acro
s
s the width of the fabric.
Heat setting of
gre
y

goods
81

can make size materials and stains
8
2

in the
fabric more difficult to remove. Heat setting after dyeing helps to remove
carrier from carrier
-
dyed
83
polyester. However, undesi
rable discoloration
84

(usually yellowing) of the fabric may occur in fabric heat setting after
dyeing. Dye migration
85

or loss of dye by sublimation
86

may also

occur in
fabric heat setting after dyeing.


T h e r e a r e t w o ma i n t e c h n i q u e s f o r s e t t i n g f a b r i c s
t h a t a r e ma d e w i t h
ma n
-
ma d e f i b r e s:


H e a t s e t t i n g c a n b e d o n e w i t h e i t h e r d r y h e a t o r s t e a m. P o l y e s t e r i s
u s u a l l y h e a t
-
s e t d r y w h i l e

n y l o n ma y b e h e a t
-
s e t e i t h e r d r y o r w i t h s t e a m.
C o n t i n u o u s h e a t s e t t i n g o f
f l a t f a b r i c s
87

is usually

done with dry heat
by
contacting the fabric with heated rolls,
impinging hot air
88

on the fabric in a

tenter frame,
a combination of these two methods, or by heating with
infrared radiation
88
. Steam heating setting is often in an autoclave
89

or may
be done using
continuous s
teaming equipment
90
. Nylon carpet yarns are
often steam set.

In the processin
g

the treating conditions must be under good control


e v e n t h e s l i g h t e s t

v a r i a t i o n s i n t e mp e r a t u r e

t i me a n d t e n s i o n i n f l u e n c e t h e
s e t t i n g e f f e c t

r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s y s t e m

u s e d

U n i f o r mi t y o f h e a t s e t t i n g i s

t h e r e f o r e

e s s e n t i a l

P o l y e s t e r f i b r e s

f o r e x a mp l e

ar
e usua
lly
set within
a relativel
y

narrow temperature range around 200


within a few
/
77
可染性



78
折痕
/
79
皱纹




80
、染色不匀



81
坯布
/
82
污物


83
载体染色

84
褪色、变色



85
泳移
/
86
升华








87
平幅织物

88
吹热风




88
红外线辐射
89
高压釜

90
连续汽蒸设












91
固定、固色


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seconds

It must not be

forgotten

however

that it takes some time to heat
the textile material to the fixation
91

temperatu
re.
Moist material does not
dry to high temperature

For this reason

the goods must be dry before the
y
are heat
-
set

Another factor influencing the degree of setting is the tension
on the goods during the

setting process

The goods must

therefore

remain
under unvarying tension as they pass throug
h th
e setting

system

This is
particularly important because the degree of setting is reflected in the
dye

uptake
92

subsequently



S e t t i n g i s a r e l a t i v e t e r m a n d i f a s e t f a b r i c i s t r e a t e d u n d e r
t e mp e r a t u r e c o n d i t i o n s mo r e s e
v
e r e t h a n t h o s e a t w h i c h i t w a s s e t

t h e
ef
fects of the earlier treatments will be largely removed
.
It
is

however

possible to pre
-
set
93

man
-
made materials and enhance the degree of set
during the dyeing

process

a
s
the effects of heat
-
setting treatments are
normally

add
itive.


H e a t s e t t i n g c a n b e

u s e d t o i mp a r t a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s t o
ma n
-
ma d e f i b r e s u s e d a l o n e o r i n b l e n d s

T h e s e i n c l u d e i n t e r e s t i n g a n d
d u r a b l e s u r f a c e e f f e c t s s u c h a s p l e a t i n
g
94

creas
ing
95

puck
erin
g
96

and
embossing
97

Heat setting gives cloth
resistance to wrinkling

98
dur
ing wear
and the

ease
-
of
-
care
99

properties that may be attributed to improving
resiliency
100

and elasticity
.
101








92
上染率






93
预定型








94
褶裥
/
95
折皱
96
皱纹

97
凹凸轧花
/
98
抗皱
/
99
免烫

100
回弹性
/
101
弹性


1.
True or False

(1)
T
he majority of fabrics woven or knitted with man
-
made fibres

is

necessary to subject
a setting treatment at some stage in the preparatory, dye
ing or finishing processe
s
.

(2)
Heat setting can be used to impart a variety of other properties to man
-
made fibres
used alone or in blends


(3)
The goods must

remain under
varying tension as they pass throug
h th
e setting system


2

Tr慮s污瑥⁴桥⁦潬o潷楮朠

獥n瑥nce猠楮瑯⁃×楮e獥 ⁅n杬·獨

(1)
Heat setting can be done with either dry heat or steam. Polyester is usually heat
-
set dry
while nylon may be heat
-
set either dry or with steam.

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(2)
Heat setting may be done before any wet treatment, after scouring and

mercerizing, or
after dyeing of the fabric.

(3)
H
eat setting gives cloth

resistance to wrinkling
during wear and the

ease
-
of
-
care

properties that may be attributed to improving resiliency

and elasticity
.




















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U
n
it Seven

Dyeing of
T
extiles


I
.
Main Tasks

T
h
is unit deals with

various
techniques

of

dyeing textiles

and introduces
how to dye

textiles

in general
.



II. Text


Int
roduction to D
yeing


Te x t i l e ’
s

c o l o u r i s n o r ma l l y o b t a i n e d b y a p p l y i n g a c o l o r a n t t o t h e t e x t i l e
s u b s t r a t e

T h e r e a r e t w o
w a y s o f a d d i n g c o l o u r t o a t e x t i l e s u b s t r a t e


i

e

d y e i n g a n d p r i n t i n g

P r i n t i n g a d d s c o l o u r t o t h e s u b s t r a t e l o c a l l y

w h e r e a s
d y e i n
g
completely covers the substrate with colour

and usually

with the
intension of
1

obtaining an even colour distribution througho
ut the
substrate

Colorants used for dyeing can be classified as dyes or pigments
2

Dyes
are water soluble and have substantivity
3

affinity
4

for fibres and can be absorbed
into the fibres

Pigments are not water soluble and possess no specific attraction
for
any particular fibre type

Pigments usually adhere to the surface of the
fibre

Dyes are used far more widely and frequently than pigments in the textile
dyeing process


In order to meet the aesthetic and application requirements of consumers

the quality of
dyed textiles must be considered

This quality is usually assessed
through the measurement of the colour’s

hue
5

depth
6

brightness
7

uniformity
8

fastness
9

and other quality properties

Colour fastness is defined as the ability of
the shade
1
0

to withstand exter
n
al agencies without loss or change in colour

Such
external agencies would include washing

dry cleaning

rubbing
1
1

perspiration
1
2

heat and light

Colour fastness is influenced by the factors
including dye

fibre

dyeing process and dyeing depth

The tests for c
olour






1
打算,抱有




2
涂料

3
直接性
/
4
亲和






5
色相、色调
/
6
色泽深度
/
7
亮度
/
8
均匀度
/
9
(染
色)牢度
/
1
0
、颜
色深浅、色暗

1
1
摩擦

1
2
汗渍


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measurement are proposed and standardized by national or international
organizations



D y e i n g o f t e x t i l e i s a c h i e v e d b y t r a n s f e r r i n g d y e mo l e c u l e s f r o m a
me d i u m
1
3
(usually water)in which the dye is dissolved
1
4

or dispersed
1
5

onto the
textile fibres

The dyeing can be undertaken either as a batch
1
6

(or
exhaustion
1
7
)process or a continuous technique

During batch dyeing a certain
length or weight of textile is dyed in a relatively compact dyeing machine for a
predetermine length of time

often several hou
rs

In this type of process

the dye
that is dissolved or dispersed in a solution fixes onto the textile material as a
result of a transfer from the solution towards the fibre caused by the intervention
of the force of affinity between fibre and dye
[2]

This
attractive force depends on
the type of dye and fibre

The dyeing process can be divided into three stages

i

e

that dye molecules are first attracted to the fibre surface

and then diffuse
1
8

through the fibre due to the high surface concentration of dye

and
are fixed on
the fibre by
intermolecular force
1
9

or
chemical bond
20

The quantity of the dye
used in the dyebath

21

depends on the attractive force and is also determined by
the textile’s colour depth

It is usually indicated by the unit of

o
.
m
.
f

22

(on the
mass of fibre)

The ratio between fibre weight and that of the solution in which
the dyeing is carried out

called
liquor ratio

or
bath

ratio
23

is normally high

oscillating
24

between l

3 and l

60

The liquor ration can greatly influence the
rate and overall a
mount of dye taken up
25

The batch dyeing process is
characterized by the diminution of the concentration of the dye in the liquor

exhaustion

and an increase of the concentration of the dye in the fibre

In order
to promote the transfer and obtain a uniform
dyeing

dyeing assistants
26

such as
wetting agent
27

salt

etc

are added in the dyebath

and the dye liquor is either
pumped through the stationary textile or the textile is circulated through the dye
liquor or the dye liquor and textile are circulated togethe
r

Before the textile is
removed from any bath dyeing process

the rinsing and soaping stages are
usually carded out

These are necessary to remove unfixed dye and assure that
the product’s dye fastness is achieved

They also remove any residual
28

dyeing



1
3
介质
/
1
4
溶解

1
5
分散
/
1
6
间歇、
分批
/
1
7
竭染






1
8
扩散


1
9
分子间作用力
20
化学键

21
染浴

22
按纤维质量计


23
浴比或液比

24
振荡

25
上染速度和上
染总量


26
染色助剂

27
润湿剂





28
残余的

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chemi
cals from the textile

Finally the textile is removed from the dyeing
machine in order that subsequent drying can be completed


In continuous dyeing the prepared fabric is first impregnated
29
(soaked)

with a suitable amou
n
t of dye liquor and padded through a

foulard
30

to facilitate
the penetration of the dye into the fabric fibre and eliminate the excess dye
solution from the fibre

then passed into a fixation chamber( often a steam
-
filled
chamber)where dye fixation takes place just in a few minutes

Wash
-
off t
o
remove the unfixed dye follows immediately

with the fabric usually being dried
at the end of the continuous dyeing line

This type of process is characterized by
the fact that the textile material is impregnated with a solution containing the
dye

which

at

the moment of impregnation may or may not be substantive
towards the fibre

later

the solution combines with the fibre thanks to
a treatment which in general we shall call fixation
[3]

In continuous dyeing
process the quantity of solution in relation t
o the weight of textile material
necessary for dyeing to take place is rather less than that required in exhaustion
process

The liquor ratios used range normally from l

2 to 0

6 litres of solution
per kg of dyed material



Dyeing can be carried out on the
textile when it is in a number of different
physical forms


including
loose stock
31

tow
32

tops
33

yarn

piece and
garment

These textiles are dyed using the batch or continuous dyeing method

or by the use of a combination of them


When dyeing loose fibre or y
arn it is often more convenient to pump the
dye liquor through the stationary textile to prevent loss or entanglement
34

of the
substrate

In a loose stock dyeing machine the loose fibres are therefore
contained in bags or cages which are lowered into the
dy
eing
vesse
l
35

Similarly

hanks or packages of yarn
36

are lowered into the dyebath and
dye solution is then circulated through them


One effective batch dyeing method for delicate fabric constructions

including knitted fabrics

is the
jet dyeing machine
37

whe
re the textile is
circulated through the dye bath with the aid of a jet of the dye liquor itself

This


29
浸渍

30
轧染机














31
散纤维
/
32
丝束
(化纤)
/
33
毛条




34
缠结


35
染缸

36
绞纱或筒子纱


37
喷射染色机



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provides a relatively tension
-
free dyeing process


For garments

it is far more convenient to load these into perforated drums

very similar to those of the

domestic washing machine and then to rotate the
drum in the dye liquor


Continuous dyeing is ideal when a large amount of textile must be dyed the
same shade

particularly when this textile is in a convenient transportable
form

Woven cotton and
polyester

c
otton fabric
are often continuously dyed


When a cotton fabric is dyed with reactive dyes

a
semi

continuous

38
dyeing method that can be

considered as a combination of batch and
continuous dyeing techniques and is usually called
pad
-
batch dyeing

39
is often
used

In this dyeing process the fabric is first impregnated with a suitable
amount of dye solution

and then wound
40

around a roller to form a

fabric
drum
41

When the roller has been filled with the processed fabric

the fabric
drum is wrapped with a sheet of

plastic to prevent the evaporation
42

of the dye
solution from the fabric

The drum is left in special trolleys
43

where it turns very
slowly to prevent the liquor from collecting in the lower part of the drum and
stored for l 6

24 hours at environment tempe
rature

During this phase the
reaction takes place between the cellulose

and the dye


which is fixed by
covalent bonds
44

to the fibre.










38
半连续的

39
浸轧堆染色工

(冷染)

40
卷饶
/
41
卷布筒


42
挥发

43
滚轮



44
共价键





III.
Language Tips


1.

In

this type of process the dye that is dissolved or dispersed in a solution fixes onto the
textile material as a result of a transfer from the solution towards the fibre caused by the
intervention of the force of affinity between fibre and dye






tllat
is disso1ved or dispersed in a solution

是定语从句,修饰

the dye



as
a resul of…between fibre and dye
"
是原因状语,其中

caused by the intervention of the force
of affinlty between fibre and dye
"
是这个状语中的过去分词短语作后置定语,修饰

a
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46

transfer

.

2.

T
his type of process is characterized by

the fact that the textile materia1 is impregnated with
a solution containing me dye

which

at the moment of impregnation may or may not be
substantive towards the fiber

later

the solution combines with the fibre thanks to a treatment
which in general we s
hall call fixation.

句中

that…we shall call fixation
"


the fact
’’
的同位语从句;在同位语从句中,

which

at the moment of impregnation may or may not be substantive towards the fibre
"


which
’’
引导的非
限定性定语从句,修饰“
the dye
"
;而

which in general we shall call
fixation
"
是修饰

a treatment

的定
语从句。

在间歇式染色中,在预定时间范围
(
通常是几个小时
)
内定长或定量的织物在相对紧
凑染
色机中进行染色。在这种染色过程中,溶解或分散在溶液中的染料,由于纤维和染
料之间亲和力
的作用,从溶液向纺织纤维转移并固着在纺织材料上。

3.

I
n continuous dyeing process me quantity of solution in relation to the weight of textile
material necessary for dyeing to take place is rathe
r less than that required in exhaustion
process
.





in relation to

应解释为

根据,有关



the quantity of solution in relation

the weight of textile material

可直译为

根据纺织材料重量而确定的染液的量




IV.
Exercises

1.
Questions and Answers


(1)
How many ways are there to

add

colo
ur

to
a
tex
tile
substrate

A
nd
what are they?

(2)
What
dyeing methods are introduced in the text

List
them
please.

(3)
W
hat

s
colour fastness


(4)
Can you
defin
e

the bath ratio


(5)
What is the
c
ontinuous dyeing

and
the
semi
-
continuous
dyeing

?

2 .
Translat
e the following phrases into English


(1)
涂料



(2)
亲和力

(3)
色牢度

(4)
直接性

(5)
连续式染色

(6)
固色

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(7)
竭染



(8)
浴比

(9)
染色机器


(10)
染色助剂

3. Translate the following se
ntences into Chinese

(1)
When a cotton fabric is dyed with reactive dyes

a semi

continuous dyeing method
that can be

considered as a combination of batch and continuous dyeing techniques and is
usually called
pad
-
batch dyeing

is often used


(2)

During thi
s phase the reaction takes place between the cellulose

and the dye


which is
fixed by

covalent bonds

to the fibre.

(3)
Colour fastness is defined as the ability of the shade
1
0

to withstand exter
n
al agencies
without loss or change in colour
.

(4)
For garment
s

it is far more convenient to load these into perforated drums

very similar
to those of the domestic washing machine and then to rotate the drum in the dye liquor


(5)
Before the textile is removed from any bath dyeing process

the rinsing and soaping
stag
es are usually carded out
.

These are necessary to remove unfixed dye and assure that the
product’s dye fastness is achieved



V.
Extensive Reading

Passage One


C
lassification of
D
yes

In the book of Textile Terms and Definitions edited by British Textile
I
nstitute, dye is defined as 'a colorant
45
, usually organic, soluble
46

or
dispersed in its medium of application and

which is designed to be
adsor
b
ed
47

or adsorbed by, made to react with, or deposited
48

within a
substrate
48

in order to impart colour to that

substrate with some degree of
permanence
49

.
Dyes and dyeing process have e
xisted for thousands of
years.
Today, more than 4000 different dyes are made by dye manufactures
and used in textile field.


T h e p r o p e r t i e s o f d y e s v a r y g r e a t l y. C e r t a i n d y e s a r
e s u b s t a n t i v e f o r
c e r t a i n f i b r e t y p e s. I n o r d e r t o r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p a n d u s e t h e m mo r e






45
着色剂

46
可溶的




46
吸附
/
48
沉积
/
48
被染物

49
耐久的






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48

conveniently, dyes are usually grouped in a number of ways depending
upon their
ionic character
50
, chemical type or application method.

Most of dyes are organic compo
unds. From the synthetic point of
view, a dye can be considered as consisting mainly of three parts: i. e.
chromophore
51
, auxochrome
52

and
solubilizing groups
53
. Chromophoric
group i
s the
conjugated unsaturated system
54

existing in the dye's

molecule
and
provides colour.
Auxochrome groups
such as hydroxyl
55

or
amino
group
s
56

that are usually attached to the chromophore can in
tensify and
deepen the colour
. The function of the solubilizing groups, which include
ionic groups
57

and

polar nonionic groups
58
, is
to impart the water solubility
to the dyes. The presence of chromophoric groups is essential for a
compound to be coloured.

Dyes are also grouped by their application method. Based on their
application methods, dyes are essentially divided into

twelve type
s, which
are
acid, azoic, basic, direct, disperse, mordant, natural, pigment, reactive,
solvent, sulphur and vat dyes
59
. The name of the application class is often
an important guide as to their method of use,
for instance acid dyes are
applied from acidic

dyebaths, reactive dyes
chemically bond t
o the fibre
and basic dyes form basic

cations
60

in acidic conditions
.

Ionic character of dye reflects its solubility in water. According to
their ionic character dyes can be classified into two groups: i.e. ionic a
nd
nonionic dyes. Ionic dyes are further subdivided into anionic and cationic
dyes. Ionic dyes are water
-
soluble. The molecules of anionic dyes contain
anionic groups such as carboxyl
6
1

or
sulphonic acid groups
62

and can create
the coloured dye anions in d
yebath; while cationic dyes whose molecules
have
quaternary ammonium
63

or triarylmethane
64

configuration
65

can create
the coloured dye cations in their solutions. The molecules of nonionic dyes
do not have any types of ionic groups and cannot be ionized
66

by water.



50
离子性





51
发色团

52
助色团
/
53

溶性基团
/
54

饱和共轭体系
55
羟基
/
56

基、胺



57
离子基团

58
极性非离子
基团






59
酸性、不溶性
偶氮、阳离子、
直接、分散、媒
染、天然、涂料、
活性、溶剂、硫
化和还原染料


60
阳离子






61
羧基
/
62
磺酸

/


63
季胺
/
64
三芳
甲烷
/
65
结构


66
离子化


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1.
Questions and Answers


(1)
What
types

are
dyes
essentially divided into
b
ased on their applicati
on methods

.

(2)
What

is important
for a
n

organic

compound to be coloured
?

(3)
what

quality

do
es

i
onic characte
r of dye reflect

in water
?

2

Tr慮s污瑥⁴桥數

t慢汥

楮瑯⁃×楮e獥

Summ
慲礠潦
M
a
橯r
D

T
祰es

Dye type


Solubility/ionic

Character

Fibre Affinity


Fastness properties

Comments

Direct



Acid

leveling



Acid

milling



Vat



Reactive




Basic



Disperse



Water soluble

(anionic)


Water soluble

( anionic )


Water soluble

(anioni
c)


Insoluble in water

( nonionic )


Water soluble

( anionic )



Water soluble

( cationic )


Insoluble in water

(nonionic)


Cellulosics

(cotton,viscose)


Protein fibres

(wool, silk)


Polyamide
fibres(nylon)


Cellulosics

( cotton, viscose)


Cellulosic,prote
in
and polyamide

fibres


Acrylic and
protein fibres


All synthetic
fibres


Poor/good

light

fastness,

Poor washing fastness


Moderate/good

light fastness,

poor washing fastness


Good fastness to light

and washing


Excellent fastness to light
and washing


Go
od/excellent fastness to
light and washing


Moderate/good

light fastness,
Good washing

fastness


Moderate/Good light
fastness; Good washing

fastness

Cheap,After
-
treatment can
improve fastness


Has good leveling
properties


Has medium leveling

properties


E
xpensive

b
right

c
olours

o
ften

difficult

to achieve


Excellen
t shade range,high
fastness due

to

c
ovalent
dye/fibre bond


Bright

shades, excellent

tinctorial strength


Best fastness on

polyester,
good leveling

properties

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Passage Two


D
yeing
M
achines

On the
basis of dyeing methods, dyeing machines can be divided into
three types : i.e. batch, continuous and semi
-
continuous dyeing machines.
In batch dyeing machines, dyes are transferred from dye bath to textiles by
the effects of the affinity between the dyes
and the textile fibres. In
continuous or semi
-
continuous dyeing process dyes are transferred from the
dye liquor to textile by impregnation
67
.



D y e s c a n b e a p p l i e d t o f i b r e s, t o y a r n s o r t o f a b r i c s o r t o g a r me n t s, s o
d y e i n g

ma c h i n e s

ma y b e d i v i d e d i n t o

f o u r t y p e s: i.e. d y e i n g ma c h i n e s f o r
f i b r e, f o r y a r n, f o r f a b r
i c o r

g a r me n t.


1. D y e i n g m a c h i n e s f o r t e x t i l e f i b r e s


F i b r e s a r e d y e d i n t h e f o r m o f s t a p l e o r s l i v e r
68
. Both of them can be
dyed in
dyeing autoclaves
69
which can be classified into two c
ategories:
machines that work at a temperature of up to 100


and machines that
work at temperature of over 100

.


2. D y e i n g m a c h i n e s f o r y a r n s

T h e ma c h i n e s u s e d f r e q u e n t l y f o r t h e d y e i n g o f y a r n i n c l u d e d y e i n g
a u t o c l a v e a n d
h a n k d y e i n g m a c h i n e s
70
.


In
dyeing autoclave, yarn is
wound and dyed on bobbins
71

that are perforated
7
2

tubes, through the holes
of which the liquor comes into contact with the yarn. Hank dyeing is a
traditionally method used in yarn dyeing. According to how the solution
comes into
contact with the hanks the hank dyeing machines can be divided
into two types: i.e. the machines in
which hanks

and bath are in movement
and the machines in which hanks are static while liquor is in movement.

3. Dyeing machines for fabrics


F a b r i c s ma y
b e d y e d e i t h e r i n b a t c h e s o r s e mi
-
c o n t i n u o u s l y o r
c o n t i n u o u s l y. Ma n y d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f ma c h i n e s a r e u s e d f o r f a b r i c d y e i n g.









67
浸轧








68
纱条、条子


69
染色釜







70
绞纱染色机



71
筒子、筒管

72
凿孔的











73
绞盘绳状染
色机

74
喷射染色机
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These machines used more frequently include
winch dyeing machine
73
,
jet
dyeing machine
74
,
jig dyeing machine
75
,
beam dyeing machine
76

and
pad
dyeing
machine
77
.
Winch machine is suitable for the dyeing of knitted
fabric and other fabrics that must not be excessively pulled in the length, as
it places relatively little tension on the fabric during dyeing. In jet dyeing
machine fabric is

also formed into an
endless circular chain
78

and is in rope
form. Jig dyeing machine is frequently used for the dyeing of the fabrics
with a fairly
close weave
79

that will not
lose their shape
80

even though
under the relatively high tension created by the

machine. The jigger works
with an exceedingly low

liquor ratio

and can produce a relatively high
tension, so it is very suitable for the dyeing of cotton woven fabric with the
dyes whose affinity is not high. Beam dyeing machine is suitable for
dyeing lig
htweight, fairly
open
-
weave fabrics
81

but not for tightly woven
fabrics, as the tightly fabrics would not allow sufficient dye penetration.
Pad dyeing machine provides a continuous dyeing process. It is used in
producing large quantities of fabrics that ca
n withstand tension and
pressure.

The operations of pad dyeing include that fabrics first pass
through a dyebath, then through

pad rollers
82

that squeeze out the excess
dye, and then into a
steam or heated chamber
83
in which the dye is fixed.



4. D y e i n
g m a c h i n e s f o r g a r me n t s

D r u m
-
t y p e d y e i n g ma c h i n e
84

is used most frequently for the dyeing of
cotton garment, which consists of a stationary container containing dye
liquor in which there is a perforated drums, and is very similar to those of
the domestic w
ashing machine. The garments to be dyed are put in the
drum and then the drum is rotated in the dye liquor to form a circulation
through them.
Paddle dyeing machine
85

is suitable for the dyeing of knitted
wool garments. The dyeing of the textiles with smal
l size, such as short
fabric lengths,
hosiery and towel
86
,

can also be carried out in the garment
dyeing machines.


75
卷染机

76
经轴
染色机
77
浸轧染色机




78
环形链



79
结构紧密

80
变形






81
稀薄织物







82
轧辊

83
蒸汽或加热




84
转鼓式染色







85
浆叶式染色



86
袜子和手巾

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1. True or False


(1)
On the basis of dyeing methods, dyeing m
achines can be divided into
four
typ
es

i.e.
dyeing machines for fibre, for yarn, for fabr
ic or

garment.

(2)
The operations of pad
dyeing include that fabrics first pass through a dyebath, then
through

pad rollers


that squeeze out the excess dye, and then into a

steam or heated chamber
20

in which the dye is fixed.

(3)
Drum
-
type dyeing machine

is used most fre
quently for the dyeing o
f
wool

garment
.

2

Tr慮s污瑥⁴桥⁦潬o潷楮朠獥n瑥nce猠楮瑯⁃×楮e獥

(1)
W
hen textile material is put in the solution of a dye

as dyeing continues

more dye is
taken up by the fibre man is lost from it back into the bath and there is a net increase of dye on
the fibre

(2)
A me
asure of efficiency in dyeing is given by determining both the rate of dye uptake
to the equilibrium point and the amount of dye taken up at equilibrium


(3)
Rate of dyeing curves can then be constructed by plotting percentage exhaustion
against time of dy
eing.












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U
n
it Eight

Pr
inting

of Textiles




.
Main Tasks

This unit mainly

introduce
s

various printing methods and styles
of textile
s.

It also
describes
a variety of techniques for printing designs
.


II. Text


P
rinting

The objective of printing is to

produce coloured designs
1

on textile. In other
words, dyes or pigments
2

must be applied in a predetermined pattern
3

to the
textile substrate.

[1]
So printing can be defined as the localized application of dye
or pigment to a textile substrate to generate
a design. The application of a design
to fabric by the use of dyes, or pigments may be effected by many methods; but
printing is the most convenient.
Free
-
hand painting
4
of designs on fabrics is the
oldest technique for applying ornament, but hand painting

is a time
-
c
onsuming
procedure. Furthermore
, it does not always result in a uniform repeat of a motif
5

that is used more than once. However, in printing it is easy to repeat the design
and the fabric with the design can be

produced in a large amount. For e
xample,
if we use
block
-
printing

6
technique to apply a design on a fabric, we only need
to transfer the design to a wood or metal flat surface that can be coated with a
dye or pigment and then stamped
7

onto the fabric. The same design can be
repeated many
times simply by pressing the decorated surface against the fabric.


T h e d y e s u s e d i n p r i n t i n g a r e t h e s a m e a s t h a t i n d y e i n g, s u c h a s r e a c t i v e
a n d i n s o l u b l e a z o i c d y e s f o r c e l l u l o s i c f i b r e a n d d i s p e r s e d y e s f o r p o l y e s t e r, a n d
t h e f o r c e s b y w h i c h t h e d y e
s a r e l i n k e d w i t h t h e f i b r e a r e t h e s a m e i n d y e i n g a n d
p r i n t i n g. B u t b e t w e e n d y e i n g a n d p r i n t i n g t h e r e a r e s t i l l s o m e d i f f e r e n c e s. T h e
b a s i c o p e r a t i o n s o f p r i n t i n g i n c l u d e: d y e i s f i r s t l y d i s s o l v e d a n d p a s t e d
8

w i t h a




1
花纹、图案

2
颜料

3
花纹组织

图案



4
手绘

5
花纹




6
手工模板印花


7
压印







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small quantity of water and a suitable
thickening agent; then applied to fabric
and dried immediately; and then fixed on the fabric by steaming or heating,
finally soaped
9

and washed with water. The application of the thickened paste
can ensure the colour adheres precisely to the spot it has be
en applied to and
does not
spread over t
he textile to destroy the definition
10

of the printed object
.

[2]

The immediate drying is to prevent the fabric from staining by the wet paste.
After

drying, the entire amount of the dye is present in the dried thick
ener film
placed on the fabric surface and can be washed out more or less completely
from the fabric by rinsing or soaping; so the dye must be transferred from the
film into the fabric and fixed on the fabric. This is done in practice usually by
subjecting

the printed and dried fabric to an atmosphere of steam at 100
--
102


for 3
--
5 min as in this case the steaming moistens the film and facilitates the
penetration of the dye into the fabric fibre.


T h e f i x a t i o n o f p i g me n t o n f a b r i c i s a c h i e v e d b y t h e u s e o f b i n d e r
11
, so the
pigment can be bonded to any fibre type if ther
e is a suitable binder. Pigment
printing is a technique used by many printers because it is a simple system to
use when printing blends, such as polyester/cotton. Provided there is enough
binder present, no wash
-
off process is need and this reduces process
ing costs,
time and the amount of effluent
12

produced. One problem which does arise is
that the thickener remains in the printed area, this can lead to a deterioration in
the fabric's handle
.

Traditionally, pigment prints could not achieve the fastness
re
quired. However, modern binder types have improved the durability of
pigments and these tend to be extensively used in the textile

printing of cotton
and polyester/cotton fabrics.


O v e r ma n y c e n t u r i e s, a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s f o r p r i n t i n g d e s i g n s h a v e
e
v o l v e d, s u c h a s b l o c k p r i n t i n g,
mo r d a n t p r i n t i n g
13
, resist printing
14
, screen
printing
15
, roller printing
16
, transfer printing
17
,

photographic printing
18
, etc.
Pri
nting can be applied to warp ya
rn
s, fabrics, or apparel pieces. Most textiles
are printed in
the fabric form. Printed patterns may vary from simple
geometric
19

designs(stripes
20
, spots) in a single colour to very complex designs
8
糊、增稠剂;
(使)成浆



9
皂洗


10
清晰度









11
粘合剂





12
污水




13
媒染印花

14
防染印花

15
筛网印花

16
滚筒印花
/
17

移印花

18
转移印花

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in up to 20 or more colours. These printing techniques can be briefly reviewed
from two aspects:

printing method and
pri
nting style.

21


T h e p r i n t i n g me t h o d s u s e d mo s t f r e q u e n t l y b y t o d a y's p r i n t e r s a r e
e n g r a v e d r o l l e r p r i n t i n g,

s c r e e n p r i n t i n g a n d t r a n s f e r p r i n t i n g, w h i c h a r e
c l a s s i f i e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e t y p e s o f p r i n t i n g m a c h i n e s
.

[ 3 ]

I n r o l l e r p r i n t i n g, t h e
p r i n t i n
g c o l o u r i s t r a n s f e r r e d o n t o t h e f a b r i c b y e n g r a v e d r o l l e r s, t h e r e p e a t o f
t h e d e s i g n b e i n g g o v e r n e d b y t h e r o l l e r c i r c u mf e r e n c e. E a c h r o l l e r a p p l i e s o n l y

o n e c o l o u r i n t h e d e s i g n. S c r e e n p r i n t i n g c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o t w o t y p e s:
f l a t
-
b e d
s c r e e n
22
and
rotary

screen printing
23
. Transfer printing is designed particularly
for polyester substrates. In the transfer printing, the selected disperse dyes are
first printed on to a cellulosic paper usually by rotary screen printing; the fabric
to be printed and this pr
inted paper are then passed into a
transfer calender

that
is heated up to 180



B y t h e a c t i o n o f t e mp e r a t u r e a n d p r e s s u r e t h e d y e s
b e c o me g a s e o u s b y a p r o c e s s o f s u b l i ma t i o n a n d t r a n s f e r t o t h e f a b r i c a n d t h e n
d i f f u s e

i n t o t h e f i b r e s. A f t e r l e a v i n g t h e c a
l e n d e r, t h e d y e s a r e u s u a l l y a d e q u a t e l y
f i x e d f o r mo s t e n d
-
u s e, r e q u i r i n g n o f u r t h e r f i x a t i o n o r w a s h
-
o f f p r o c e s s e s.


A c o l o u r e d d e s i g n o n a w h i t e o r d i f f e r e n t l y
c o l o u r e d b a c k g r o u n d
25

can be
produced on fabrics using different styles of printing such as

direct printing,
discharge printing
26

and resist printing. Both discharge printing and resist
printing are a combination of dyeing and printing techniques. In the first style of
printing the dyes are printed directly at the required places of the

multi
-
co
loured
design

on the fabric, leaving the other portions white. Thus a multi
-
coloured
print on a white ground can be produced. Discharge printing involves the
uniform dyeing of the fabric by any of the conventional dyeing methods,
followed by drying and pr
inting a thickened solution of an
oxidizing agent
27

such as
sodium chlorate
28

or

a

reducing agent
29

a
t such as
sodium sulphoxylate
30

formaldehyde
31

and steaming. When these agents present at the printed areas
destroy the dye and leave the dye present on th
e unprinted areas unaffected, a
white design is produced on coloured ground. This is known as
white discharge
printing.

32
When another dye, which is resistant to the discharging action of the
19
几何图形
/
20




21
印花类型







22
平网印花
/
23

网印花







25
色地

26
拔染印花







27
氧化剂
/
28
氯酸

/
29
还原剂
/
30
次硫酸盐
/
31


/
甲醛合次硫
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discharging agent, is also included in the printing paste, and
the printed fabric
steamed, a coloured

design may be produced on a differently coloured ground.
This is known as
coloured discharge printing
33
. In both cases the ground colour
should be easily and completely dischargeable; otherwise pure white effects or
c
oloured effects cannot be obtained. In resist printing, the printing process takes
place firstly and the ground colour is pad
-
dyed afterwards. The printing paste
used contains a chemical that will resist the ground colour from fixing in the
printed areas;
thus, during the followed steaming process the ground colour is
fixed only in the non
-
printed areas. A white design is seen on a coloured ground
after washing. If a dye, which can be resisted by the chemical and whose colour
is different from the ground on
e, is added in the printing paste and applied to the
fabric together with the chemical, during steaming, in the printed areas the
chemical destroys the ground colour but the dye is fixed. Thus coloured resist
effect is produced.
Batik printing
34

is the bes
t known and exists for more than
thousands years in the field of the resist printing, in which wax is used as
resisting agent.



酸氢钠、雕白粉

32
拔白
印花



33
色拔











34
蜡染印花




III.
Language Tips



1.

In
other words

dyes or pigments must

be applied in a predetermined
pattern to textile
substrate


"in a predetermined pattern”
为介词短语,作状语,修饰

applied to



换句话说,染料或涂料必须按规定的图案式样应用到纺织品基材上。

2
.
The application
of the thickened paste can ensure the colour adheres precisely to the spot it
has been ap
p
lied to and does not spread over the textile to destroy the definition of the printed
ob
j
ect


"it has been applied to”
为定语从句,修饰前面的
"spot”


使用增稠糊料可确保颜色精确地粘附在所要使用的地方,并且不会
在织物上渗开而
破坏所印物品的清晰度。

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3.
The printing methods used most frequently by today’s printers are engraved roller printing

screen printing and transfer printing

which are classified on the basis of me types of printing
machines




which are classified
...
printing m
achines
’’
为非限定性定语从句;

which



engraved roller printing

screen printing and transfer printing


根据印花机器的类型,目前印花工作者最常用的印花方法可分为雕筒印花、筛网印
花和转移印花。

IV.
Exercises

1.
Questions and Answers

(1)
What does the term

textile printing


signify?

(2)
What

is probably the oldes
t technique for applying ornament? Is it a good method?

(3)
Are

there any difference
s

between dyeing and printing?

(4)
How many different methods and styles does textile
printing cover? Can you name
them all?

(5)
Can you
described

the
white discharge print
ing


2
.
Translate the following phrases into English


(1)
增稠剂



(2)
清晰度

(3)
涂料印花




(4)
防染印花、



(5)
筛网
印花


(6)

滚筒印花

(7)
转移印花


(8)
直接印花、


(9)
拔染印花

(10)
多彩印花

3. Translate the follo
wing sentences into Chinese

The essential ingredients of printing paste are from the follow:

(1) D
yestuffs, pigments or dyestuff precursors
;

(2)

W
etting agents and humectants
;

(3) Solvents, solu
tion aids and dispersing agents;

(4) Thickeners;

(5) Defoamin
g agents
;

(6) Oxidizing and reducing agents
;

(7) Catalysts
;

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(8) Acids and alkalis

and swelling agents
;

(9) Carr
iers

and swelling agents
;

(10) Miscellaneous agents.

All these constituents are not used simultaneously in any printing paste. Depending on the
c
lass of dyestuff used and style of printing employed, suitable components are selected in
making the printing paste.


V.
Extensive Reading

Passage One

Transfer Printing



H e a t t r a n s f e r p r i n t i n g i s a s y s t e m o f p r i n t i n g w h e r e b y a v e r y o l d i d e a
f o r p r o d u c i
n g c o l o u r e d p a t t e r n o n p a p e r i s a d a p t e d f o r t h e c o l o u r i n g o f
f a b r i c s a n d m o r e e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e c o m p o s e d e n t i r e l y o r p a r t l y o f s y n t h e t i c
f i b e r s .I t i n v o l v e s h e a t i n g a t s o m e w h a t b e l o w , i t s
s o f t e n i n g t e m p e r a t u r e
35

( say up to 200


)
, a nylon , polyester , acrylic or similar fabric in contact
with paper car
rying a

colourprinted pattern (
sublimable p
igments are
employed for this )
, so that very rapidly th
e pigments pass into the fabric
,

thus transferring the pattern
to the fabric in a very
simple manner.

This so
called ‘
transfaprint’ method eliminates most of the many stages involve
d in
roller and screen printing
, and may be carried out by the machines which
have now become available at speeds of 25 yd
/min (
23 m/m
in)
.

For
example
, no final steaming or washing of the printed fabric is required ; it
is a fully dry process.



E s s e n t i a l l y s u c h t r a n s f e r p r i n t i n g i n v o l v e s p a s s i n g i n t o t h e ma c h i n e i n
c o n t a c t w i t h e a c h

o t h e r t h e f a b r i c b e i n g p r i n t e d
, t h e

c o l o u r e d

p a t t e r n e d

t r a n s f e r p a p e r
36

and a
backing paper
3
7
, so that this composite is compressed
by a felt
38

blanket while they all move together around

and against a large
diameter (
say

6

ft
.
d
——

1.8m
.d)
, which is internally heated either






35
软化点


















36
有色花纹转
移纸
/
37
衬纸

38
毛毡




39
燃油器

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electrically or with
oil fired
5

burn
ers
. It is required that contact with the hot
surface of the rotating cylinder shall be for about 30 s ( seconds ) , since
within this period the transference of the pattern to the fabric will be
complete leaving the hot cylinder where the components of th
e composite
can be separated and wound on separate rollers . The felt blanket will of
course be re
-
used many times and the backing paper is largely used to
prevent colour being transferred to the blanket through the fabric being
printed .


T h e ma i n a d v a n t
a g e s o f h e a t t r a n s f e r p r i n t i n g a r e:

1.

B e t t e r r e g i s t r a t i o n
39

and clarity
40

of design because the print goes
directly down onto the fabric , line for line , color for color , pattern
for pattern .

2.

Rapid adaptation of design in any size or color , faster than a
ny other
printing process , to meet quick changes in fashion .

3.

Easier handling of knits to achieve registered prints.

4.

Marked
41

savings in production because of quick training of operators
and lower labor costs .

5.

Saving of time in printing .



R o l l e r o r
r o t a r y s c r e e n p r i n t i n g c a n n o t a c h i e v e
c l a r i t y a n d s h a r p n e s s
o f d e s i g n
42

because of
wicking of paste
43
into the fabric . Other methods
require many steps : printing , drying , steaming , scouring
44

, drying and
rolling
45

for shipping . These methods also re
quire four people per unit as
against one person per unit by the heat transfer method .




T h e r e a r e s o me d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o h e a t t r a n s f e r p r i n t i n g . T h e s y s t e m
w o r k s w e l l o n p o l y e s t e r , n y l o n , a c r y l i c , t r i a c e t a t e
46

and
highpolyester
cotton blends
47
. It
does not work well on rayon, acetate
, cotton
,

and wool .



A n o t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e i s s p e e d
. O n e c a n o b t a i n 4 0 t o 4 2 y a r d s p e r
mi n u t e b y r o t a r y s c r e e n p r i n t i n g a n d 3 5 y a r d s p e r mi n u t e b y r o l l e r
p r i n t i n g , a s a g a i n s t 1 0 t o 1 5 y a r d s p e r mi n u t e b y h e a t t r a n s f
e r . S t i l l
a n o t h e r b i g p r o b l e m i s p a p e r d i s p o s a l .














39
对花
/
40
清晰









41
显著的





42
花纹清晰度

43
色浆的芯吸


44
洗涤
/
45
卷布





46
三醋酸酯

47
高聚酯量的
涤棉混纺织物

纤维






48
照相凹版
/
49
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T h e r e a r e f o u r w a y s t o ma k e h e a t t r a n s f e r p a p e r: ( 1 ) g r a v u r e
48
; ( 2 )
offset
49
; ( 3 ) flexographic
50

; and ( 4 ) converted rotary screen prints . The
gravure uti
lizes steel or copper cylinders
. Flexo
graphic utilizes rubber
plates . The most interesting development is the conversion of rotary screen
machines to this new printing technique .




T h e l a t e s t d e v e l o p me n t o f h e a t t r a n s f e r p r i n t i n g i n c l u d e s a s i n g l e
t r a n s f e r p a p e r t h a t p r i n t s
s o l i d c o l o r s

51
. This method may make inroads
52

into the piece dyeing of fabrics.

胶印、平版印刷
/
50
橡胶版轮转
印刷







51
单色
/
52
袭击


1. Question
and Answers

(1)
What does

transfaprint’

mean in the text?

(2)
What are t
he main advantages
and disadvantages

of heat transfer printing
?

(3)
What is the

most interesting development

of

heat transfer printing

introduced
in this
t
ext


2

Tr慮s污瑥⁴桥⁦潬o潷楮朠·×r慳a猠潲⁳ n瑥nce猠楮瑯⁃×楮e獥 ⁅n杬·s×

(1)
Like dyeing

the fabrics used for printing need some form of treatments to make them
suitable for printing

This treatment

which removes natural or added impurities

is still call
ed
preparation or pretreatment


(2)
Grey cloth as woven on a loom is quite unattractive and contains natural and added
components

which impart undesirable properties to the cloth and which hinder the successful
carrying out of the subsequent dyeing

printin
g and finishing processes

The warp and weft
yarns are made up of a large number of short fibers by a process of spinning and hence tiny
fiber ends protrude from their surface and the cloth woven from such yams has a surface from
which the fiber ends protru
de

These fiber ends interfere with printing of the fabric by taking
up parts of fine details of a design.

(3)
In order to prepare the grey fabric for printing, the protruding fiber ends have to be
removed and then fabric made absorbent as well as white. Th
is is achieved in

various steps
linking singeing
,

desizing, scouring and bleaching.


Passage Two




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Attributes
53

of colour


C o l o u r t e c h n o l o g i s t s u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f a c o l o u r w i t h
s o me v i s u a l
54

characteristic, i.e. hue, depth, lightness

and
chroma
55
. The
definitions of the hue, depth, lightness and chroma are given as follows.


H u e: a s h a d e o f c o l o u r. I t i s r e c o g n i z e d a s b e i n g p r e d o mi n a n t l y r e d,
o r a n g e, y e l l o w, g r e e n, b l u e, v i o l e t b r o w n, e t c.


D e p t h: c o l o u r q u a l i t y. I t i s a s s o c i a t e d w
i t h t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e d y e o n
s u b s t r a t e. F o r a f a b r i c d y e d w i t h a d y e, t h e mo r e t h e q u a n t i t y o f t h e d y e o n
t h e f a b r i c, t h e d e e p e r i s t h e c o l o u r o f t h e f a b r i c. I t i s s y n o n y mo u s
56

with
colour strength.


L i g h t n e s s: c o l o u r q u a l i t y. I t i s u s e d t o j u d g e t h e
a b i l i t y o f t h e o b j e c t
r e f l e c t i n g a g r e a t e r o r s ma l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i n c i d e n t l i g h t t h a n a n o t h e r
o b j e c t. T h e c o l o u r o f t h e o b j e c t i s o f h i g h e r l i g h t n e s s a s t h e o b j e c t r e f l e c t s a
g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e l i g h t i n c i d e n t o n i t. S o me t i me s, w e a l s o u s e t h e
t e r ms o f b r i g h t n e s s a n d d u l l n e s s t o d e s c r i b e t h i s p r o p e r t y.


C h r o ma

i s t h e n e a r n e s s o f a c o l o u r i n p u r i t y
57

to the corresponding
spectral
58

colour (i.e.

the sensation caused by the monochromatic
59

light of
a single wavelength).


53
属性



54
视觉的

55
彩度、色度








56
同义词









57
纯度


58
光谱
/
59
单色



1.
Questions and Answers



(1)
How do c
olour technologists usually describe the attributes of a colour with some
visual characteristic


(2)
what is the definition of the hue and
chroma


(3)
What does
depth
indicate i
n the text?

(4)
Sometimes

which

terms

may you
also use to describe th
e lightness


2

Tr慮s污瑥⁴桥⁦潬o潷楮朠·×r慳a猠潲⁳ n瑥nce猠楮瑯⁃×楮e獥 ⁅n杬·s×

(1)

Pigments

are water
-
soluble colorants with very little attraction

or affinity

for
textiles.

(2)
In

printing, the pigments are applied to the fabric along with binder.

(3)
The printing paste is prepared with pigment
,binder, thicke
ner
, catalyst, water,

etc.

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U
n
it Nine

Finishing of Textiles



.
Main Tasks

This unit explains

the definition and the classific
ation of the
functions of the textile
finishing
. It aims to get students familiar with

the primary
finishing techniques

and some
knowledge

of surfactants.


II. Text


F
inishing

F
inishing

is a general term which usually refers to treatments on textile
fabric
s after dyeing or printing but before the fabric are cut and sew into
garments, household textile, or other products.
The general aim of the textile
finishing is to perfect the textile goods and render them fit for their end uses
.
[1]

Textile finishing give
s many advantages to textile goods and increases the sale
value of these textiles. A single fabric can be given several finishes that are
intended to accomplish different purposes. For example, a fabric may be
bleached to enhance whiteness and then given a

durable press finish
1
to make it
resist wrinkling
2
. Few fabrics are manufactured that do not undergo some type
of finish. The functions of the textile finishing may be divided into the following
types
.


To standardize textile goods. Textiles such as fabric
s sold on market should
have standard width, standard shrinkage, etc. to fit for their end uses. These
standard properties are achieved by
stentering
3
,
stentering of weft
4
, sanforizing
5

and other finishing processes.


T o i m p r o v e t h e h a n d l e a n d a p p e a r a n c
e o f t h e f a b r i c s, w h i c h a r e a c h i e v e d
b y s t i f f e n i n g
6
, s o f t e n i n g
7
, c a l e n d e r i n g
8
, o r r a i s i n g
9
, e t c.


T o i m p a r t n e w f u n c t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s t o t h e f a b r i c s, s u c h a s d u r a b l e p r e s s










1
耐久压烫整理

2
抗皱性





3
拉幅
/
4
整纬
/
5
机械预缩

6
硬挺整理
/
7

软整理
/
8
轧光
整理
/
9

绒整
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finish,

fire retardant finish
10
,
soil release finish
1
1
, etc.


A c c o r d i n g t o t h e

d e g r e e o f t h e f i n i s h i n g e f f e c t s i n f a b r i c r e ma i n i n g d u r i n g
s u b s e q u e n t w a s h i n g a n d u s a g e t h e f i n i s h i n g t e c h n i q u e s ma y f a l l i n t o t h r e e t y p e s:


Te mp o r a r y f i n i s h. T h e f i n i s h i n g e f f e c t s a r e n o t s t a b l e a n d d i s a p p e a r d u r i n g
s u b s e q u e n t w a s h i n g a n d u s a g e.



P e r ma n e n t f i n i s h. I f t h e f i n i s h i n g e f f e c t s o n t h e f a b r i c d o n o t d i s a p p e a r
a n d r e ma i n u n a f f e c t e d t h r o u g h a l l t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f w e a r a n d w a s h i n g t r e a t me n t,
t h e n t h e f i n i s h i s s a i d t o b e a p e r ma n e n t


S e mi
-
p e r ma n e n t f i n i s h. T h e d u r a b i l i t y o f t h e f i n i s h i n g
e f f e c t s p r o d u c e d b y
t h e s e mi
-
p e r ma n e n t f i n i s h i s i n t e r me d i a t e b e t w e e n t h e p e r ma n e n t a n d t h e
t e mp o r a r y f i n i s h.


O n t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r t e c h n i c a l f e a t u r e s t h e f i n i s h i n g p r o c e s s e s c a n b e
d i v i d e d i n t o t w o ma i n g r o u p s: i.e. me c h a n i c a l a n d c h e mi c a l f i n i s h e s.



Me c h a n i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e t e x t i l e ma t e r i a l t h r o u g h
ma c h i n e s w h o s e me c h a n i c a l a c t i o n a c h i e v e s t h e d e s i r e d e f f e c t s
[ 2 ].

T h i s
f r e q u e n t l y a c c o mp a n i e d b y a h e a t i n g p r o c e s s t o e n h a n c e t h e d e s i r e d e f f e c t s. T h e
me c h a n i c a l f i n i s h e s u s e d f r e q
u e n t l y ma y b e l i s t e d a s:


( 1 ) C a l e n d e r i n g



c o mp r e s s i o n o f t h e f a b r i c b e t w e e n t w o h e a v y r o l l e r s
t o g i v e a f l a t t e n e d, s mo o t h a p p e a r a n c e t o t h e s u r f a c e o f a f a b r i c;


( 2 ) R a i s i n g



p l u c k i n g t h e f i b r e s f r o m a w o v e n o r k n i t t e d f a b r i c t o
g i v e a n a p e f f
e c t o n t h e s u r f a c e;


( 3 ) C r o p p i n g
1
2



c u t t i n g t h e s u r f a c e h a i r s f r o m t h e f a b r i c t o g i v e a
s mo o t h a p p e a r a n c e, o f t e n u s e d o n w o o l e n g o o d s w h e r e t h e r e mo v a l o f s u r f a c e
h a i r b y a s i n g e i n g p r o c e s s i s n o t p o s s i b l e.


C h e mi c a l p r o c e s s e s ma y b e d e s c r i b e d a
s t h o s e p r o c e s s e s w h i c h i n v o l v e
t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f c h e mi c a l s t o t h e f a b r i c.
S u c h f i n i s h e s a r e g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d t o
t h e n a t u r a l f i b e r s i n a n
e f f e c t t o g i v e t h e m c o mp e t i t i v e s t a t u r e w i t h t h e n e w e r,
ma n
-
ma d e f i b e r s b y f o r t i f y i n g
1
3

t h e m a g a i n s t t h e f a u l t s i n h e
r e n t i n t h e i r n a t u r e.
T h e
c h e mc a i l

f i n i s h e s u s e d f r e q u e n t l y m a y b e l i s t e d a s:

( 1 ) R e s i n
1
4

f i n i s h e



/
1
0
阻燃整理
/
1
1
易去污整理





















1
2
剪绒






1
3
增加
/
1
4
树脂
/
1
5
折皱恢复性

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Functional properties of cellulosic fabric, such as
crease recovery
1
5
,
dimensional stability
1
6
, etc. can be improved by the treatment of the fabric with
mono
mers
1
7
, polymers
1
8

or
crosslinking agents
1
9

that are broadly called resin.
So this technique is known as resin finish.


( 2 )
Wa t e r p r o o f i n g f i n i s h
20


O b j e c t i v e o f t h e w a t e r p r o o f i n g f i n i s h i s t o p r e v e n t s t h e p a s s a g e o f b o t h
w a t e r a n d a i r t h r o u g h a f a b
r i c.
Ta r p a u l i n
21
, umbrella cloth, tent cloth, and other
water
-
proof clothes are produced by this finish. The principle of the water
proofing is to form a layer of continuous film on the surface of fabric. The
interstices
22

between the warp and weft yarns a
re blocked by the continuous film
and both water and air will not pass through the treated fabric.



( 3 )
Wa t e r r e p e l l e n t f i n i s h
23

The term water repellent should not be confused with the term waterproof.
A water
-
repellent fabric allows air but prevents

water to pass through itself, it
only resists penetration by water but is not completely waterproof. The passage
of air is imperative if one is to have a garment that is comfortable to wear.
Water
proofing
finish makes the wearer feel uneasy
24

and uncomfo
rtable, as the air
circulation is not here. Water repellent finish has no the problem.

(4) Flame retardant finish

The aim of flame
retardant

finish is to impart flame resistance to textiles.
The flame
-
retardant textiles are mainly used in some special fiel
ds, such as work
clothes of firemen, work clothes of workers in steel plant, military textiles,
curtain
hanging, carpet, children

s clothes,

etc.


T h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e me c h a n i c a l a n d t h e c h e mi c a l f i n i s h i n g o f t e n
f a i l s, a s i n ma n y me c h a n i c a l p r o c e
s s e s c h e mi c a l s a r e u s e d o r i n ma n y c h e mi c a l
p r o c e s s e s t h e t e x t i l e s a r e s u b j e c t e d b y t h e me c h a n i c a l a c t i o n. P e r h a p s, t h e s e
f i n i s h i n g p r o c e s s e s s h o u l d b e c a l l e d c o mb i n e d f i n i s h i n g. I t me a n s t h a t b o t h
me c h a n i c a l a n d c h e mi c a l t r e a t me n t s a r e u s e d t o t h e t e x t i l e
s.

1
6
尺寸稳定性



1
7
单体
/
1
8
聚合

/
1
9
交联剂

20
防水整理


21
防水油布


22
空隙



23
拒水整理





24
不自在




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III.
Language Tips


1.
The general aim of the
textile finishing is to perfect the textile goods and render them fit for
their end uses


句中的“
to perfect the textile goods and render them fit for their end uses
’’为动词不定
式短语,做表语。
美化纺织品,满足其最终的用途。

2.

Mechan
i
cal processes involve the passage of the textile mate
rial through machines
whose mechanical action achieves the desired effects



whose mechanical action achieves the desired effects

为定语从句,修饰前面的

machines



机械整理是指纺织材料通过机器的机械作用达到所要求的效果。


IV.
Exercises

1.
Questions and Answers

(1)
What does the term

textile f
inishing


signify?

(2)
What

s the general aim of the textile finishing?

(3)
How many
classes can
t
he functions of the textile finishing

be divided into?

(4)
Is there any difference between
the
water repellent finish and the water proofing
finish


(5)
Do yo
u know the difference between the permanent

Semi
-
permanent
and temporary
finishes

And what are they?

2 .
Translate the following phrases into English


(1)
折皱回复角

(2)
轧光整理

(3)
拒水整理


(4)
阻燃整理


(5)
交联剂


(6)

手感和外观

(7)
永久性整理


(8)
绒面效果


(9)

复合整理

(10)
易去污整理

(11)
机械预缩整理

(12)
拉幅整理

3. Translate the following sentences into Chinese

(1)

The term water repellent should not be confused with the term waterproof. A
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6

water
-
repellent fabri
c allows air but prevents water to pass through itself, it only resists
penetration by water but is not completely waterproof.

(2)
To improve the handle and appearance of the fabrics, which are achieved by stiffening,
softening, calendering, or raising, et
c.

(3)
Textile finishing gives many advantages to textile goods and increases the sale value
of these textiles.

(4) Functional properties of cellulosic fabric, such as
crease recovery
,
dimensional
stability
, etc. can be improved by the treatment of the fab
ric with monomers,

polymers or

crosslinking agents

that are broadly called resin. So this technique is known as resin finish.

(5) Such finishes are generally applied to the natural fibers in an effect to give them
competitive stature with the newer, man
-
ma
de fibers by fortifying them against the faults
inherent in their nature.


V.
Extensive Reading

Passage One

Other
S
pecial
F
inishes

1.
Moth proofing finish
25

Moth is a sm
all insect that attacks all woolen clothes

Moths lay eggs
on the woolen clothes and when the
grub
26

hatches
27

out from the
e
gg it
will start to eat the fibres within a few hours

At first the damage cannot be
seen very readily

but by the end of a week the d
amage could be
irreparable
28

Moth proofing is a finishing to protect the woolen clothes
from the moth.


2.
Mi l d e w
-
p r o o f i n g a n d r o t
-

p r o o f i n g f i n i s h e s
29


Mi l d e w, a f u n g u s
30

or mold
31
, is a whitish growth that affects certain
textile fibres when they

are stored in a damp condition in a warm place.
Cellulosic fibres are most susceptible to mildew. Rotting is a biological
decay of textiles,

and it is an acute problem with bast fibres
.
Rot and




25

防蛀整理

26

幼虫


27
孵化


28
不可挽回






29
防霉防腐整

/
30
霉菌、真

/
31
霉、霉菌






32


-

-


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mildew resistant fabrics can be made by treating the fabrics w
ith
antiseptic
33

substances

usually through pad
-
dry
-
cure
32

process.

3.

Microbicide
34

finishes



T h e ma i n u s e o f
mi c r o b i c i d e
f i n i s h e s i s f o r t e x t i l e s w h i c h a r e b e i n g
h a n d l e d c o n t i n u o u s l y b y a

l a r g e n u mb e r o f p e o p l e. T h e s e i n c l u d e h o t e l s,
h o s p i t a l s,
i n s t i
t u t i o n a l h o me s
35
and student hostels,

where

mattress
ticking
36
, blankets and pillows
37
, carpets and upholstery
38

all come into
contact with a

large number of different individuals.

This finish is achieved
by applying the chemicals, which will kill

the micro
organisms
39

or inhibits
the growth of bacteria
40
.



4.
A n t i s t a t i c f i n i s h
41


S t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y i s f o r me d w h e n t w o d i s s i mi l a r ma t e r i a l s a r e r u b b e d
t o g e t h e r.

A n t i s t a t i c t r e a t me n t s a r e b a s e d o n t h e p r i n c i p l e o f ma k i n g t h e
f i b r e c o n d u c t i v e
42

so that
high

ch
arge densities
43
are dissipated
44

before
sparks can form. This is done by the application of both

anionic and
cationic agents to the fibres. These agents attract wate
r and form a
conductive surface

on the synthetic fibres.


5
. A n t i s l i p
45

finish



S mo o
t h f i l a me n t y a
rn
s may have a tendency to slide against one
another,
creating flawed
46

areas

in a fabric or problem of
seam
47

slippage.
This is known as y
arn

slippage. Resins coated on the surface of

these
fabrics will keep the ya
rn
s
in place, as the resin
holds ya
rn
s toge
ther at the
points where the ya
rn
s interlace
48
. Resin antislip finishes are durable.



6
. Oi l r e p e l l e n t f i n i s h e s


Wh e n a f l u o r o c a r b o n
49

is applied to a textile, the
--
CF2
--
groups will
give the textile a very low surface energy, which is
not easily wet by oil.
Most natural oils and mineral oils have
surface

tensions
50

o
f about 30

×

10
-
3

N/m and all of these will fail to wet a textile surface which has been
treated with a fluorocarbon.



7
. S o i l r e l e a s e f i n i s h e s

33
抗菌的、防
腐的

34
抗菌整理




35
收容所

36
床垫布
/
37
枕头
/
38
装饰物



39
微生物
/
40
细菌

41
抗静电整理





42
可传导的
/
43
高密度电荷
/
44
消散




45
抗滑移

46
裂缝
/
4 7
线







48
经纬纱交织



49
氟碳化合物



50
表面张力







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Soil release finish may be
described as the improvement of ability of a
textile to shed soil

during the washing process
.

Most of synthetic fibres
have certain hydrophobic prop
erties. The hydrophobic proper
ties make
the
wash of these fibres difficult, as these fibres are not easy to
be wetted. Any
treatment

which
encourage the wetting of the textile surface will be
considered as the soil release finish. Th
is finish
is achieved by applying the
chemicals known as soil release agent to the fabrics.

8
.
Absorbent finish
50


C e l l u l o s i c f i b
r e s t h a t a r e b e i n g u s e d f o r d i a p e r s
51
, towels, or other items
in which absorbency is

important may have ammonium
52

compounds
applied to them. Some attempts have been made to increase the
absorbenc
y of synthetic fibres. Antistatic

finishes for synthetics a
lso make
them more hydrophilic
53
.










50

吸湿整理

51
尿




52




53
亲水的


1. True or False

(1)
Moth is a smal
l insect that attacks all
cotton

clothes
.

(2)
Static electricity is formed when two dissimilar materials are rubbed together

(3)
The main use of
microbicide
finishes is for textiles which are
not
bein
g handled
continuously by a

large number of people.

2

Tr慮s污瑥⁴桥⁦潬o潷楮朠獥n瑥nce猠楮瑯⁃×楮e獥

(
1
)
Soil release finish may be described as the improvement of ability of a textile to shed
soil

during the washing process
.

(2)
When a fluorocarbon is ap
plied to a textile, the
--
CF2
--
groups will give the textile a
very low surface energy, which is not easily wet by oil

(3)
The hydrophobic proper
ties make
the wash of these fibres difficult, as these fibres are
not easy to be wetted.

(4)
Smooth filament ya
r
n
s may have a tendency to slide against one another,
creating
flawed areas

in a fabric or problem of
seam slippage.


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69

Passage Two

Surfactants
54

The name surfactant is an abbreviation
55

of ' surface active agent'.
Surfactants occupy one of the important plac
es in the textile industry.
Surfactants are surface active or other agents which are added to an
emulsion
56

to increase its stability
57

by interfacial action. They are used in
the various stages.


( 1 )
I n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s y n t h e t i c f i l a me n t s, t h e y a r e u
s e d t o i mp a r t
l u b r i c i t y
5
8

t o t h e f i b r e s i n p r o c e s s i n g a s w e l l a s t o i mp a r t a n a n t i s t a t i c
p r o p e r t y. T h e a d v e n t o f s u r f a c t a n t s h a s ma d e p o s s i b l e t h e b e t t e r h a n d l i n g o f
t h e f i b r e s i n t h e p r e p a r a t o r y p r o c e s s.


( 2 ) We t p r o c e s s i n g, s u c h a s s c o u r i n g, d y e i n g, p
r i n t i n g a n d f i n i s h i n g
i n v o l v e s t r e a t me n t o f t h e s u b s t r a t e w i t h a q u e o u s me d i u m i n w h i c h t h e